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mmm msTOfiiciL %m immi 'society. 

..PoR THE Year 1900. 


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Rev. Horace Edwin Hayden, M. A. 

Corresponding Secretary and Librarian, 




Printed for the Society. 


Printed by The E. B. Yordy Co. 
Wilkes-Barr^. Pa. 



Preface, 5 

Illustrations, 6 

Proceedings : 

Minutes, 7-10 

Report OF Corresponding Secretary, ii-23 

Report of Treasurer, 24-25 

Investigation of the Buried Valley of Wyoming 

(Maps), by Mr. William Griffith, 27-36 

Memorial Ralph Dupuy Lacoe, 37-3^ 

Sketch of Ralph Dupuy Lacoe, by Rev. Horace Edwin 

Hayden, 39-54 

Mr. Lacoe's Relation to Science, by Mr. David White, 55-60 

Centennial OF Luzerne County, 1786-1886, . . 61-66 

Chevalier de la Luzerne, by Hon. Edmund L. Dana, . 67-96 
The House of Lancaster to the Rescue, by William 

H. Egle, M. D., . 97-105 

The Progress of Printing in Luzerne County, by 

William Penn Miner, Esq., 106-112 

Colonel Isaac Barre, by Sidney Roby Miner, Esq., i 13-136 

Letter from George Washington to Zebulon But- 
ler, with facsimile, 137-138 

Early Settlement of Dallas Township, Pa., by 

William Penn Ryman, Esq. (illustrations), . 139-2S8 

Original Draft of the Public Commons and the 

Public Square of Wilkes-Barre, 289-294 

Records of the First Presbyterian Church, 

Wilkes-Barre, 1803-1829, 295-307 

A Pioneer Settler of Susquehanna Co. (1819) . . 309-318 

Obituaries of Members : 

Dr. William Henry Egle, M. D., by Rev. Horace 

Edwin Hayden, 319-326 

George Francis Nesbitt, by Wesley E. Woodruff, 

Historiographer, 327-330 

George Washington Shonk, by Wesley E. Woodruff, 330-331 
James Henry Bowden, 331-332 

Officers and Members, 1901 333-337 

Portraits presented to the Society since 1899, . 338 

Contributors and Exchanges, 339-34 ^ 

Index, 343 


Publishing Committee. 


The Publishing Committee of the Wyoming Historical 
and Geological Society, in presenting to the Society the 
Sixth volume of its Proceedings and Collections, do so with 
the assurance that the high standard attained in previous 
issues is fully sustained in this volume. 

Especial attention is called to the valuable Geological pa- 
per on the "Buried Valley of Wyoming" by Mr. William 
Griffith, Geologist, of Scranton, and the admirable sketch 
of Colonel Isaac Barre by the Recording Secretary. 

The "Centennial of Luzerne County, 1887," while limited 
to three papers, is well represented by those of Judge E. L. 
Dana on the "Chevalier de la Luzerne," and Dr. William 
H. Egle, on the "Paxtang Boys." Judge Dana's paper is 
rich in original data until now unpublished. 

The History of Dallas Township, Pa., by the late William 
Penn Ryman, Esq., does not fall behind any paper in the 
volume in real interest and historic value. We are indebted 
to the generosity of Mr. Theodore L. Ryman for the entire 
cost of printing and illustrating this exhaustive history of 
one of the most remarkable sections of our county. 

It was intended to print in this volume Rev. John Mil- 
ler's marriages in Abington township, 1802- 1850, but this 
and other papers of vital statistics will appear in the volume 
for 1902. 

Mr. Hayden, the Corresponding Secretary and Librarian, 
who has personally edited all the titles issued from the So- 
ciety press since 1894, and has written no small portion of 
the present volume, desires to assume full responsibility for 
all typographical errors that may appear in these pages. 

Rev. Horace Edwin Hayden, 
William Reynolds Ricketts, 
Miss Harriet Packard James. 


Death of General Wolfe, Frontispiece. 

Map of the Buried Valley of Wyoming, 27 

Ralph Dupuy Lacoe, 37 

Chevalier da la Luzerne, 67 

Colonel Isaac Barre, 113 

Washington's Letter to Colonel Butler, 137 

William Penn Ryman, 139 

Abram Ryman, 143 

Captain Jacob Rice, 153 

Joseph Shaver, 171 

William J. HoneyAvell, 174 

Map of Dallas Township, 1874, 187 

Map of Dallas Township, 1884, 195 

Dallas Borough, 1874, 219 

John T. Fuller, 239 

Dallas M. E. Church, 243 

William C. Roushey, . . 269 

Dallas Borough, 1901, 283 

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For the Year iooo. 

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Wilkes-Bar Ki;, Pa. 

Printed for the Society. 

PRICE, $5.00, 


Proceedings and Collections 


ItJDommg historical anh ©cological Socictg. 

Volume VI. wiLKES-BARRfe, pa. 1901 


Stated Meeting, April 27, 1900. 

Dr. Frederic Corss in the chair. 

Rev. Horace Ed^\'in Hayden, Secretary, pro tern. 

The minutes of the February meeting read and approved. 

The following persons were unanimously elected to member- 
ship : Miss Augusta Hoyt, Mr. John R. Edgar, Mr. Jacob T. 
Pettebone, Dr. Charles Paxton Knapp, Rev. Marcus Salzman, 
Mr. George F. Nesbitt (Life), ^liss Dorothy E. Dickson (Life). 

The Corresponding Secretary reported that the following por- 
traits had been presented to the Society : Rev. Thomas P. Hunt, 
presented by his friends ; General Edmund Lovell Dana, our 
first President, by his son Charles E. Dana, Esq., and Dr. 
George W. Guthrie, by Mr. G. Taylor Griffin. These gifts 
were formally acknowledged by a vote of thanks. 

Dr. William Henry Egle, of Harrisburg, an Honorary mem- 
ber of the Society, was then introduced by the President, and 
read a very entertaining paper on "Old Times in Pennsylvania." 
On motion a vote of thanks was extended to Dr. Egle for the 
pleasure his paper had given. 

On motion, the Society adjourned at 9.30 p. m. 

Stated Meeting, November 17, 1900. 

President Woodward in the chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

The Corresponding Secretary reported having received, since 

the last meeting, gifts of the portraits of Andrew Todd McClin- 


tock, LL. D., presented by his son ; Mr. William Ross Maffet, 
by Mrs. Maffct ; and Elisha Blackman, the last survivor of the 
Massacre of Wyoming, by Mr. Edwin H. Jones and Col. C. 
Bow Dougherty. A formal vote of thanks for these gifts was 

The following applications for membership were unanimously 
approved and the persons elected : 

Resident Members — Mrs. Horace See, Mr. Samuel H. Lynch, 
Mr. George Shoemaker, and Mr. Robert T. Sutherland. 

Corresponding Member, Mr. Horace See, of New York. 

Mr. Hayden also reported the gift by Mr. Christian H. 
Scharar of his collection of Lime Stone Fossils from the Mill 
Creek outcrop, which he collected years ago, and which has 
been described in volume two of the Proceedings of the Society. 
A vote of thanks was extended to Mr. Scharer for his generous 

The President then introduced Sidney R. ?\Iiner, Esq., Re- 
cording Secretary of the Society, who read a paper on ''Colonel 
Isaac Barre," from whom this city is partly named. 

Mr. Hayden moved a vote of thanks for the very full and 
interesting paper, with especial reference to the Pubhshing Com- 
mittee for publication in the forthcoming volume of Proceedings 
of the Society. 

On motion the Society adjourned at 9.00 p. m. 

Stated Meeting, January ii, 1901. 

President Woodward in the chair. 

The President introduced Mr. William Griffith, of Pittston, 
a Corresponding Member of the Society, who read a paper of 
unusual interest, entitled '^\n Livestigation of the Buried Valley 
of Wyoming," illustrating it with an extensive map and model 
showing the topographical surface of the valley and the excavated 
valley itself. 

On motion, a vote of thanks was unanimously passed to Mr. 
Griffith for the paper and model, both of which were referred 
to the Publishing Committee. Both will appear in the sixth 
volume of Proceedings this year, and the map will be left in the 
Library of the Society for the use of the public in making copies, 
blue prints, &c. 

The meeting adjourned at 9 p. m., and an informal investi- 
gation of the model and map followed. 


Annual Meeting, February i8, igoi. 

Hon. Stanley Woodward, the President, in the chair. 

The meeting was opened by prayer by Rev. Dr. H. L. Jones. 

The minutes of the two preceding meetings were read and 

The President appointed Hon. C. E. Rice and Col. E. B. 
Beaumont, U. S. A. , a committee to report nomination of 
officers for the ensuing year. 

The following applications for membership were unanimously 
elected : 

Resident, Mrs. Levi I. Shoemaker (Life), Messrs. J. Bennett 
Smith, George F. Coddington, F. S. Fowler ; Charles Law of 

Honorary, Hon. Samuel W. Pennypacker, President Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania. 

Hon. C. E. Rice, for the Nominating Committee, presented 
the following nominations for officers for the year 1901, which 
were unanimously elected : 

President, Hon. Stanley Woodward. 

Vice Presidents, Rev. Henry Lawrence Jones, S. T. D. , Hon. 
J. Ridgway Wright, Col. George Murray Reynolds, Rev. Francis 
Blanchard Llodge, D. D. 

Corresponding Secretary, Rev. Horace Edwin Hayden. 

Recording Secretary, Sidney Roby Miner. 

Treasurer, Frederick Charles Johnson, M. D. 

Librarian, Rev. Horace Edwin Hayden. 

Trustees, Hon. Charles Abbott Miner, Samuel LeRoi Brown, 
Edward Welles, Richard Sharpe, Andrew Fine Derr. 

Curators — Archaeology, Hon. Jacob Ridgway Wright. 
Numismatics, Rev. Horace Edwin Hayden. 
Mineralogy, William Reynolds Ricketts. 
Paleontology, Prof. Joshua L. Welter. 

Historiographer, Wesley Ellsworth Woodruff 

Meteorologist, Rev. Francis Blanchard Hodge, D. D. 

Prof. J. L. Welter, in the absence of the Treasurer, read the 
Financial Report of the past year. This report was received 
and referred to the Publishing Committee (v. infra). 

The Corresponding Secretary and Librarian also read his 
annual report, which, on motion, was received and referred to 
the PubHshing Committee {v. infra). 

The Corresponding Secretary announced the death of our 


late Curator and Trustee, Mr. Ralph Dupuy Lacoe, a Life 
Member and a benefactor, which occurred on the 5th instant. 

Mr. Haydcn moved that Rev. N. G. Parke, D. D., Mr. 
WilHam Griffith and Professor Welter, Curator of Paleontology 
(vice Lacoe), be appointed a Committee to prepare suitable 
resolutions of respect on the death of Mr. Lacoe, which was 
adopted by a standing vote. 

On motion, it was resolved that when the Society adjourns it 
adjourns to meet at a time a])pointed by the President, in April, 
to hear the aforesaid resolutions and a sketch of Mr. Lacoe, by 
the Corresponding Secretary, prepared for the present meeting. 

It was moved that the communication from the Bucks County 
Historical Society, asking approval of a bill before the Pennsyl- 
vania Legislature relating to county support of Historical So- 
cieties be laid on the table. 

It was moved and unanimously adopted that the President of 
the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Hon. Samuel W. Penny- 
packer, be elected to make the annual address to this Society 
in February, 1902. 

Mr. Hayden presented to the Society the sketch of Rev. John 
Miller, of Abingdon township, by Mr. A. R. Dean, of Scranton, 
with the list of marriages performed by iMr. ^Miller from 1802 
to 1857. 

On motion, a vote of thanks was extended to Mr. Dean for 
this excellent paper, and it was referred to the Publishing Com- 

The Society adjourned at 9.30 p. m. 

The Minutesof the Adjourned Meeting held April 19, 1901, 
in memory of the late Ralph Dupuy Lacoe will be found pre- 
ceding the sketch of Mr. Lacoe on page 37, 


Report of the Corresponding Secretary and Librarian for 1900. 

To the President and Afe?nl?ers of the IVyomhtg Tlistoi'ical and 
Geological Society : 
Gentlemen — My annual report for the year ending to- 
day is herewith respectfully presented. The past twelve months 
have been very full of hard work in the Hne of progress, a pro- 
gress limited only by the small income of the Society. 

We suffered a greater loss than we reaUzed in the death, at 
the time of our last annual meeting, of the Rev. Edward Griffin 
Porter, not only in the loss of such an illustrious friend and 
Honorary member, but also in having missed the address which 
he had intended to make to us on ''The Growth of Public 
Interest in the Study of Local History." There are few men 
more fully conversant than he was with the growth, the value, 
and the influence of Historical Societies. When he visited 
these rooms in 1899, and examined the valuable hbrary and the 
rich collections of this Society, he was surprised, not only at 
the extent of our treasures, but at the lack of public apprecia- 
tion exhibited in our small membership and means. When he 
consented to deliver the annual address in 1900, the subject 
chosen was his own suggestion. He said to me, ''I would de- 
light in telling your people what great privileges they have in 
this Society, and how Httle they value their opportunity." 

I do not doubt that such an address as he had proposed giving 
us would have stimulated us to more liberal gifts, and greater 
interest in our work In this busy commercial age few persons 
care to turn aside for a moment to participate in that which pays 
no financial interest. 

PubHc Hbraries arc all well in their place if they provide an 
hour's recreation to the tired mind when the day's work is over. 
Beyond this, pubhc sentiment and appreciation must be educated, 
and only the experienced Hbrarian knows what patient toil that 

Then posterity plays a small part indeed in a commercial 
age. The man who builds for himself is the model of the age. 
He who plans and builds and sows for posterity is abnormal ; 
for what has posterity done for us? This is especially true of 
new commercial centers. It ought not to hold good of such a 

1 2 REPORTS. ? 

long settled locality as ours, made solid by more than a century 
of stern hardship, unremitting toil, and even blood-shed and 
massacre, to retain wliat our forefathers secured by honest means. 
A locality full of history, where every foot of ground is hallowed 
by the struggles of the past. 

The posterity of the men who made this valley "blossom as 
the rose," even though its soil was tinged by their own blood, 
established this Society to commemorate their deeds of manly \ 

valour. It has been handed down by those who laid its founda- 
tions to their posterity for perpetuation, and as a means of keep- 
ing aHve in the memory of their children and grandchildren the j 
record of their endurance and success. Let us see to it that we \ 
make this legacy not only a permanent monument to their labor, ] 
but as a means of educating those who come after us in the love 
of country and of her history, and appreciation of her immense 
natural treasures for the benefit of future generations. ; 

Did it ever occur to you what a powerful influence in this ] 

direction this Society could be made to the present generation? ? 

During the past century of our national history there have been ' 

organized in the United States about three hundred similar as- i 

sociations, historical societies — which have had a literature of f 

more or less extent — and many purely scientific societies have 1 

probably been begun in the same period, and doubtless several ] 

hundred more kindred associations have been formed which, . \ 


after a few years of spasmodic life, have expired. I 

Often the limited scope of such a society has hindered its i 

progress. The larger the territory the more grist there is to be \ 

brought to the mill. This successful Society of ours would have | 

ended its existence five years from its birth if its founders had \ 

narrowed its scope by naming it after the town or county in j 

which it first saw the light. Even now it would be wise to alter | 

the By-Laws by inserting '*The town of Westmoreland" for \ 

*'The county of Luzerne." Local prejudice is a fact which j 

cannot be ignored. j 

County lines do hmit our personal interest to the county in i 

which we live. A few years ago we altered the By-Laws by i 

extending our geographical lines to include ''the original limits j 

of the county in 1858. " But old Luzerne has given birth, since ' 

1858, to Wyoming and Lackawanna counties, and it may be ; 

that she must some day part with another portion of her terri- : 

tory. It is not in reason that \V'yoming county, or Lackawanna ; 

county, or even Luzerne county should care to build up any- \ 
thing that is beyond their respective county boundaries. The 


name Wyofning Historical and Geological Society has no such nar- 
row scope, but covers and touches every acre of land included in 
that section which one hundred and twenty years ago felt the 
iron hand and the vengence of Old King, and Col. John But- 
ler. And with that distinguishing name she has held no incon- 
spicious place among the three hundred or more similar societies 
just referred to ; not by reason of her age, or means, or treasures, 
but by reason of that which makes the Hfe, the energy, the brains 
of such institutions — her literature. 

Massachusetts, the pioneer state to follow in the footsteps of 
her mother, Great Britian, has had thirty-seven active historical 
societies. Of these the Massachusetts Historical Society, born in 
1790 ; the American Antiquarian Society, 1813 ; the New Eng- 
land Historical and Geological Society, 1845 ; the Essex Institute, 
1848, have been exceedingly rich in hterature; their combined 
volumes and reprints would make a library of fifteen hundred 
titles, with a market value of as many dollars. New York, whose 
Historical Society was organized in 1804, has had fifty similar 
organizations v/hose literature is known. 

Thirty of the forty-five states of the Union have such societies 
called after the name of the state in which located. All of these, 
as far as known, are individual enterprises, except Iowa, Michi- 
gan and Wisconsin which receive state aid and publish their 
literature at the cost of the state. Michigan has issued, under 
state law, twenty-seven volumes of state history since 1874; 
Wisconsin, twenty-two volumes since 1S50. This last, the Wis- 
consin State Historical Society, is doubtless the most extensive 
society of the kind in the United States, ^^^th a home erected by 
the state at a cost of $600,000, a hbrary of 200,000 books and 
pamphlets, including 10,000 bound volumes of newspapers, a 
portrait gallery of two hundred portraits, of which one hundred 
and seventy are oil paintings, and an ethnological collection 
unsurpassed by any on this continent. 

Pennsylvania, since 1769, when her American Philosophical 
Society was founded, has had thirty Historical and Antiquarian 
Societies issuing pubUcations ; twelve of these are extinct, haWng 
perished after pubUshing a few pamphlet titles. 

Of those still aUve five have no present hterature beyond a 
few pages of annual reports. Only nine of those now active in 
historical work issue annual volumes of Papers. I name them in 
the order of their literature. The American Philosophical So- 
ciety, begun in 1769, has issued over fifty volumes, rich in his- 
toric and scientific lore ; the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 

14 REPORT^. 

born 1825, has quite as large a bibliography ; the Numismatic » 

and Antiquarian Society has issued one hundred pamphlet titles ; | 

The Wyoming Historical and Geological Society, 1858, has pub- P 

lished five volumes and twenty-five pamphlet titles ; the Penn- f 

sylvania German Society, Moravian Historical Society, Mont- ^■ 

gomery County, Lancaster County and Lebanon County and 5 

Dauphin County Historical Societies are also active in publish- | 

ing their literature. It is thus seen that in this State this Society ] 

of ours holds the fourth place in the extent and value of its pub- ^ 

lications. | 

It must be equally patent to those who have given attention to | 

the development of historic interests, that the various Historical | 

Societies of the United States have been prime factors in stim- | 

ulating a taste for the study of American History. Until ten t 

years after the War between the States closed, in 1865, no real | 

permanent effort was made in any of our Colleges or Universities 1 

to make the subject an essential part of their curriculum. Prof. I 

Jared Sparks, the distinguished biographer of Washington, de- I 

livered at Harvard College, 1842-185 1, the first course of lee- ^ 

tures on this important study. These lectures were not resumed I 

until 1875. I 

The Civil War greatly aroused popular interest in our history, I 

but to the various Plistorical Societies, and to the active heredi- ] 

tary societies of Sons and Daughters of the Revolution, Colonial J 

Wars, and Colonial Dames, and others, we owe more than to any j 

other force the intelligent interest which is manifest at the be- j 

ginning of this century. To these Societies is largely due the | 

popular wave of patriotism which swept over this country in | 

1898, when to the call of the President for two hundred thou- \ 

sand men to aid in freeing Cuba from Spanish dominion a mil- I 

lion Americans responded. | 

During the present year the most of our American Colleges | 

are making a knowledge of American history a part of the en- ] 

trance examinations, but only a few of our Colleges have yet I 

established in their Faculty a Professorship, or chair of American | 

History. Cornell, in 187 1, Harvard, 1875, Yale, 1876, Ann \ 

Arbor, 1885 ; Johns Hopkins University, in 1876, established | 

her famous Seminary of American History, and since 1882 has '| 

issued monthly papers of great value on local historical subjects } 

that are simply invaluable to students in that department. ^^ 

This study is essential to inteUigent and loyal citizenship in 
this Christian Republic. Our home is in the centre of one of 
the most historical spots in America, where one would expect 


exact knowledge of the events that happened here within the 
past century to be universal. We may realize the opposite, and 
the real need of the present generation of more careful culture 
in our own local history when we learn that during the meeting 
of the Pennsylvania Bar Association here, in 1899, one of the 
visiting attorneys asked me why the name of Forty Fort was 
adopted by the early settlers in this valley, as one apparently 
intelligent Wilkes-Barrean whom he had asked replied, *'l think 
it was because that fort was the fortieth constructed in this sec- 
tion." It is amusing, but not more discreditable than the his- 
torical blunders of Mr. George Fisher, the author of the book 
entitled '-The Making of Pennsylvania," a born Pennsylvanian, 
who makes Brant the Indian leader in the Massacre of Wyo- 
ming, and repeats the old myth that Zebulon Butler, and his 
British foe, John Butler, were cousins. The latest writer of 
Wyoming history, whose book issued in 1900, makes the state- 
ment that in 1778 "One thousand of the bravest youth of Wyo- 
ming, at the call of Congress, had gone to fight for Hberty," — 
and "three hundred more men, young and old, took part in 
the action of July 3, 1778." By what arithmetical process did 
he increase the one hundred and fifty soldiers of Durkee's 
and Ransom's Wyoming companies to a modern regiment? 
But the chmax was reached when a distinguished United States 
Senator from Pennsylvania, preparing to make an address be- 
fore the D. A. R. at Valley Forge, asked, in one of our leading 
hbraries, for a "detailed account of the 'battle of Valley Forge,' 
as he desired to minutely describe the action." 

Need I ask the question, is this Historical Society of ours 
really a necessary educator of American Youth in American 
History, or is it a mere luxury, a museum of dead relics of a 
dead past? That the events which occurred here over a cen- 
tury ago are not considered too trite for the student is evidenced 
by the action of Lafayette College, where several times of late 
years the "Massacre of Wyoming" was chosen for the prize 
essay. That the history of this section has not been exhausted, 
but merely begun by our most careful historians. Chapman, 
Miner, Peck, Pearce, &c. , &c. , will be evident to any one who 
has handled the manuscripts on the subject in our own posses- 
sion, in the Historical Society of Connecticut, the Massachusetts 
Historical Society collection of Pickering's Manuscripts, the 
Trumbull Papers, the treasury of manuscripts in the State Li- 
brary of Connecticut, and in the Historical Library of Penn- 
sylvania. Why, gentlemen, our careful historian, Charles Miner, 


never laid eyes on these treasures. I have handled and read 
in the Connecticut vState Library unpubHshed Wyoming Manu- 
script that would have gladdened the heart of Charles Miner 
beyond measure. The privilege was given me by the Connec- 
ticut Historical Society, and the State Library of copying any- 
thing we desire of this treasure. And the entire five lots of 
Wyoming matter has been offered by the custodians to our 
townsman, O. J. Harvey, Esq., to use ad libitii^n in a History 
of Wilkes-Barre which it is hoped he may be able some day to 

During the year it has been my effort to increase the efficiency 
of our Geological department. Not only are we in a centre of a : 

section rich in history, but one far richer in mineral resources. \ 

The valuable collection of 4500 specimens of Paleozoic Fossils, \ 

so generously presented by our late Curator, Mr. R. D. Lacoe, 
whose death is a serious loss to this Society, has been enriched 
by exchange, and still more by the addition of the Mill Creek 
Collection lately presented to us by our Hberal member Mr. '■{ 

Christian H. Scharar. This collection numbering over 600 \ 

specimens made by Mr. Scharar, was gathered from the lime- % 

stone outcropping at Mill Creek. They have been described 2 

by Mr. Heilprin, in a paper entitled "Report of the Wyoming | 

Valley Carboniferous Limestone Beds," written by C. A. Ash- \ 

burner of the State Geological Survey, and published by this | 

Society in Vol. H of the Proceedings, 1886. I 

The locality where these fossils were found is now entirely | 

covered by culm so that this forms a unique collection of much I 

scientific value. The specimens have been placed in a cabinet \ 

provided for the purpose, and marked with the name of the | 

donor. Mr. Scharar has also presented us with over 200 speci- ' 

mens of the Wyoming coal flora. These 800 pieces were care- 
fully packed and brought from Providence by the Curator of 
Paleontology and myself last summer. Funds are now needed 
to secure the services of a specialist, hke the late Prof. Leo Les- -^ 

quereux, to identify these fossils. Mr. Lesquereux visited this 3 

Society for that purpose some years before his death and identi- \ 

fied many of our choice specimens. Experience has proved it | 

unwise to send our treasures away for that purpose. Dr. Wright \ 

and Mr, Scharar both informed me that when the beautiful fos- 
sil shells from the Wyoming coal measures, and the Mill Creek 
fossils were sent away for identification some of the choicest 
specimens were never returned. 

Our Mineralogical Collection has also been enriched by nearly 


one hundred magnificent specimens of zinc and lead ore from 
Missouri ; of these seventy-five of the finest came to us as a gift 
from the various mine owners of Jasper Co., Mo., through the 
kindness of Mr. A. R. Anthony. Mr. Thomas Waddell of our 
city has also made a generous addition to this collection from 
his own mines. 

Our Geological library now contains about two thousand books 
and pamphlets, including all the issues of the United States Geo- 
logical Survey, and the later issues of all the various State 
surveys. Fully four hundred and fifty volumes have been added 
to this department alone in the past twelve months, and we are 
in exchange communication with the larger part of the Scientific 
Societies in North America. As far as I can learn our Geologi- 
cal Library and cabinets exceed any in the State outside of Phil- 
adelphia. On this account I have endeavored to place them 
within the reach of every student of Geology and every mining 
interest in this section, by issuing a printed circular, setting 
forth the advantages of this Society and offering to open the 
rooms to any student or searcher after facts at any hours desired 
outside of the hours of the regular daily opening. Some few 
have availed themselves of this offer. This new century may, 
however, witness a wider appreciation of our treasures, and a 
larger use of the privileges offered. 

When we consider the Hmited resources of our Society, the 
extent of our Geological cabinets is extremely creditable. One 
hundred years seems a long stretch of time to cover, but one 
hundred years ago the sciences of Chemistry and Geology were 
yet in their infancy. It was in 1800 that my grandfather. Dr. 
Horace H. Hayden, of Baltimore, Md., whom I distinctly re- 
member, began his direct study of Geology in which he achieved 
a then world-wide repute. He was ahead of his age in his sci- 
entific discoveries. He was thirty years old when he decided 
to pursue the study of Geology, which had attracted his atten- 
tion as a boy living on the banks of the Connecticut River. 
There were then very few geologists in the United States. He 
began in 1800 the formation of his valuable cabinet of Ameri- 
can minerals, which in 1850 became the basis of the fine collec- 
tion of Roanoke College, Va. So limited was the hterature of 
Geological Science in his own language, that he found it neces- 
sary to master the French tongue to be able to read the works 
on the subject in that language, from which he made many 

In 182 1 he published a work entitled *' Geological Essays," 


now in this library, the first general work on Geology printed 
in the United States, and dedicated it to his personal friend, 
Judge Thomas Cooper, of this State, and familiar by name to 
Pennsylvania scientists. He was in hearty sympathy with Judge 
Cooper's scientific tastes, but not the least with his theories of 
religion. This book, Prof Benj. SilHinan of Yale College, his 
friend and associate, declared should be a text-book in our col- 
leges. One reading the work in the light of the present, while 
recognizing the vast amount of geological data presented, will be 
amused at the high tribute given to its scientific theories by that 
master in geological science, Prof Silliman. And yet it was of 
a paper written in 1813, reprinted 1830, that our own Prof 
Lesley wrote: "Dr. Hayden's paper is a model of careful de- 
scription and accurate field work." 

I mention these facts to lead to what may surprise many of 
you, that Silliman himself did not take up the study of Geology 
until 1800. He did not write his description of the Wyoming 
coal field until 1830. 

The History of Yale College, published in 1838, in speaking 
of the crude condition of the science of Geology in the United 
States in 1802, says this of the collection of minerals then owned 
by that great University: 

"I'he minerals in the possession of Yale College in 1802 were 
without name and unarranged; and the extent of the collection 
may be judged from the fact that the gentleman who was ap- 
pointed professor of this department in the year following [Prof 
Benjamin Silliman] took the entire cabinet in a common size 
candle-box along with him to Philadelphia, for the purpose of 
learning their names from Dr. Adam Seybert, the then almost 
solitary individual in the country who made any pretentions to 
mineralogical science." (p. 239.) 

Professor Silliman was elected Professor of Chemistry and 
Mineralogy in Yale in 1802, when only twenty-three years of 
age, but the Chair of Geology was not added to his duties until 
1817, the candle-box full of minerals having been increased by 
the Ciibbs Collection of 10,000 specimens in 1810-12. 

It was not until 1809 that William McClure published his 
''Geological Map of the United States," and was crowned with 
the title of "The William Smith of America, and the father of 
American Geology." In the past twenty-five years the United 
States government, through its thoroughly equipped geological 
survey, has left no part of our vast domain uninvestigated — not 
even the island of Guam. 


The advantages of a Geological Society like ours, in the An- 
thracite Coal Region of Pennsylvania, cannot well be overesti- 
mated. Our library and collections are in the midst of the 
richest portion of that section. A large mining poY)ulation, 
which for years has had the privileges of our public schools and 
pubUc hbrary, demands such an institution. It is estimated 
that the Wyoming Valley alone contains enough unmined coal 
to last two centuries or more. Whatever will assist in educating 
the people in the knowledge and value of this immense treasure 
should receive the hearty support of the entire hard coal section. 

Who can tell what eminent scientist of the future may be able 
to trace back his career to the spark of interest kindled in his 
special study by his visit to the rich display in our Geological 
and Paleontological collections. The poet is born, the scientist 
is made. Any boy in our public schools, with good powers of 
observation and a love for study, may become proficient in the 
science of Geology. Mr. John M. Byers, who, as a civil en- 
gineer, laid in part the C. R. R. of N. J. over these mountains, 
once told me that in the chain-corps in his youth, he was asso- 
ciated with a young man who was comparatively out of place, 
having no taste for the engineering work, but who subsequently 
became famous as the State Geologist of Pennsylvania, John P. 
Lesley. The Geological cabinets of this Society are under the 
care of Mr. William R. Ricketts, Curator of Mineralog}', and Prof. 
J. L. Welter, Curator of Paleontology, both of whom have given 
much care and many hours of labor to their several departments. 
The latter, now Principal of the Wilkes-Barre High School, and 
Professor Thurston, of the Wyoming Seminary, have frequently 
brought their Geological classes to these rooms for practical study. 
Every effort has been made on my part to make popular the 
collections of this department. 

I wish to record here our great indebtedness to our late Life 
Member, Mr. Ralph D. Lacoe, for his interest and services 
in the scientific work of our Society. It was through his kind- 
ness that Prof. Leo Lesquereaux visited our collections and 
identified so many of our carboniferous fossils in iSSi. Not 
only did Mr. Lacoe spend much time and labor in classifying 
our Paleontological collections, but a few years ago he presented 
to us our three large cases of drawers for coal fossils, had them 
conveyed to this building, and spent many hours in assorting the 
fossils and arranging them in the drawers. These cases cost him 
three hundred dollars. He was Curator of this department for 
fifteen years, and to his zeal and interest we owe many of the 
valuable treasures now contained therein. 

20 REPORTS. i 


In his report to this Society as Curator of Paleontology, in ? 

1886, he referred to these coal fossils in these words : "A mod- 
erate outlay of money, and well directed efforts on the part of 

members and friends of tlie Society would, in a short time, add ? 

greatly to the value and usefulness of your collection, which » 

already compares favorably with the best in the country. ' ' This \ 

collection, thus so highly spoken of by Mr. Lacoe, had then, | 

1886, only one hundred and twenty types represented. To | 

these he himself made subsequently many additions. Mr. 1 

Lacoe* s most valuable gift of nearly five thousand specimens of I 

Paleozoic fossils, made to this Society in 1S99, has been spoken i 

of at length in my report of that year. I 

Owing to the great difficulty of procuring papers to be read 7 

before the Society, only four meetings were held last year. At ■ 
the Annual Meeting, February 11, 1900, no paper was presented 

because of the lamented death of the Rev. Edward Griffin ■: 

Porter, who was to have addressed us. | 

The Spring meeting was held x\pril 27th, when our Honorary \ 

Member, Dr. W. H. Egle kindly came to our rescue and gave * 

us a very interesting paper on "Old Times in Pennsylvania." "j 

The Fall meeting, held November 17th, was graced by an '• 

original and valuable paper from the pen of our Recording Sec- t 

retary, Sidney R. Miner, Esq. , on Col. Isaac Barre, from whom '.. 
our city was named one hundred and thirty years ago. This 

admirable essay will appear in our annual volume. I 

Our last meeting was held January nth, 1901. We were | 

then very fortunate in having secured the exhaustive and im- | 

portant paper of Mr. WiUiam Griffith, one of our Correspond- | 

ing Members, entitled "An Investigation of the Buried Valley : 

of Wyoming," \vith the ingenious model which now Hes in our { 

Geological Room. This paper, with a map of the model, will ;; 

appear in our next volume and will attract the attention of those ' 

interested in coal mining throughout the country. I 

Another paper of interest was in my hands intended for this 

annual meeting but was recalled by the writer and may return • 

to me later. | 

The labor of procuring papers for our meetings falls on a com- 
mittee composed of the Corresponding Secretary, and the Cura- 
tor of Archaeology. But the 27th By-Law of the Society espe- 
cially provides, that "the Society shall select, at the annual 
meeting, one of the members to deliver an address at the suc- 
ceeding annual meeting." I appeal to the Society to act upon 
this By-Law and relieve the committee of the duty of providing 
a speaker for our next annual meeting. 


In July last the Publishing Committee issued, to the members 
of the Society, its fifth volume, a handsome book of 26S pages, 
full of valuable papers, of which the '']^ist of 'laxables" in the 
Westmoreland section, 1776-1780, is itself worth, to any resi- 
dent of Wyoming, double the price of the book. 

During the present Spring the Committee will be prepared to 
issue Volume VI. This will contain the paper read by Mr. 
Griffith in January. Several papers read before our Society at the 
Centennial of Luzerne county, in 1887, with the paper of Sidney 
R. Miner, Esq., and the History of Dallas, by the late William 
Penn Ryman, Esq., which was read before the Society in 1886; 
also list of marriages and deaths in the Wyoming section from 
1797 to 1826, with other papers of interest. The annual pub- 
lications of the Society are issued free to members where dues 
for the current year are paid. 

Since February, 1900, I have received, as Corresponding 
Secretary, over five hundred communications from societies and 
individuals. I have written fully six hundred letters, copies of 
which are always made ; have acknowledged all gifts and ex- 
changes ; issued five hundred copies of our publications and as 
many postal notices, the annual outgoing mail being not less 
than 2,000 pieces. The work of the Corresponding Secretary 
brings us in communication with similar associations in all parts of 
the world. 

As Librarian, I have received 1,210 books and 725 pamph- 
lets, a total of 1,935. ^^ these 262 were duphcates, making 
the additions of books and pamphlets to the library 1,673. C)f 
these 75 books were purchased, the rest were acquired by gift 
and exchange. 

There have also been added — pictures, 10; coins, 200 by Dr. 
R. L. Wadhams; manuscripts, 225 by Rev. H. E. Hayden; 12 
valuable and unpublished manuscripts on the Pennamite and 
Yankee troubles by Dr. W. H. Egle; minerals, from C. H. Scha- 
rar 800, from the Missouri Zinc Companies 100; historical arti- 
cles, 66 — total, 141 1. Of the donors, special mention should 
be made of Rev. F. B. Hodge, D. D. , Hon. Charles A. Miner, 
Major L A. Stearns, ^Irs. G. Murray Reynolds, Mrs. Alexander 
Farnham, The Susquehanna Coal Company, Mr. Christian PL 
Scharer, Dr. R. L. Wadhams, Mr. A. R. Anthony, Dr. W. H. 
Egle, and others. 

The Harrison Wright Memorial Library now contains eighty- 
one volumes on EngHsh Heraldry and Genealogy. The Shel- 
don Reynolds P'und having been increased by the immediate 


family of our late President to ^1,000 and invested for the pur- 
chase of rare American history, has enabled us to begin the 
Sheldon Reynolds Memorial Library with sixty-five volumes. 
These tv^-o Memorial Libraries occupy cases in the Geological 

The Charles F. Ingham Fund has been augmented by the 
addition of fifty dollars by the sale of books. It now amounts ■ 

to Si 50. It is very important that this fund should be increased •' 

to $1,000 and be invested, as the income from it is to be ex- ; 

pended in adding to our geological library and cabinet. A fund 
for this purpose is greatly needed. The Lacoe collection can ] 

be added to by exchanges, but the Geological Library needs ]' 

working books that can be had only by purchase. ' 

The proceedings of the Society are published, first, for dis- ■; 

tribution to members; second, for exchange; third, for sale. • 

The income from the sale of all publications is appropriated by j 

the rules of the Society to the special funds, all of which are i 

now filled up except the Ingham Fund. Although nearly five | 

hundred volumes were added during the year to the Geological * 

Library, only forty dollars out of two hundred and fifty dollars \ 

expended for books were spent on Geological works. The \ 

Wright and Reynolds Funds are devoted to special works, so j 

that the expenditure for the general American history has been ? 

about one hundred dollars. | 

One attractive feature of this Society is the gallery of portraits | 

and the pictures of historic houses and localities. Of these we <■ j 
have in all about two hundred. We added ten pictures last year to ] 

the list of historic places, including one of "Firwood," the ele- j 

gant home, until taken down in 1S97, of the family of Gen. E. | 

W. Sturdevant, a deceased member of this Society; one of the | 

home of our late President, Calvin Parsons; and also a very fine I 

drawing by Leach of the Wright-Miner Mill, 1 794-1901, at | 

Miner's Mills, purchased and presented to the Society by Hon. ? 

Charles A. Miner. |. 

We have received also during the year sixteen portraits in oil, \ 

crayon and photograph, of deceased officers, members of the | 

Society, early settlers of the Valley and prominent citizens, all j 

presented by the families or friends of the persons portrayed, \ 

i. e., Gen. Edmund L. Dana, our first President in 1S58: Capt. « 

Cahin Parsons, A. T. McClintock, LL. D. , David R. Randall, \ 

Esq., Rev. Thomas P. Hunt, Capt. Wm. H. Alexander, Wm. 
R. Maffet, Harry H. Derr, Thompson Derr, Col. Matthias 
Hollenback and Elisha Blackman, both survivors of the Wyo- 


ming Massacre; Hon. Charles Miner and Hon. Steuben Jen- 
kins, Historians of Wyoming, Naomi Sill, wife of Capt. John 
Paul Schott and sister of Mrs. Nathan Denison, ])resented by 
the great-grand-daughter, Miss Schott, of Philadelphia; Rev. 
J. O. Woodruff, D. D., and Dr. Geo. W. Guthrie. 

We are promised a crayon portrait of Rev. Geo. Peck, D. D., 
and Dr. Horace HoUister, Historians of Wyoming, Mr. Joseph 
Wright, ,and others. 

The necessity for an increase in the endowment of the Society 
has become apparent to every one who is familar with its pos- 
sessions and its opportunities. Institutions established to pro- 
mote the diffusion of knowledge cannot stand still ; to accom- 
modate the growth of our library we spent last year in book- 
cases $171. This made it impossible to incur any expense for 
binding, which is as essential as books. We need a larger in- 
come for binding books, for enabhng us to keep in touch with 
other societies, colleges, etc. It was my purpose this winter to 
visit Lehigh University and Lafayette College, by special invita- 
tion, to bring the scientific professors and collections of their 
institutions into communication with us for exchange, for scien- 
tific papers, etc., but the small expense required could not be 
safely incurred and the matter was postponed. The Trustees, 
however, have thought it wise to appoint a special Committee 
to take into consideration the increase of our invested funds. 

The membership of this Society at this date is as follows : 
Life Membership, 88; Annual Membership, 212 ; total, 300. 

In conclusion, a comparison of the condition of the Society 
in 1893 and 1901 has in it much encouragement for the future. 

Resources, invested fund, . . 1893, $ 4,500 . . 1901, 3i6,ii6 
Library volumes and pam- 
phlets, '' 

Geological specimens, ... " 
Exchange — Societies, . . . 1899, 

Portraits, iS93> 

Members, Life and Annual, . " 
Attendance of the public, . . 1899, 

Surely, gentlemen, such an institution as this commands your 
admiration, your confidence, your gifts and your best moral 


Cofresponding Secretary. 

0,000 . . 



4,000 . . 



100 . . 


2 . . 


100 . . 


4,300 . . 




Report of the Treasurer for the Year igoo. 


Balance, February ii, 1900, $ 348 17 

Dues of Members, 1,220 00 

Interest on Investments, 763 00 

Cash, Hon. C. A. Miner, Illustrations for 

Volume V, 62 00 

Total, ^2,393 17 


Salaries of Librarian and Assistant, , . . $ 999 96 

Janitor, 107 00 

Postage and Express, 77 63 

Books, 225 00 

Framing Pictures, 20 00 

Book Cases and Furniture, 171 65 

Binding, 3^ 50 

Printing Publications, 238 00 

Incidentals, 1712 

Sundries, 52 10 

Balance in Bank, 446 21 

Total, ^2,393 17 


Bonds of Wilkes-Barre Water Co., . . . $7,000 00 | 

Plymouth Bridge Co., SjOoo 00 j 

Miner-Hillard Milling Co., 1,500 00 | 

Sheldon Axle Works, 1,000 00 -1 

People's Telephone Co., 1,000 00 ^ 

Westmoreland Club, 100 00 I 


;^i5,6oo 00 ,■ 

Savings Bank, 426 37 1 

Total, $16,026 37 





(Included in above Resources.) 


By Cash invested at 5 per cent, .... ;$ 1,000 00 

** Interest, one year, 1900, 50 00 

** Balance from 1899, 10 05 

$1,060 05 
To Expenditures for Books, ...... 1575 

Total, $1,044 70 


By Cash invested in Water Co., 5 percent, $1,000 00 
** Interest, 1900, six months, 20 00 

Total, $1,020 00 


By Cash invested at 5 percent., $ 100 44 

** Sale of PubHcations, 50 00 

" Interest, 5 00 

$ 155 44 

Expended for Books, 5 00 

Total, $150 44 

" ■ ''1 . 


X X y 






Iengineer and GEOLOGI 




Mr. William Griffith, 


In introducing our subject for the evening we can hardly 
do better than to quote a few extracts from a paper read by 
the author before the Anthracite Coal Operators' Associa- 
tion, in New York City, as follows : 

"During what is sometimes called the *Ice' or 'Cold' age, 
Canada and the northern part of the United States, as far 
south as central Pennsylvania, was covered with a solid 
blanket of ice. In the vicinity of the Wyoming coal basin, 
this icy sheet is supposed to have been about two thousand 
feet in thickness. As is usual with glaciers, the whole mass 
slowly moved southward, gouging and plowing the surface 
of the earth, scratching and breaking the rock, and trans- 
porting stones and bowlders of all sizes, long distances, 
finally depositing them far from the place of their original 
occurrence. In this glaciated area the rock is usually cov- 
ered by a variable thickness of 'drift' or 'glacial till,' consist- 
ing of various layers of sand and rounded gravel, with 
bowlders large and small, all more or less worn by the 
action of the water and moving debris. In some places 
where large streams were probably flowing under the ice, 
deep channels were worn in the rock and subsequently filled 
with glacial drift deposit, and, of course, where these chan- 
nels were deeper than their outlets lakes of still water were 
formed, and these oftentimes were filled to considerable 
depth with fine silt or quicksand, clay, gravel, etc. 

"One of these submerged channels extends through the 
length of the Wyoming Valley, and is often referred to as 
the 'Buried Valley' of Wyoming. The rock has been worn 


away to a depth of from one to two hundred feet, eroding 

some of the upper coal seams in places and leaving the un- § 

certain thickness of rock-roof over the underlying coal. f 

"Another phenomenon or freak resulting from glaciers is 
the formation of pot-holes. A glacial pot-hole is a deep 

shaft, well or hole, worn in the solid rock by action of water | 

falling from a height (probably through a crevice in the ice) | 

on to the solid bed rock, thus, by the aid of fragments of I 

stone and bowlders, which are kept in continual motion in | 

the bottom of the hole, wearing the well deeper and larger | 

with time; the size and depth of the pot-hole depending on I 

the volume of water and the height of fall. Pot-holes are | 

in process of formation at the present time in Alpine gla- | 

ciers and elsewhere, and in Switzerland some of these are >• 

preserved for public inspection and instruction. Little | 

pot-holes, varying in size from a pint measure to a hogs- | 

head, are often found worn in the bed rock of our mountain | 

streams, formed in the same way, by the water falling from f 

a ledge and keeping the small pebbles in motion in the bot- | 

torn of the hole. A good idea of this action can be obtained ? 

by dropping some pebbles in a tumbler and placing it under I 

the water flowing from a faucet. { 

"The existence of pot-holes in the anthracite region was ^ 

first discovered about February ist, 1884, when one of the j 

chambers of the Eton colliery at Archbald, owned by Jones, ? 

Simpson & Co., and located on the mountain side, high | 

above water level, was driven against a mass of round \ 

stones of all sizes, from pebbles to bowlders a foot in diam- j 

eter. Subsequent investigation revealed the existence of an I 

oval-shaped shaft, from twenty to forty feet in diameter, \ 

worn through the rock from the surface. The walls of the I 

pot-hole were smoothly worn, and fluted or corrugated I 

spiral grooves showed the unmistakable action of water and | 

stones. This pot-hole had cut completely through the coal I 

bed, and among the bowlders in the bottom of the hole j 


were quantities of round lumps of co^l which had evidently 
been cut from the seam. This pot-hole is now used as an 
air shaft for the mine. A wall has been built around the 
top and it may be inspected at any time. 

"A second pot-hole was found later at the same mine, 
about one thousand feet northward of the first. It has, 
however, never been cleared of its contents of glacial drift. 
About twenty years ago, previous to this discovery, an ac- 
cident occurred which is now thought to be due to a pot- 
hole. The case referred to was at the Wyoming colliery, 
operated by Swoyer & Co., now the Lehigh Valley Coal 
Company, at Port Bowkley station, on the Lehigh Valley 
Railroad. The mines were under the buried valley and 
were filled with debris from the supposed pot-hole, the cave 
occurring near the solid coal and extending to the surfrce. 
Some coal cars (jimmies) which were standing on the siding 
of the Lehigh Valley Railroad were swallowed up in the 
cave. This debris, sand, water, stones, etc., has since been 
cleaned away from the gangways and the mine completely 
recovered. Dams have been built around the base of the 
pot-hole so as to protect the mine from a recurrence of the 
trouble. During the progress of this work some of the 
coal cars, broken to fragments, were found distributed along 
the gangways of the mine, some distance from the base of 
the pot-hole. 

"Since the discovery of the Archbald pot-holes two seri- 
ous mine accidents have occurred in the mines under the 
'Buried Valley' of Wyoming, which were unquestionably 
caused by the existence of some form of pot-hole in the 
strata overlying the beds. The first of these — which was 
one of the most disastrous mine accidents of the region — 
occurred December i8th, 1885, at the Susquehanna Coal 
Company's mine, Nanticoke, Pa. At the edge of the solid 
coal near the face of a chamber, a flood of water, sand, 
rounded stones, etc., suddenly and without warning of any 



kind, broke into the mine, filling up one lumdred thousand i 

cubic yards of workings. The lives of twenty- six men were f 

lost in this accident, and it was found impossible to recover | 

their bodies. i 

"The other accident of this nature occurred at the Mt. I 

Lookout colliery at Wyoming, Pa., operated by Simpson & | 

Watkins. The workings of this mine are located under the \ 

center of the buried valley. During the afternoon of March ! 

1st, 1897, the surface under the Wyoming postoffice began | 

to settle. The mines were idle and no one working at this ; 

point. Inspection by the mine officers revealed the fact ] 

that a break had occurred near the face of the most ad- ! 

vanced workings at the edge of the solid coal, resulting in i 

a flood of water and quicksand, filling a large area of the I 

workings and carrying the debris to the foot of the shaft, ^ 

three thousand feet away. The volume of the flood, how- J 

ever, gradually diminished and the pumps being adequate | 

for the emergency, the water, in a short time, began to sub- | 

side, the flood of sand stopped and the break checked and ] 

filled. Not, however, until about seventy thousand cubic | 

yards of quicksand had been washed into the mine, causing I 

a surface depression, or cave, about three hundred feet in \ 

diameter and twenty-five feet deep, which engulfed the post- i 

office completely and did some damage to three other | 

dwellings. I 

"The circumstances of this accident, and the evidences ac- | 

companying it, show unquestionably the presence, at this j 

point, of a glacial pot-hole, or erosion of some kind, which i 

was of sufficient depth — fifty to seventy feet at least — to cut l 

the vein of coal in which the mines were operated. The 1 

first rush of sand and water carried with it a quantity of i 

rounded, water-worn lumps of coal, which were deposited 1 

near the shaft and in the gangway leading therefrom. Quan- | 
tities of sandstone and bowlders, all worn round and smooth, 
were found deposited with the quicksand at points close to 


the break, showing that the bottom of the hole probably 
cut through the coal vein and from it the bowlders of coal 
were made and carried into the mine. The sand-stone 
bowlders which were either mixed with the coal or over- 
lying it were carried in by the sand which followed the first 
rush, but owing to their greater weight were not transported 

From the foregoing it will be observed that the existence 
of this buried valley has been long known to the mining 
interests of this region, who are well aware of the dan- 
ger that exists in endeavoring to win the coal which under- 
lies the valley. Therefore, on account of its great import- 
ance in its bearing upon the economical development of the 
great mining industry of this valley, this subject which we 
have before us has long been one of great interest through- 
out the region. Nevertheless our knowledge of the limits 
of this great lake of quicksand and gravel has, up to the 
present time, been exceedingly vague and hazy. Hence, 
without attempting to elaborate any detailed theory as to 
why, when or how, we will endeavor to answer, in an ap- 
proximate way, the more practical questions, where is the 
margin, how deep here, there or yonder ; if we can succeed 
in this we not only add in an important manner to the sum 
total of our knowledge of the geology of our valley, but 
thereby mayhap have supplied the information necessary 
to prevent the recurrence of accidents similar to those just 

The various mining companies, in their efforts to extend 
their mining operations under the center of the valley in the 
past, have been obliged to bore a great number of diamond- 
drill bore holes from the surface to the rock, in order to 
ascertain the depth of the wash which exists in the locality. 
Each company therefore has some slight idea of the con- 
ditions with respect to the buried valley in the immediate 
vicinity of their property where they have bored these holes. 


The irregularity of the bottom of the valley, however, ren- 
ders the matter exceedingly uncertain at points slightly z 
distant from these various bore holes. It therefore occurred | 
to us that if all the information of this sort possessed by the * 
various companies could be concentrated, it would form a | 
nucleus about which could be assembled the necessary in- J 
formation for obtaining a more approximate idea of the ex- | 
tent, depth and contour of this buried valley. We accord- | 
ingly sent circular letters to all the coal operators in the ] 
region who were interested, or who we thought had infor- ! 
mation bearing upon the subject, asking them to furnish us I 
with the depth and location of each bore hole of which they | 
had record, our intention being to use these depths, from i 
the surface to the rock, as soundings from which, if a suffi- ; 
cient number could be obtained, we could perhaps get a \ 
more perfect idea of the matter in hand. We received gen- | 
erous responses to these letters, and from this information 1 
we have been able to prepare a map of the valley locating "■ 
approximately the outlines of this sunken area. \ 
The map is prepared on the scale of sixteen hundred feet \ 
to the inch, dividing into squares by lines running north and | 
south and east and west, separated two thousand feet apart. | 
These squares are numbered, beginning with the parallels | 
and meridians, which pass through the stone monument in j 
the court house yard at Wilkes-Barre, numbering north and 
south, east and west from that point, the squares thus oc- 
cupying the same position as those on the mine sheets of 
the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, from which this skele- 
ton map is taken. Having prepared the map with reference 
to the surface features, we located upon it each bore hole 
and recorded the depth of the same to the rock. Having 
then the elevation of the surface from the published topo- 
graphic maps as well as from the elevations given in the 
bore hole records, we are enabled to note the exact tidal 
elevation at the bottom of each bore hole, thus providing 


elevations on the rock surface and locating also the margin 
of the buried valley. We could then draw the contours 
which would give us an approximate idea of the general 
form of the rock bottom of the valley, and from these we 
were able to prepare a plaster model representing, in an 
approximate way, the location, depth, etc., of the Buried 
Valley of Wyoming. This map and model are presented 
for your examination here. The vertical scale in the model 
is exaggerated in order that the shallow parts may be more 
perceptible. The contours are separated twenty-five feet C 

apart and may be readily traced by the eye in the model 
showing the various depths at the different points. Of i 

course, where the information was the most generous, there 5 

the approximation is more exact. Of that portion of the 
valley from Forty Fort to Plymouth comparatively little 
has been done in the way of prospecting by bore holes ; 
therefore, the depth being unknown, the approximation is 1 

not so exact in this area. I 

From a study of this map-model it will be observed that \ 

the erosion of the buried valley begins at the entrance of i 

the river into the valley at Campbell's Ledge, north of West - f 

Pittston, and continues to the point where the river leaves f 

the valley at Nanticoke. We also note the buried valley - 

of Newport Creek, which is an extension to the southward -: 

of the main buried valley, but that its descent or grade is 
northward in the same direction as the flow of water in the 
creek emptying into the Susquehanna at Nanticoke. It will / 

also be observed that the bottom of this buried valley is ■ 

apparently very irregular in contour. Where the informa- 
tion has been most complete, namely, at the northerly end, : 
the irregularities in the bottom of the valley are quite promi- t 
nent. The same may be noted in the vicinity of Nanticoke, 
where the Susquehanna Coal Company has made very ex- 
tensive and complete explorations with the drill. We note 
also that under nearly every stream, entering the valley on 




either side there is a corresponding depression or erosion 
in the bed rock of the buried valley. We also note that 
in each of these depressions the depth increases as we ap- 
proach the center of the valley; in other words, every 
stream or depression on the surface at present is over a cor- 
responding depression or canyon in the bed rock of the val- 
ley immediately under it. We note that the Susquehanna 
river, now flowing along the surface of the gravel bed which B 

has filled this tremendous erosion, winds its crooked way, M 

crossing and recrossing the valley, but overlaps the rocky § 

shores which form the margin of the erosion, very slightly f 

at two points only, North Wilkes-Barre and Pittston, and § 

that if the drift now filling this buried valley were removed, | 

we should have in its place a fresh water lake approximate- | 

ly a mile in width, and eighteen miles long, extending from | 

Pittston to Nanticoke. The deepest part of the lake would S 

be near the center of the valley at Plymouth. It would I 

gradually become more shallow each way from that point to 
the north and the south. 

We have spoken in our introduction of the manner in 
which it has been supposed the glacial pot-holes were 
formed. We have also stated that it is supposed that the 
mine accidents referred to have been caused by pot-holes in 
the bottom of this buried valley. The locations of these 
pot-holes, if such they are, may be noted. There is an im- 

portant feature in connection with them, however, which | 

leads us to suppose that they were not formed in the man- ^ 

ner indicated, but are the result more directly of a whirl- \ 

pool action, caused by the sharp bends in the swift flowing ■: 

current of great volume, which at one time probably ex- j 

isted under great ice pressure in the bottom of the lake. f 

The location of the accident at Wyoming is indicated in s 

our model by the deep hole at the end of the buried de- | 
pression where Abraham's Creek enters the valley. It will 

be noted that any stream following this channel would strike | 



against the wall of rock in the center of the basin and be 
deflected back to find an outlet through the small channel 
at the lower or south side of the pot-hole. This is exactly 
the same condition that we have at the whirlpool rapids in 
Niagara. The water there flows a swift torrent against the 
wall of rock at the south side of the whirlpool. It then 
descends to an unknown depth, passes under the incoming 
stream, and finds an outlet at the side of the pool. The 
conditions are similar in the locality of the Nanticoke dis- 
aster mentioned in our introduction. The creek here makes 
a sharp turn, thus forming a similar whirlpool. This cause 
for the formation of the pot-holes in the valley has been 
mentioned in the reports of the Pennsylvania Geological 
Survey with reference to the Nanticoke disaster. 

From an inspection of the northerly end of the model it 
is probable that the same conditions formed the deep pool 
at which the Susquehanna river enters the valley. As will 
be noted, the quick bend in the buried valley under Sco- 
ville's island afforded the conditions necessary for the for- 
mation of a similar whirlpool, allowing the water to pass 
out through two channels, one on either side of the island 
of rock which seems to exist, at the present, west of West 
Pittston. At this point are three distinct channels, one where 
the river flows at present, a deeper channel to the west of 
it, about under the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Rail- 
road, and another one near the mountain, the location now 
occupied by Carpenter's Creek and the Wyoming Swamp. 

Our information concerning the vicinity of Wilkes-Barre 
was rather meager. However there was sufficient to indi- 
cate an elevated portion of rock northeast of Kingston. 
The channel between this submerged hill and Luzerne is 
an assumption upon our part, induced by the fact that all 
the other streams entering the valley have eventually worn 
out a canyon or subterranean valley in the rock under their 
present beds. This leads us to suppose that the conditions 




at Kingston, where the Toby's Creek enters the valley being 
similar to the conditions at Wyoming, there would, in all 
probability, be a corresponding depression as shown in the 
model. There is some ground also for supposing that at 
this location there may possibly be a similar pot-hole or 
deep depression in the rock like to that which exists at 
Wyoming or at Nanticoke. The conditions are exactly 
similar and afford sufficient warning to induce unusual care 
in mining in this locality. 

In the construction of this map and model we made use r 

of eight hundred and fifty bore hole records, or soundings 
at various points through the valley, furnished us by the 
Lehigh Valley Coal Company, Clear Spring Coal Company, 
Stevens Coal Company, Temple Iron Company, D., L. & W. 
Railroad Company, Kingston Coal Company, Lehigh and 
Wilkes-Barre Coal Company, and the Susquehanna Coal 
Company, and to these operators we are indebted for our I 

ability to produce the results here shown. It is to be re- 
gretted that more information was not obtainable. The 
proper compilation and working of future borings may | 

serve to show more important results, and also show where- I 

in our present approximation is in error. | 

We trust that our present attempt at an approximation, ? 

which may serve to give a better idea of the Buried Valley * 

of Wyoming, the outline of its margin and depth, and con- * 

tour of the basin, may be continued in the future by the l 

engineers of the valley, for it is only thus that the knowledge 
may be acquired to adequately provide against the dreadful 
accidents which are liable to occur by blindly prosecuting 
the mining operations without proper soundings in advance ' 

of the workings. ! 

We take pleasure in presenting the map and the model 
to the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society, with 
the understanding, of course, that it may be consulted, from 
time to time, by those who are interested in obtaining from 
it such information as they may desire. 

Ralph Dupuy Lacoe 








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Adjourned Meeting, April 19, 1901. 

Hon. Stanley Woodward, President in the chair. 

The following members were unanimously elected : 

Resident, Messrs. Eli T. Connor, George W. Leach, Jr., 
Benjamin Harold Carpenter. 

Honorary, Mr. David White, Paleontologist of the Smith- 
sonian Institute. 

Corresponding, Thomas Willing Balch, Esq., and Edwin 
Swift Balch, Esq., Philadelphia. 

The Committee appointed to prepare resolutions in honor of 
our late member, Mr. Ralph Dupuy Lacoe, a Trustee and Cura- 
tor of Paleontology of this Society, made their report. The reso- 
lutions were unanimously approved and referred to the Publish- 
ing Committee. They appear on the following page. 

Rev. Horace Edwin Hayden then read an extended biographi- 
cal sketch of Mr. Lacoe, and followed it by reading a paper on 
*'Mr. Lacoe as a Scientist," prepared by Mr. David White, 
Honorary Custodian of the Palaeozoic Fossil Plants (Lacoe Col- 
lection), Smithsonian Institute, which, on motion, was received 
with thanks to Mr. White, and referred to the Pubhshing Com- 

After the reading of these papers Tvlr. J. Bennett Smith made 
interesting remarks, telling of his knowledge of Mr. Lacoe for 
forty years and his pleasant experience in being with him on his 
geological trips and of his generous treatment of those who 
aided him. 

Charles Law of Pittston spoke of having known Mr. Lacoe 
nearly fifty years, and that j\Ir. Lacoe had been the inspiration 
of his hfe. 

Mr. C. C. Bowman of Pittston also related Mr. Lacoe' s in- 
terest and help in the establishment of the Pittston Library. 

Dr. F. C. Johnson enlarged upon the fact that while Mr. 
Lacoe had retired from business in 1865 on account of his 
health, he relaxed his labors in business matters only, to devote 
himself to science when many other men would have given up 
all care and study. Thus he prolonged his life thirty-six years 
and made himself a benefactor to men by his industry and love 
of science, and has unconsciously made for himself a name that 
will be honored in science forever. 

The Society adjourned at 9 p. m. 


The Committee appointed by the Wyoming Historical 
and Geological Society to prepare resolutions expressive of 
our appreciation of the life and character and work of Mr. 
Ralph D. Lacoe, of Pittston, Pa., recently deceased, and 
who has been intimately and efficiently associated with this 
Society in every department of its work, beg leave to report 
as follows : 

Whereas, It has pleased Almighty God, our Heavenly Father, who 
doeth all things well, to remove from among us by death our friend 
and associate, Ralph D. Lacoe, therefore 

Resolved, That while we recognize the hand of God in this provi- 
dence, we bow submissively to his will, and we desire to put on record 
our appreciation of Mr. Lacoe as one who, by his strictly upright life 
and by his work in the interest of science, has made for himself an 
honored name among the distinguished men of his generation, and 
at the same time honored his native valley. 

Resolved, That while we sympathize with his bereaved family and 
his fellow townsmen in Pittston, in their affliction, we rejoice with them 
in what Mr. Lacoe has been able to do in his quiet and unostentatious 
way, in the line of his favorite study. His donations to the Sn^ithsonian 
Institute, in Washington, D. C., and to this Historical Society, of 
fossils and flora collected and classified and labeled with his own 
hands, together make a collection in its department of Paleontology, 
in extent and variety, unequaled in this land or in any other land. 

Resolved, That in the death of Mr. Lacoe we have lost one of our 
most distinguished citizens, the results of whose life-work afford a 
striking and encouraging example to the young men of this generation 
of what a young man dependant on his own efforts and inspired by a 
noble ambition, may accomplish for himself and for those who come 
after him. 

N. G. Parke, 
William Griffith, 
Joshua L. Welter. 





Rev. Horace Edwin Hayden, 

Corresponding Secretary and Librarian. 


In the death of Mr. Ralph Dupuy Lacoe, which occurred 
at his residence in West Pittston, February 5, 1901, at the 
age of seventy-six years, this Society has lost one of its 
most interested, liberal and effective members. An extended 
notice of his long and useful career is especially due from 
this association which has reaped so largely from his gener- 

Mr. Lacoe was born in Jenkins township, Luzerne county, 
November 14, 1824, on his father's farm, near the village of 
Inkerman. He was the youngest son of Mr. Anthony 
Desire Lacoe and his wife Emelie Magdelene Depuy. 

Mr. Anthony Desire Lacoe, originally spelled " Lecoq," 
was born about one league west of Havre, France, March 
II, 1780, and died in Newton township, Luzerne county, 
March 7, 1883, aged 103 years, less four days, a remarkable 
age. He signed his name, in 18 19 and 1847, to deeds, 
Anthony D. Lccoq, and in 1853 Lacoe. He was the son of 
Stephen Lacoq, a farmer, who had five children, i. e., Pierre 
Stephen, Pierre Grehome, Louis Emma, Louis Annable and 
AntHory Desire. 

In 1792 Anthony Lacoe came to Philadelphia, Pa., under 
the auspices of Francis Gurney, the eminent merchant, w^ho 
was Lieutenant Colonel of the famous Eleventh Pennsyl- 
vania Regiment which, under Colonel Adam Hubley, fol- 
lowed General Sullivan through this valley in 1779. He 
served as Colonel during the Whiskey Insurrection, and 
rose to the rank of Brigadier General in 1799. He brought 


Anthony Lacoe to Philadelphia, to place him in a country 
house as clerk. After remaining with Mr. Gurney three or 
four years young Lacoe decided to become a mechanic, and } 

apprenticed himself to a carpenter to learn that trade. Be- : 

fore the term of his apprenticeship had expired the second .; 

great scourge of yellow fever visited Philadelphia (1798) and \ 

carried off his master and all his family, leaving Anthony 1 

quite among strangers when he himself had recovered from J 

the fever. He then removed to Wilkes-Barre w^here he fol- ! 

lowed his trade successfully until his removal, after 18 12, to ] 

Pittston township. He married, in Wilkes-Barre, April 19, 1 

181 2, Miss Emelie Magdalene Dupuy, daughter of Jean ! 

Fran<;oise and Jane Elizabeth (Desire) Dupuy. She was | 

born in the island of St. Domingo, November 10, 1791. 1 

The Susqueha7ina Democrat, of May i, 18 1 2, thus records ■ 

this marriage: " Married in this town Sunday, the 19th, by 
William Ross, Esq., Mr. Anthony Lacoq to Miss Amelia | 

Dupuy." I 

The result of this marriage was five children, John Fran- . 

CIS Lacoe, Elizabeth Palmyra Lacoe, Louis Stephen Laco^, • 

William Anthony Lacoe, and the subject of this sketch | 

Ralph Dupuy Lacoe. Mr. Anthony Lacoe retained all his 
faculties except his sight until the end of his life, voting 
regularly until he was one hundred and one years of age. 
The Record, in noting his death, states that " for many years 
he worked as a carpenter in this vicinity and was always 
known as an industrious and upright man." Mrs. Anthony 
Lacoe died in Pittston township, now Jenkins township, 
January 7, 1844. 

It is a well known fact that the great formative influence 
in development of character is the maternal, and as Mr. 
Ralph D. Lacoe owed much of his distinguished success in 
later life to the training of his mother, her family history is 
worthy of note. Her father, Jean Franqoise Dupuy, was 
born in Bordeaux, France, September 30, 1750; her mother, 


Jane Elizabeth (Desire) Dupuy, was born at Nantes, France, 
August 20, 1760. Her family were Huguenots, members 
of that religious body that gave to America many of her 
most distinquished reHgionists and citizens. From the 
history of Lodge 6i, F. and A. M., by O. J. Harvey, Esq., 
the following facts about Jean FranQoise Dupuy are drawn : 

" Having removed from France to the island of St. Domin- 
go he lived there for many years until the negro insurrec- 
tion of 1 79 1, when he escaped and came to the United States. 
Most of his valuables, hastily shipped on a vessel that landed 
at Baltimore, were either lost overboard, as claimed by the 
ship's officers, or stolen by them ; so that he was left with 
only those means which he carried upon his person in his 
retreat. The bulk of his large estate had been necessarily 
left in St. Domingo, for which he and his family received 
some compensation through the French government after 
the independence of Hayti was established. Leaving Balti- 
more, Mr. Dupuy went to Philadelphia, and from thence into 
what is now Nicholson township, Wyoming county, where 
* June 29, 1 795, John F. Dupuy, of Philadelphia, gentleman, 
bought land of William Moore Smith, Esq.' There he re- 
sided until 1795, when he removed to Wilkes -Barre, and 
settled at the northeast corner of Franklin and Northampton 
streets, now occupied by the residence of Dr. Stewart, where 
he continued to reside until his death in 1836. He was made 
a Mason, probably in San Domingo, and became a member 
of Lodge 61, Wilkes-Barre, June 10, 1796, and from March, 
1799. until his death, thirty-seven years, he served as Tyler 
of the Lodge." Mr. Harvey also quotes from the diary of 
Hon. Charles Miner, the historian, " Jean Francis Dupuy, 
a French gentleman from St. Domingo, exiled from thence 
by the success of the blacks, a very estimable and intelli- 
gent man, who, from having been a wealthy planter, reduced 
for a time to rely on personal labor, in the Lodge forgot his 


misfortunes, and there and nowhere else, that I ever saw, 
assuming the proper station of an intelligent French gentle- 
man, instructing and entertaining us by his philosophical 
views, occasionally peculiar, as well as by the numerous 
facts the state of the country he had lived in enabled him 
to bring into conversation." 

When he died the Masonic fraternity, at his own especial 
request, buried him. The eulogy pronounced at his grave 
was from the lips of Hon, John N. Conyngham, LL. D., 
who said, among other things : 

"John F. Dupuy, whose body now lies in the grave be- 
fore us, was born in France, but early in life became domi- 
ciled in the West Indies and there resided, a man in affluent 
circumstances and of honorable standing in society. Of 
mild, amiable and unobtrusive habits, he was pursuing the 
even tenor of his way in the midst of domestic comforts and 
engagements, when a storm of destruction burst upon his 
country, and he fled to save himself and family from the 
bloody scenes of the San Domingo massacre. 

"With a mere trifle of his former fortunes, accompanied 
by his family, he found an asylum in the United States, and 
soon after removed to this Valley, where he has since lived 
for a period of upwards of^ thirty-five years, gaining a sup- 
port by his own exertions, and enjoying the undivided re- 
spect of the whole community. 

" When he came to this vicinity he felt that he was a 
stranger from a foreign land, with blasted hopes and broken 
fortunes, and though winning the sympathies of the people 
around him, yet he felt that between him and them there 
was no common subject of interest. 

"It soon, however, became known that he was a Mason, 
and he discovered that several of his neighbors were Ma- 
sons, acknowledging the same ties and duties with himself. 
He then found — though a stranger in a strange land, the 


friends of his youth and early manhood scattered and de- 
stroyed by the convulsions of their common country, and 
scarcely an individual with whom he could converse in his 
beloved and native language — yet that there were many 
around him, and these, too, among the wealthy and respect- 
able, who were ready to extend to him the right hand of 
fellowship and hail him by the appellation of 'Brother.' He 
recognized with heartfelt satisfaction the means of union 
with his fellows, joined the lodge at this place, and contin- 
ued, until his infirmities prevented active exertions, a mem- 
ber and an officer, squaring his conduct and ruling his 
behavior by the principles of honesty and integrity. All 
persons, Masons as well as others, have ever awarded to 
him respect for his blameless life." * * * (Han^ey, 

Mr. Ralph D. Lacoe had few advantages of education in 
his early youth, his mother supplying that which the coun- 
try schools did not give, and with such success that before 
he was of age he taught school for a term or more in his 
neighborhood, having for his pupils, among others, the 
young girl who subsequently became his wife. He also 
learned the trade of his father, and doubtless worked at it 
with the same diligent attention to detail that so character- 
ized his later and scientific labors. About 1850 he and his 
brothers went to Nicholson township, where his grandfather 
Jean Dupuy's land was located, and engaged to supply rail- 
road ties to the Delaware and Lackawanna Railroad. With 
the money made in this venture he invested in coal lands 
near Pittston, and when the coal enterprises began to de- 
velop he engaged in the real estate business at Pittston, 
laying the foundation for his large wealth of land and other 
investments. In 1858 he was recorded as a real estate 
dealer, associating with himself, in 187 1, Mr. J. B. Shiffer 
of Pittston. He also became interested in various other 


enterprises for the enlargement of the business of his locah'ty. 
In 1850, when the Pittston Bank was established, he be- 
came cashier, and in 1865, when the bank was made a Na- 
tional Bank, he was elected vice president. He was also 
president of the Wyoming Valley Knitting Company in 
1874, president of the Water Street Bridge Company, trus- 
tee of the Miners' Savings Bank of Pittston, &c., &c. He was 
also engaged in the firm of R. D. Lacoe & Co., in the manu- 
facture of paper boxes in West Pittston, an undertaking into 
which he entered to assist a young friend in business. Mr. 
Lacoe was also interested in the political affairs of his sec- 
tion sufficiently to meet any civil duty laid upon him by his 
fellow citizens, as in 1853 he was elected assessor of his 
township, and in 1869 and 1870 he was elected and served 
as burgess of West Pittston. 

When about 1865 his health became somewhat affected, 
Mr. Lacoe retired from the activities of business and turned 
his attention to the study of geology, especially in connec- 
tion with the coal mining industry, and began to accumulate 
what became one of the largest collections of the fossil 
products of this mineral ever known. This collection was 
naturally divided into three especial departments — the Coal 
Flora, Fossil Insects of the carboniferous beds, and Fossils 
of the Paleozoic limestone beds. 

This special study brought him a world-wide reputation 
that has placed his name in the Valhalla of Science with 
that of Lesquereux, Dawson and Cope. As these collec- 
tions grew in magnitude and value the question naturally 
forced itself upon him as to their ultimate disposition. The 
pecuniary value of his work doubtless never entered his 
mind. Money consideration could never have secured his 
treasures which he designed for the benefits of science, and 
collected with enthusiasm. Pie visited many public mu- 
seums and institutions where such collections were preserved, 
but was pained with the want of care and attention given 


to such valuable remains, and hesitated to place the results 
of his research, and his outlay of money and study where 
it might some day be relegated to the shades and be for- 
gotten. We, who are interested, as he was most earnestly, 
in the geological advancement of this Society had hoped 
that this association might be made the custodian of his 
collections. But in 1891, when he donated the largest part 
of his collections elsewhere, our treasures were kept in the 
dingy, unattractive rooms now used, though much improved 
and beautified, by the Society of Elks. A more familiar 
knowledge of the extent of his collections will enable us to 
see the wisdom of Mr. Lacoe in not presenting to this 
Society treasures that would have required an endowment 
of ^100,000 and a building fully as large as our present 
home to make his gift available to the scientific public. 

Wisely, I say, he determined to give his immense collec- 
tion to the United States National Museum at Washington 
where, with the unlimited resources of the United States, it 
would do the greatest good to the greatest number. Permit 
me to quote to you the account of this unsurpassed collec- 
tion published in the Annual Reports of the National Mu- 
seum.* In the report of 1892, Mr. Lester F. Ward, Hon- 
orary Curator of this department, speaks thus : 

"No gift of greater importance to the department of fossil 
plants has ever been made than that by Mr. R. D. Lacoe, 
of Pittston, Pa., under the terms of which his great collec- 
tion of fossil plants is to be permanently deposited in the 
National Museum. The value of this collection, one of 
world-wide reputation, is far greater than that of the entire 
amount of the collections in the department prior to the 
date of its gift. The task of procuring fossil plants from 
the older formations for use in paleontological and biologi- 
cal research has been prosecuted for nearly twenty years by 
its donor whose hberal means and scientific and practical 


mining- knowledge, as well as his favorable location in the 
heart of the northern anthracite coal field have enabled him 
to bring together an invaluable body of material, of which 
Professor Lesquereux remarked in one of his last publica- 
tions, 1886:" 

" 'Mr. R. D. Lacoe, of Pittston, has procured, from almost 
all the localities where coal is worked in the United States, 
an immense amount of specimens far beyond any seen even 
in the largest museums of Europe.' " 

'* Since the above quotation was written Mr. Lacoe has 
continued his work, having several collectors in his employ 
in various states and the Acadia provinces, a portion of the 
material collected having been examined by Prof. Lesque- 
reux. Besides gathering this material in the field he has 
also purchased a number of private collections, containing 
many type specimens, so that it is perhaps safe to say that 
nearly one-half of the types of the American Carboniferous 
flora now lie within the Lacoe collection. In fact, there are 
few outstanding American types except those resting in 
several State geological museums. 

"But even the deficiency in the balance of originals has 
largely been compensated for by the collection of duplicates 
from the type localities, and these, like all other collections 
made prior to 1889, were examined and labelled by the 
original author of nine-tenths of the Paleozoic species de- 
scribed from the United States, Leo Lesquereux. 

" How prominent a part this material has taken in both 
the biological and economic applications may be recognized 
at a glance in the three volumes of the Coal Flora, Report 
P, Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 1878-1884. 

"It will at once be seen that the occasion of this invalua- 
ble wealth of material will necessarily make this institution, 
as a repository of the types or authentic specimens of nearly 
aU the American Paleozoic species, the reference centre for 
all the extensive work on the Paleozoic flora in this country 


in future, as well as the custodian of valuable geological 
correlation data. But the proper installation in this museum 
of so great a collection, numbering about 100,000 speci- 
mens, is a matter involving much embarrassment in the way 
of space and study facilities, it being agreed in the terms of 
the gift that this collection, to be kept entire and known as 
the 'Lacoe Collection,' shall, together with all the future 
additions, either by exchange or gift of the donor, be kept 
in order and made accessible to scientists and students, with- 
out distinction, under such proper rules and restrictions as 
may be necessary for the preservation from loss or injury 
of the specimens. 

" The area required for the type specimens, making no 
allowance for increase, amounts to over 1000 drawers the 
size in ordinary use in the museum. The exhibition mate- 
rial will occupy about 2100 square feet. * * * Xhis 
rich possession affords just ground for national scientific 
pride, while the liberal public spirit with which it was given 
is worthy of imitation by all patrons of science." (Report 
of 1892, 186.) 

In 1896 Professor G. Browne Goode, Assistant Secretary 
of the Smithsonian Institution, said of Mr. Lacoe's gift: 

*' The transfer of the magnificent Lacoe collection from 
Pittston, Pa., the residence of the donor, to Washington was 
completed during the present year. It was included in 315 
boxes. * * * It is not too much to say that the Na- 
tional Museum has never received a gift of greater scientific 
value or importance than that acquired through the gener- 
l osity of Mr. Lacoe." (p. 73.) 

The number of original Paleozoic plant types in the mu- 
seum prior to the reception of this gift was 102, the num- 
ber in Mr. Lacoe's collection 575, the number of specimens 



Mr, Lacoe not only continued until his death to enrich 
this splendid collection, but in 1898 he presented to the 
National Museum his extensive collection of fossil insects, 
of more than 200 types and nearly 5,000 specimens. He 
also added over 100 invertebrate fossils, over 400 vertebrate 
fossils, and 132 fossil plants. Of the main collection, S04 
fossil plants from the Dakota group were described with 
plates by Prof Lesquereux in the XVII monograph of the 
U. S. Geological Survey. Among the fossil plants, Les- 
quereux named in honor of Mr. Lacoe eight types, i. e., 
Phyllites Lacoei, Magnolia lacoearia^ Crataegus lacoci, Jug- 
la7idtt£s lacoei^ Caulopteris lacoei, Cordaites lacoei, Lepidos- 
tr obits lacoei^ and Stemniatopteris lacoei. Mr. David White 
has also named two types after Mr. Lacoe, Spherwpteris 
lacoei and Ala^thopteris lacoei. In his latest MSS., yet un- 
published, Mr. White names a new genus, Lacoe a. 

Mr. Lacoe became a member of the Wyoming Historical 
and Geological Society March 2, 1882. His interest imme- 
diately manifested itself in a practical way by adding to our 
collections. He became a trustee of the Society in 1882 
and continued one until 1889. He was also Curator of Pa- 
leontology in the Society from 1884 to 1899, for fifteen 
years, when he was succeeded, at his own special request, by 
the election of Prof Joshua L. Welter, the present curator. 
He became a Life member P'ebruary 8, 1889. In 1898 he 
presented the Society the three large cases of drawers of one 
hundred each which now contain our Coal Flora in the Fos- 
sil Room, had them moved here and placed in position, 
added largely to the specimens now forming the collection, 
and personally arranged them in the drawers. Of these 
specimens many have been identified by Prof. Lesquereux, 
whom Mr. Lacoe brought to the rooms for the purpose 
when the Professor was visiting him in Pittston. 

Of our collection Mr. Lacoe stated in his report as cura- 
tor in 1886: "Many of the genera are well represented in 


typical series, some of which are very fully illustrated by 
large and fine specimens. A moderate outlay of money 
and well directed efforts on the part of members and friends 
of the Society would in a short time add greatly to the 
value and usefulness of your collection, which already com- 
pares favorably with the best in the country." (Proceed- 
ings, Vol. II, i6o.) These are words of high praise from 
one who was capable in the highest degree of estimating the 
value of our treasures, and should stimulate us to enrich 
that collection as far as our means will allow. Air. Lacce 
also largely aided Drs. Ingham and Wright in forming the 
model case in our geological room illustrating the "Crust 
of the Earth," showing its geological strata from the Ar- 
chaen to the Cenozoic Age, a practical exemplification of 
the geological epochs for the use of the public schools of 
this section. He did not spare his own collection of fossils, 
gathered at such expense of time and money, to enrich this 
model. In 1899 ^^ presented our Society with a magnifi- 
cent collection of Paleozoic invertebrates numbering over 
1,200 species and 4,500 specimens. This collection I had the 
great pleasure of packing and removing and arranging, with 
the Curator of Paleontology, in the cabinet made for the 
specimens in the third story of our building, and marked 
with his name, ** Lacoe Collection of Fossils." Every ad- 
dition to this collection will also bear this name, and it is 
our purpose and pledge to increase its value by purchase 
and exchange at every opportunity. It already forms one 
of the best collections of the kind in the United States. A 
hst of these fossils was published in the Report of the Cu- 
rator, Prof. Welter, in volume V of our Proceedings. 

Mr. Lacoe was a Fellow of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science, elected to membership Au- 
gust, 1882, and made a fellow of the American Geological 
Society December, 1889. It was thought that he was also 
a member of the Geological Society of London The Pitts- 


ton Gazette states that "he visited Europe in 1887 for the 
purpose of viewing geological collections there and making 
exchanges of specimens, and was as well known among 
the scientists abroad as at home. He was preeminently a 
scholarly, cultured gentleman, and while of late years ser- 
ious deafness had shut him away from many church and social 
relations, in his own home his gentle, cordial welcome 
always made his friends feel his interest in them undimin- 
ished. His large stores of knowledge were always gladly 
opened to an inquiring mind, and many young people have 
had their interest in nature and the sciences which he loved 
aroused and stimulated by his encouragement." 

Mr. Lacoe preferred to be a student rather than a writer 
in the realm of science, but he has left the seal of his au- 
thority as a expert in his special department. Prof J. P. 
Lesley, State Geologist of Pennsylvania, in his Geological 
Report of Wyoming, Lackawanna and Luzerne counties.Vol. 
G7, Pa. Survey, gives him full credit and the highest praise 
for his assistance to the Survey. In referring to the Buried 
Valley of Wyoming he says : " I am indebted for most of 
the records of drilling by the various mining companies to 
Mr. R. D. Lacoe of Pittston, who has done -so much through 
his magnificent collections to advance our knowledge of 
the Coal Flora of Pennsylvania and other States." 

Prof. Scudder, in his valuable work on American Fossil 
Cockroaches, 1895, says: "When in 1879 -^ published my 
Paleozoic Cockroaches, in which a revision of the species 
of the whole world was attempted, I had seen but nineteen 
specimens from North America belonging to seventeen 
species and seven genera. To-day more than three hundred 
American specimens have passed under my eye, besides 
fifty from the Triassic rocks and a very few from the Tertiary 
series, and from the Paleozoic series alone there are here 
recognized one hundred and thirty-two species belonging 
to fourteen genera. This recent extension of our knowledge 


of our Paleozoic Cockroaches is very largely due to the ex- 
ploitations of two localities — one in West Virginia, through 
the instrumentality of Mr. R. D. Lacoe of Pittston, Pa., the 
other in Ohio, through the labors of Mr. Samuel Huston of 
Steubenville. The West Virginia collection numbering 56 
species and 5 genera." Prof Scudder also describes 18 
specimens of as many species in Mr. Lacoe's collection 
found by him in the Boston mine near Pittston. One of 
these was named in honor of Mr. Lacoe, '' Neyinylacris la- 

Mr. Lacoe contributed the results of his discoveries in a 
paper read before the Wyoming Historical and Geological 
Society April 6, 1883, and published in Volume I of the 
Proceedings of this Society. It is entitled: "List of Paleo- 
zoic Fossil Insects of the United States and Canada, alpha- 
betically arranged, giving names of Authors, Geological 
Age, Locality of Occurrence, and place of preservation, 
with references to the principal Bibliography of the subject." 

He also issued a ''Catalogue of the Paleozoic Fossil Plants 
of North America, compiled by R. D. Lacoe, Pittston, Pa. 
8vo, pp. 15, 1884." This catalogue has also especial refer- 
ence to his own collection, which in 1884 numbered nearly 
500 types and in 1896 some 100,000 specimens. 

Mr. Lacoe also read before this Society, April i, 1881, a 
brief paper entitled "Fossil Reptile Tracks from the Anthra- 
cite Coal Measurers." This was also published in the Pro- 
ceedings of this Society in Vol. I, No. 3, pp. 6-8. Some of 
the reptile tracks are in the collection of this Society. 

Mr. Lacoe was married in Pittston by the Rev. N. G. 
Parke, D. D., April 26, i860, to Miss Bridget Clary, who 
died October 31, 1872. He had four children — Josephine, 
who died early ; Margaret Clary, now Mrs. I. S. White, of 
Rock Island, Illinois; Ralph Dugue, of West Pittston, and 
William Clary, who died young. 

Mr. Lacoe's death has been a serious loss to this Societv. 


Few of its members took such a large and generous interest 
in its work, and no one is left among us capable at the 
present time of filling his place. To the Curator of Paleon- 
tology and the Curator of Mineralogy he was always a 
willing helper and adviser. His confidence in me person- 
ally was most sincerely appreciated, for while others advised 
his placing with us his Paleozoic Fossil Collection given to 
us in 1899, he did not decide to do so until, at my request, 
he made a special investigation of plans which I laid before 
him in connexion therewith, and on my promise to person- 
ally attend the packing and transferring of the specimens, 
and to personally assist his successor in making it practi- 
cally useful to the public. 

Mr. Lacoe was a devout Christian, baptized by Rt. Re\^ 
Wm. B. Stevens, LL. D,, 1866, confirmed by him in St. 
James' Church, Pittston, and for many years a member of the 
Vestry. He was also, in 1883, one of the organizers, and 
for years Junior Warden and Treasurer of Trinity Church, 
West Pittston. He was a loyal and generous churchman, 
.liberal in his gifts, and faithful to the dear mother by whose 
beautiful ritual he was laid to rest in Hollenback Cemetery. 
Mr. Lacoe was also a generous promotor of the Pittston 
Library, and in many ways, known only to the few, he de- 
lighted to aid and assist worthy objects in his town, and 
worthy young men to better things and nobler lives. 

The following beautiful tribute to the character of Mr. 
Lacoe, from the pen of his life-long friend, Rev. Nathan 
Grier Parke, D. D., is deserving a place in this sketch: 

"Of Ralph D. Lacoe, who has finished his work on earth 
and been laid to rest, it may be said with truth, 'he was a 
self-made man,' Without the help of a collegiate training 
and without an educational environment in the community 
where he Hved, wholly dependent on his own personal 

LACOE mf:mokial. 53 

efforts, he rose to a position among the 'solons' of his gen- 
eration scarcely second to any of them. 

"Solomon says, 'Seest thou a man diligent in business, 
he shall stand before kings ; he shall not stand before mean 
men.* That in Mr. Lacoe, when a young man, which im- 
pressed me and had very much to do with his success in 
life, was his 'diligence in business.* He wasted no time. 
When not working with his hands, like the stone mason of 
whom Scotland is proud, he was seeking to improve his 
mind with such helps as he could find. He was a reader of 
good books, a student and an observer of nature's laws in 
physical rather than in mental and moral science. He did 
not ignore the society of his young friends, but he did not 
allow society to stand in the way of self-improvement. He 
was not, strictly speaking, a society man. He had not the 
time for that sort of thing. He was an industrious, studious, 
gentlemanly, upright, clean man always ; and as long as he 
lived he was an example of what self-culture wisely directed 
and opportunities improved may accomplish. A college 
training might have helped him, although his tastes did not 
incline him to classical study. It might possibly have 
broadened him in some ways, and it certainly would have 
made the work he did easier, for classical training is espe- 
cially helpful to students of science; but the want of this 
training did not stand in the way of Mr. Lacoe's phenome- 
nal success in the line of work he elected to pursue. The 
collecting, classifying and labeling of the fossils of different 
varieties (requiring a vocabulary of 'hard' words) that he 
presented to the Smithsonian Institute was a Herculean 
task. It must have cost him a vast amount of personal, 
patient and self-denying labor, but it was in the line of work 
that he loved, and he did it 'con aniore! No more valuable 
contribution, in its line, than this collection of Mr. Lacoe, 
has been made to our National Institute for the promotion 
of scientific knowledge at Washington. There is no other 


such collection, so far as we know, in the world. There 
certainly is nothing like it in the Oxford University in Eng- 
land, through which it was once my privilege to look, 
guided by one of its professors, and it will remain a lasting 
and honorable monument to our fellow townsman, protected 
and cared for by our National Government. 

"An attractive feature of Mr. Lacoe's character was his 
modesty. He laid claim to nothing in the science of pale- 
ontology, although one of its chief promotors. He did his 
work quietly and unostentatiously. Only those who saw 
him work, and saw his work knew of it ; still, by correspond- 
dence, he was known to men of science not only in his own 
country but over the sea; and in his department of study, 
which was paleontology, he was an authority. He pursued 
his study for the love of it, rather than for the reputation he 
was making for himself. He was not a writer, as Hum- 
bolt and Lyell and Agassiz and Cuvier, and he had no favor- 
ite theories of creation to defend. His history of the creation 
of the earth was pictorial rather than written. He dealt 
with facts rather than theories. 

"Circumstances in youth and early life, as we all know, 
have no little to do with the forming of character. They 
had very much to do with that of Mr. Lacoe. They, in a 
way, compelled him to be self-reliant. They necessitated, 
on his part, industry, ecomomy and strict attention to busi- 
ness. This gave a practical characteristic to his life that is 
wanting in many college men, who, without any experience 
in this direction, when thrown on their own resources, are 
a very helpless class of men. Mr. Lacoe, without the 
business ability that enabled him to accumulate property, 
could not have done the costly work he did in the way of 
giving to the world a pictorial history In stone of the creation 
of the earth." 




David White, 

Honorary Curator of Paleozoic Plants (Lacoe Collection), 
U. S. National Museum. 


By the death of Mr. Lacoe science and scientists have 
lost a worthy and devoted friend of rare quality and strength 
of character. Mr. Lacoe's position in the scientific world 
was somewhat unusual. He was an authority on the geol- 
ogy of the Northern Anthracite coal field ; his extensive 
knowledge in the domains of fossil plants and fossil insects 
was recognized on both sides of the Atlantic ; his experi- 
ence and observations were well supplemented by reading, 
and his opinions, whether concerning the structure and cor- 
relation of the Wyoming Valley coals or touching the prob- 
lems of systematic paleontology, were often sought and 
always highly valued by specialists in paleozoOlogy and 
paleobotany. Yet he never published more than one short 
article ; he never described a single genus or species. So 
modest and unassuming was he, so small an estimate had 
he of his own ability and attainments, and so wholly want- 
ing was he in the love of the notoriety of authorship, that 
he transferred to others for description and publication the 
new genera and species which he, while posing as a layman, 
was an expert in detecting. Always desiring that the fos- 
sils in his collections should be systematically labelled at 
the hands of the highest American authorities on the sub- 
ject, he was accustomed, even to the last, to submit his 
specimens to others for study and determination. Even 
among the numerous representatives of the commonest and 
most easily recognized species, there are in his great collec- 


tions comparatively few specimens whose labels show him- 
self to have been the authority for their determination, 
although in the latest years of his studies of fossil plants he 
was himself fully competent, as far as knowledge and expe- 
rience are concerned, to have determined, described and 
published the greater part of his paleobotanical material. 

To the scientific world in general, beyond the circle of 
his personal friends and acquaintances, Lacoe was widely 
known as a promoter or patron of science ; and it was in 
this capacity that he did his greatest and best work. The 
occasional collecting of fossils, begun as an out-of-door rec- 
reation beneficial to his failing health, quickly developed a 
profound and enthusiastic interest in the plant-life of earlier 
geological time and the remarkable discoveries resulting 
from paleontological research. At first he made extensive 
collections of coal plants from the Wyoming Valley coal 
field. Realizing at an early date the very great handicap 
to the progress of paleontology resulting from the enor- 
mous labor and expense of exhuming, intelligently collect- 
ing and bringing the raw fossil material to the hand of the 
paleontologist, he chose, for his part and service, to pro- 
mote the advancement of science by gathering the materials 
for and facilitating the work of the paleontologist. Accord- 
ingly, he began systematically to procure, through the aid 
of collectors, by purchase, exchange, or with his own hands, 
collections to show the plant life in various geological 
epochs, but chiefly Paleozoic, in different countries and con- 
tinents, as well as from the coal fields of this country. Be- 
coming interested in the occasional remains of insects, which, 
very rare at best, are seldom discovered except in their nat- 
ural association with fossil plants, Lacoe also entered upon 
the systematic collection of fossil insects and Crustacea 
as well. As his collections increased in extent, representa- 
tion and value, they grew to more than fill the entire upper 
floor of the First National Bank building in Pittston, the 


large front room or hall of which essentially constituted a 
i geological museum of great interest and importance, though, 

! on account of the modest and retiring attitude of its founder, 

> its existence was unknown to most residents of the city. 

i Finally, on account of the increasing size of the collections 

\ and the jeopardy of retaining the hundreds of figured ge- 

' neric and specific types of plants, insects, Crustacea and 

I fishes in a building that was not fire-proof, and where they 

\: could not receive the necessary preserv^ative care, Lacoe 

\ presented his great collections to the United States National 

;- Museum, and placed their transfer and further scientific 

I elaboration in the hands of the Smithsonian Institution. 

I Lacoe's aid to science did not end with collecting the fos- 

[ sils and placing them in the hands of the appropriate special- 

I ists. Whenever a paleontologist was so situated as to be 

I dependent on his daily labor for his livelihood, Lacoe made 

it possible for him to carry on his researches in the material 
placed in his hands. In many additional cases the expense 
of preparing suitable drawings, so essential in paleontologi- 
cal publications, was also borne by him. It deserves to be 
added, to the disgrace of a State great in many respects, 
that in order that the invaluable data of the Lacoe collec- 
tions relating to the geographical and stratigraphical distri- 
bution of the species might be included and made available 
in the Pennsylvania State Geological Report on the Coal 
Flora; that the stratigraphic and correlative values of the 
species might be ascertained and the described species made 
satisfactorily recognizable by means of adequate illustration, 
Lacoe largely bore the expenses of the paleontological 
study of the collections and guaranteed the compensation 
for a part of the illustrations. He was further the benefac- 
tor of the State through the presentation of extensive series 
of specimens to its geological museum. He was also bear- 
ing the expense of the paleontological study and of the 
preparation of manuscript and illustrations of the materials 


to form a supplementary volume of the Coal Flora to be 
published by the State, when the failing health and death of 
Prof Lesquereux left the work incomplete. Before the re- 
sumption and completion of the work the State Survey was 

The Lacoe collection of fossil plants, now in the United 
States National Museum, includes the largest and most im- 
portant collection of Paleozoic plants in North America, 
and, with but three or four exceptions, it is the largest in 
the world. Of the hundred thousand specimens, more or 
less, which it contains, over 600 specimens, representing 
about 500 species, have been especially described and fig- 
ured, while 75 or more new species, many of them described 
or figured in manuscript by Lesquereux, have not yet been 
published. His collection also contains a large number of 
types of species from the Cretaceous and Tertiaiy of the 
Rocky Mountain region. The Lacoe collection of fossil 
insects, Arachnida, Myriapoda and Crustacea, comprising 
over $,000 specimens, is known in the paleontological liter- 
ature of every country of the world, in which there is not 
more than one that surpasses it in extent or in numbers of 
types of genera and species. In fact, the greater portion by 
far of our knowledge of the fossil insects of the various ge- 
ological formations of North America is primarily due to 
the generous as well as persistent efforts of Mr. Lacoe. 
Among the paleontologists who have participated in the 
elaboration of the Lacoe collections are Lesquereux, Daw- 
son, Newberry, Scudder, Cope and Packard. The collec- 
tions include numerous specimens identified by Lindley and 
Hutton, Kidston and Zeiller. It is with these names of pro- 
moters of the science of fossil plants, fossil insects, and in- 
directly of the science of the history of the earth, that La- 
coe's name is to be ranged. 

The superb quality of Lacoe"'s scientific spirit and patri- 
otism was shown not only in the act of giving his great 


collection to the United States National Museum, but in the 
stipulations of the gift that the collection should be kept 
accessible to students of paleontology of all nations, under 
proper conditions, providing for the safety and preservation 
of the specimens, and that he should have the privilege of 
adding to the collection from time to time. The last con- 
dition has been entirely fulfilled by numerous later acces- 
sions of fossil plants, insects and fishes from various parts of 
the world. Even at the date of his death plans were ma- 
turing for still further extensive and important additions to 
the insect and plant sections. 

Single handed and with but slight aid among his friends, 
Lacoe quietly did for science a work of a kind that is rarely 
prosecuted except by the wealthier universities, endowed 
scientific societies, or special scientific institutions. His ex- 
treme modesty regarding the importance and value of his 
collections, and the patriotism shown in the disposition of 
the results of so great personal labor and care, are a moral 
object lesson to wealthy patrons of science. 

The greatest and most enduring monument to Lacoe's 
devotion to and work for science is the Lacoe collection. 
Carefully guarded against danger or deterioration, it will be 
increased in numbers from time to time by exchanges or 
additional gifts. Visitors to the paleontological halls of the 
Nation's Museum may see an exhibit comprising a small 
portion of the more imperishable and attractive specimens 
of "The Lacoe Collections," the greater number studied 
and identified by the foremost paleontolgists of the time. 
Its types, from the hands of Lesquereux, Dawson, Scudder 
and Cope, will be consulted and re-examined by the savants 
of paleontology for centuries to come. Students of hfe dis- 
tribution, climate and of evolution will review its suites of 
specimens, and their records will supplement the records of 
the great paleontologists of the past who hav^e participated 
in its original elaboration. These records are in the paleon- 


tological literature of every land; and while there shall remain 
a literature or a human interest in paleontology, the name 
and scientific service of R. D. Lacoe will be perpetuated. 
The collection tells its own history ; it tells of its author's 
intense interest and devotion, and of his great personal 
labors and aid in behalf of paleontology and geology; by 
the notes and inscriptions, the patient and loving care in reg- 
istration, the comments and remarks it tells of its relations 
to the students, of congenial scientific discussions, and of 
warm and lasting friendships between paleontologist and 
patron, welded on the fossil anvil. The best, the most last- 
ing scientific memorial of our friend and fellow is the great 
Lacoe collection. 



In September, 1886, the Wyoming Historical and Geo- 
logical Society resolved to commemorate, by appropriate 
exercises, the Centennial of the Erection of Luzerne County, 
which occurred September 25, 1786. Accordingly a circu- 
lar was issued by the Society appointing September 25, 
1886, as the Day of Commemoration. This circular, with 
the Minutes of the Society for that date, are published here. 
They show in detail the manner in which the day was ob- 
served. Nine prominent writers of the Wyoming section, 
members of the Society, read historical papers of value. 
The Society at the time intended to publish the proceed- 
ings in a volume, but this purpose was delayed by the de- 
sire of several of the writers, Dr. Horace Hollister, and 
Hons. Steuben Jenkins and Peter S. Osterhout, to further 
elaborate their papers before having them published. When 
it was possible to carry out the purpose of the Society the 
three papers referred to were lost to us by the death of the 
writers. The paper of Rev. S. S. Kennedy appeared else- 
where in Munsel's History of Luzerne, Lackawanna and Wy- 
oming Counties. The paper by Dr. F. C. Johnson consisted 
of abstracts from an article not at that time completed. It 
will become a special subject for presentation to the Society 
in full at a near date, and may appear in volume VII. The 
papers of Judge Edmund L. Dana, Dr. William Henry Egle 
and William Penn Miner, Esq., alone remain immediately 
available. That by Judge Dana was placed in my hands 
by the committee after his death for annotation, and is 
given here, with the Appendix and notes. During the past 
few months our eminent honorary member. Dr. William H. 
Egle, has also passed from this life, so that only one of the 
members who read papers at the Centennial, Dr. Frederick 
C. Johnson, is alive. 

Aprils igoi. Horace Edwin Hayden. 



Wilkes-Barre, Pa., Sept. 14, 1886. 

At a meeting of the Society, Friday evening, September 
lOth, it was decided to hold a special meeting on Saturday, 
September 25th, at 10 o'clock a. m., in the Court House, 
for the purpose of celebrating, in connection with such of 
the public as shall choose to join therein, the Hundredth 
Anniversary of the Erection of Luzerne County. 

It is expected that a number of papers, treating of the 
event and the subsequent history of the county, will be 
presented. Members and others who desire to read papers 
or make addresses on the occasion are requested to notify 
the Secretary of the fact, and also give a very brief synopsis 
of the subject-matter, as well as the length of time required 
in the reading or delivery, previous to the 23d instant, in 
order that the program may be arranged. 

The preservation of all facts connected with the history 
of the county is of much importance, and it is hoped that 
the members and friends of the Society may feel an interest 
in helping to preserve and in making available for reference 
any facts within their knowledge or possession which have 
not been published or are not generally known. This may 
be effected either by the preparation of a paper or memo- 
randum to be read at the meeting, or the presentation of 
ancient records, documents and letters having relation to 
the subject. 

Members and friends of the Society are cordially invited 
to be present. An answer addressed to the Secretary is 
requested. Edmund L. Dana, 

Sheldon Reynolds, President. 

[seal.] Carre sponduig Secretary. 


SEPTEMBER 25, 1886. 

An adjourned meeting of the Wyoming Historical and 
Geological Society was held in the Court House Septem- 
ber 25th, 1886, being the Hundredth Anniversary of the 
Erection of Luzerne County. 

At ten o'clock, the hour of meeting, Court was in session 
with Judge Woodward on the bench. Judge Woodward 
said that, in view of the historic event, he would adjourn 
the Court and order the fact spread upon the day's minutes 
as a perpetual record. After adjourning the Court he read 
from the statute erecting the county, which was an act of 
September 25th, 1876. It provided that Luzerne county 
should be set off from the Northern portion of Northumber- 
land county. He also exhibited the first Continuance 
Docket, or minute book, of the county, organized under the 
statute, from which it appeared that the first session of Court 
was held May 29th, 1787, at the house of Zebulon Butler. 

Dr. William Hooker Smith, Benjamin Carpenter, James 
Nesbitt, Timothy Pickering, Obadiah Gore, Nathan Kings- 
ley and Matthias Hollenback were elected and sworn in as 
Justices of the Peace. 

Timothy Pickering was made Prothonotary, Clerk of the 
Court, Register of Wills, and Recorder of Deeds. Joseph 
Sprague was made Court Crier. Lord Butler, the first 
Sheriff of the county, was instructed to take measures for 
the erection of a Jail. He also exhibited the commission 
of Sheriff Butler; it bore the signature of Benjamin Franklin. 

Ebenezer Bowman, Putnam Catlin, Rosewell Welles and 
William Nichols were sworn in as legal practitioners. The 
first legal paper was a capias, September Term, 1787. Sam'l 
Allen vs. Henry Bumey. Catlin, attorney. The county 
then contained only 2730 taxables. 


At the conclusion of Judge Woodward's remarks, Judge 
Dana, President of the Society, took the chair, and, after a 
few remarks appropriate to the occasion, called on Rev. E. 
Hazard Snowden, the oldest minister in the county, who 
opened the meeting with a prayer. 

The Corresponding Secretary read letters of regret from 
Governor Pattison ; Rt. Rev. William Bacon Stevens ; Dr. 
Coppee of Lehigh University ; C. J. Hoadley, State Libra- 
rian of Connecticut; W. S. Stryker, Adjutant General of 
New Jersey ; Henry B. Dawson, the New York Historian ; 
Miss Emily C. Blackman, and Rev. David Craft of Wya- 
lusing. Charles J. Hoadley sent the commission of Jona- 
than Fitch as first Sheriff of Westmoreland, dated Hartford, 
November 28th, 1776. 

Judge Dana read a brief but valuable paper prepared by 
Dr. Hollister of Providence, who was unable to attend, on 
the "Birth of Luzerne County." It referred to the attempt 
to locate the county seat on the west side of the river, and 
to Ethan Allen's scheme to bring his Green Mountain boys 
here and establish an independent government in Wyoming. 
This was followed by a paper by Hon. Steuben Jenkins on 
the "Government of Wyoming prior to the erection of Lu- 
zerne County." The paper described the troublous times, 
and the local dissatisfaction caused by placing the profitable 
offices in the hands of Timothy Pickering, who was a Pen- 
namite. Mr. C. I. A. Chapman took exceptions to the lan- 
guage of the act, changing the boundary of the new county. 
He made the point that instead of changing the western 
boundary from W. to N. I degree W. as provided by the 
act, the change contemplated was from W. to N. 89 degrees 
W. The latter represented the contemplated change of 
one degree while the former implies a change of 89 degrees, 
which was not contemplated. Mr. Jenkins replied that he 
was aw-are of the technical error, but he could not change 
the language of the act. 



Hon. E. L. Dana followed with a paper on the " Cheva- 
lier de la Luzerne," from whom the county was named. 
The paper revealed how warm a friend Luzerne was to the 
struggling colonists, and the practical aid given by him to 
the American cause. The official advice to Luzerne of the 
naming of a county after him, together with his reply, which 
was replete with words expressive of his love for America, 
and for Pennsylvania, in which he had lived for a time, were 
also read. 

Dr. Wm. H. Egle then read a paper on "The House of 
Lancaster to the Rescue," treating of the assistance given 
by the Paxtang Boy Rangers to the Connecticut settlers at 
Wyoming in their struggles with the Pennamites. The 
meeting then adjourned until 2 o'clock p. m. 


The adjourned meeting was called to order at 2 o'clock 
p. M. David M. Jones read an original poem on the county. 
Rev. S. S. Kennedy sent an entertaining paper giving an his- 
torical sketch of Abington township, originally in Luzerne, 
but now in Lackawanna, which was read, in part, by the 
chairman. Hon. P. M. Osterhout read a valuable paper on 
Putman township. F. C. Johnson followed with extracts 
from a paper on the *' Proposed Exodus of Wyoming Set- 
tlers in 1783." W. P. Miner, Esq., for many years editor 
and proprietor of the Wilkes-Barre Record, read a paper on 
"Progress of Printing in Luzerne County." 

C. L A. Chapman, being called upon to make some re- 
marks, spoke of the changes of the landmarks of Justice 
which he had witnessed in his lifetime — one, the incapacity 
of woman to possess property in her own right ; the other, 
imprisonment for debt; and his recollection, when a boy, 
of seeing Rufus Bennett, one of the last survivors of the 
Wyoming massacre, in jail for a paltry debt of a few dollars. 
He exhibited a drawing of the old Public Square, made by 


him twenty years ago, showing buildings as they were in 
1840. Judge Dana called for ex tanpore remarks, upon 
which Rev. Dr. N. G. Parke, Dr. Andrew Bedford of Wa- 
vcrly, Mrs. M. L. T. Hartman, Dr. Harry Hakes, Hon. 
Lewis Pughe, Wesley Johnson, Esq., Hon. L. D. Shoe- 
maker, Rev. H. E. Hayden, and E. Bogardus of Norwalk, 
O., all responded briefly. Prior to adjourning, Judge Dana 
said the several papers would be published by the Society. 
On motion, adjourned. J. Ridgway Wright, 




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Chevalier de la Luzerne 




Hon. Edmund Lovell Dana, 

President of the Society. 



Rev. Horace Edwin Hayden, M. A. 
Corresponding Secretary and Librarian. 

A brief sketch of the ChevaHer de la Luzerne, after whom 
this county, the fifteenth in this state, was named, is entitled 
to a place amongst the exercises of this First Centennial of 
its organized existence. 

The details, however, of his active and useful life record- 
ed in our popular histories, and in those of his native coun- 
try, are few. The thrilling incidents attending the French 
revolution cast into shadow immediately preceding events 
and characters, and changed the current of history and of 

The House of Luzerne is one of the oldest in Normandy. 
Thomas de la Luzerne was one of the Knights who accom- 
panied Robert, Duke of Normandy, on the First Crusade 
in the year 1096 ; whilst William, another of the family, in 
the wars against the English, valiantly defended ]\Iont St. 
Michel, and died there in 1458. {Appeftdix A) 

Notwithstanding the antiquity of the family, and the dis- 
tinguished services of these and other members of it, a care- 
ful search made expressly for this paper, in the libraries of 
Paris, and through the general catalogue of books on the 
History of France in the National Library, brought to light 
only one biographical work published on the Luzernes, 
and that is entitled the "Life and Works of the Cardinal de 


la Luzerne," a brother of the ChcvaHer, by the Abbi Leon 
Godard in 1856. This and an oration delivered in the 
Chamber of Peers of France in 182 1 by the Bishop of I^e- 
sanson, on the death of the Cardinal, were the only works 
found, and in neither of these is there any information re- 
lating to the family in general. It appears that the domains 
of la Luzerne passed in 1556 to the house of Briqueville. 
Cesar Antoine de la Luzerne, Count of Beauzeville, IMares- 
chal de Camp, was of this branch. He married a daughter 
of the Chancellor de Lamoignon, and of this marriage was 
born in Paris in 1737, Cesar Henry, Count de la Luzerne, 
Lieutenant General and ^Minister of Marine from 1786 to 
1791. Being opposed to the principles of the Revolution he 
migrated to England, thence to Austria, and died in 1799. 
He published a translation of Xenophon and a work enti- 
tled "The Constitution of the Athenians." His brother, 
Cesar William, the Cardinal, already referred to, was born in 
1738, was educated for and adopted the clerical profession, 
delivered the formal oration of the King of Sardinia at No- 
tre Dame in 1773, and in the following year that o( Louis 
XV in the same church ; was called to the Bishopric of La- 
nargesm, chosen deputy of the clergy to the States General, 
and although opposed to the ideas of reform which then 
prevailed, and stoutly resisted the "declaration of rights" 
presented by Lafayette, was twice elected president of the 
Assembly. In 1791 he left France, retired to Germany, 
thence to Switzerland and Italy ; was named Duke and Peer 
of France and returned there in 1S14; received the hat of 
Cardinal in 18 17, and died in Paris on the 21st of June, 
1 82 1. He was the author of several works on ecclesiastical 
subjects, which have been published in two octavo volumes. 
These references to the two elder brothers show the dis- 
tinguished position of the family and the court influence 
which the Chevalier was able to enlist in behalf o( the 
American Colonies, as well as the value of the personal 


experience, counsel and aid he so zealously devoted to their 
struggle for independence. 

From such sources of information as were within reach, 
it appears that Anne Cesar de la Luzerne, brother of the 
preceding, and more generally known as the Chevalier de 
la Luzerne, was the third son of Cesar Antoine de la Lu- 
zerne, Count of Beauzeville, the fourteenth lineal descend- 
ant of the House of Luzerne, and was born in Paris on the 
15th of July, 1741. He was a nephew on his mother's side 
of Malesherbes, who paid the forfeit of his life in 1793 for 
his chivalrous defense of Louis XVI. He was educated in 
the Military School of Light Cavalry (Ecole des chevau- 
legers), became, after graduating, Aide de Camp under his 
relative the Duke de Broglie, served with him in several 
campaigns, became Major General of Cavalry in 1762, and 
afterwards Colonel of the Grenadiers of France and Knight 
(or Chevalier) of Malta. 

Nothv/ithstanding these rapid promotions and the high 
rank attained, he withdrew from the army, and entered upon a 
diplomatic career. He was sent in 1776 to represent France 
at the Court of Maximillian Joseph, Elector of Bavaria, 
where he remained two years, filling his responsible position 
with marked success. The value attached to his services 
during his stay at Munich, and his ability shown in con- 
ducting the negotiations relative to the Bavarian Succession 
induced his being named and accredited by the King of 
France in 1779 to succeed Sieur Gerard as minister to the 
United States. {^Appendix B) He arrived and landed at 
Boston on the 2d of August in that year, and on his way 
to Philadelphia, the seat of government, visited General 
Washington at West Point."^ He arrived in Philadelphia 
September ist, and was received by Congress and had his 
first audience on the 17th of the following Novembcr.f 

* Sparks' Diplonr.itic Correspondence, X, 361; Wharton's do., HI, 318; Lossini;'s 
Field Book of the Revolution. 311. 
t Sparks, X, 367. Wharton, ni,4oS. 


"From that time to the end of the war," says Mr. Sparks' 
Diplomatic History of tlie American Revolution, "he applied 
himself sedulously to the duties of his station, and by the 
suavity of his manners, as well as the uniform discretion of 
his official conduct, he won the esteem and gratitude of the 
the American people." (^Appendix C.) 

Morristown, on the western side of the Delaware, again 
became the headquarters of Washington during the Vv'inter 
of 1779-80, and thither the Chevalier repaired on the 19th 
of April following, and was received with much regard by 
the Commander-in-Chief* He remained at headquarters for 
sometime, and witnessed, in several reviews and evolutions, 
the military education the army had acquired under the 
distinguished tactician, Baron Steuben. During the visit a 
ball was given in his honor at the Morris Hotel, which was 
attended by Washington and lady, by all his officers, by 
Governor Livingston and lady, and by many others of dis- 

A characteristic interview occurred between Luzerne and 
General Arnold, which is given by Lossing, Vol. i, p. 712. 
Charges for wilful abuse of power and criminal acts had 
been preferred against Arnold whilst acting in 1779 as Gov- 
ernor of Philadelphia, followed by conviction on part of 
them. Harrassed by debts incurred through reckless ex- 
travagance in living, Arnold applied to Luzerne for a loan, 
promising a faithful adherence to the King and country of 
the Embassador. Luzerne admired his mih'tary talents and 
treated him with great respect, but refused the loan or cov- 
ert bribe, with these words, as reported by Marbois, his 
secretary: "You desire of me a service which it would be 
easy for me to render, but which would degrade us both. 
When the envoy of a foreign power gives, or, if you will, 
lends money, it is ordinarily to corrupt those who receive 
it, and to make them the creatures of the sovereign whom 

* Knapp's Life of Baron Sleuben, p. 272-3. 



he serves, or rather he corrupts without persuading, he 
buys and does not secure. Jiut the firm league entered into 
between the King and the United States is the work of 
justice and the wisest policy. It has for its basis a recipro- 
cal interest and good will. In the mission with which I am 
charged, my true glory consists in fulfilling it without in- 
trigue or cabal, without resorting to any secret practices, 
and by force alone of the condition of alliance."* 

With such principles and aims it is not very singular that 
the relations between Washington and the Chevalier were 
intimate and confidential. It is singular, however, that Mr. 
Bancroft, in Vol. lo, p. 502, of his History, should charac- 
terize General Sullivan, a member of Cong-ress from New 
Hampshire in 1780, as "a pensioner of Luzerne" and in 
"the pay of France," implying that his action was thus cor- 
ruptly influenced, and vote obtained on the question of in- 
cluding in the ultimatum of terms for the treaty of peace 
with England two such incongruous matters as the recog- 
nition of our independence and certain rights of fishery. Sul- 
livan voted against the motion with the great majority of the 
House, including his colleague, Mr. Livermore, and Mr. 
Jay, and many members of unquestionable wisdom, integ- 
rity and unswerving devotion to the interests of their coun- 
try. New Hampshire did not, as charged by the Historian, 
by this vote or any other, "abandon her claims to the fish- 
eries," for they were in the general instructions to the Com- 
missioners, with boundaries, indemnities and like subjects 
for negotiation. To couple them with independence would 
have been inappropiate and ill timed. The reason assigned 
by the majority for their action was that other restrictions 
upon our Commissioners might have been fatal to the ac- 
complishment of peace ; that the disposition of France was 
favorable to us, and that the interests of our country being 
committed to John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, 

* .Arnold's Life of Benedict Arnold, 2S2. American Register, U, 26. 


Thomas Jefferson and Henry Laurens, amon^ the ablest of 
our patriots, famiHar witli the wants and hopes of the coun- 
try, every attainable advantage would be secured. The 
issue verified their views, and the Commissioners obtained 
all that had been claimed in the hour of greatest confidence. 
All that has been transmitted to us of the Chevalier renders 
it wholly improbable that he ever sought to tamper with 
the integrity of members of Congress. It could not well 
have escaped detection if he had, and would have led to his 
disgraceful expulsion from his post.* 

In 1780, when the army was in the most destitute condi- 
tion, he raised money for its support and to relieve its suf- 
ferings, on his own responsibility, and without waiting for 
orders from his court. He exerted himself to raise private 
subscriptions and placed his own name at the head of the 
list. He also made, the same year, an advance or loan to 
General Sullivan, his friend, of some three hundred dollars, 
the amount due him from New Hampshire as its represent- 
ative, of which he was sorely in need, and for which pro- 
visions for early payment had been made. The advance, 
however, was unsohcited, the pressing need of it casually 
discovered through an intercepted letter captured and pub- 
lished by the English, and the acceptance of the loan was 
accompanied by no promise of service to the French King, 
or any assurance or obligation other than for its repayment, 
when his receipt of the amount due to him from his State 
and the General Government should enable him to make 
it. The unblemished character of Sullivan, his sacrifices of 
health, property and business for his country ; the confi- 
dence reposed in him by Washington, evinced in his repeated 
assignment to important and independent commands ; his 
lauditory letters whilst Sullivan remained in the service, 
and on retirement to civil life his appointment as United 
States Judge for the District of New Hampshire conferred 

* Proceedings of the New Hampshire Historical Society, IX, 95-104. 


by Washington, then President, a position Sullivan held up 
to time of his death ; all the traditions in his native state, 
which agree in representing him as a man of scrupulous in- 
tegrity; the fact that his fellow citizens, who knew and 
were able to judge him correctly, repeatedly loaded him 
with offices of trust — should have secured the patriot soldier 
and statesman, who has for nearly a century occupied an 
honored grave, from a charge unsupported by the evidence 
and so at variance with the known character of the man as 
to be unworthy a moment's credence. {Appendix D) 

This apparent digression seems warranted. We are citi- 
zens of Luzerne, and revere the Chevalier whose name our 
county bears. We are residents of Wyoming Valley, and 
gratefully cherish the memory of General Sullivan, who 
secured us from savage incursions by signally avenging the 
Massacre of 1778. The names of two adjoining counties, 
Luzerne and Sullivan, evince the respect entertained for 
their services by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 

The friendship and confidential relations existing between 
Washington and Luzerne, which began with the arrival of 
the latter, continued up to and beyond the close of the war. 
When in November and December, 1783, peace had been 
concluded, New York evacuated by the British, taken pos- 
session of by our troops, and Washington was about to bid 
farewell to his officers and army, to surrender his commis- 
sion and to retire to Mount Vernon, General Clinton, at 
New York, where these grand events were enacting, gave 
an elegant entertainment to Luzerne, to General Washing- 
ton, to the principal officers of the State of New York and 
of the army, and to more than one hundred other gentlemen. 

Washington had previously addressed to the Chevalier 
the following letter dated from 

" Headquarters, March 29, 1783. 

"Sir: The news of a general peace, which your excel- 
lency has been so good as to announce to me, has filled my 


mind with inexpressible satisfaction. Permit me to add that 
the joy I feel in this great event is doubly enhanced by tlic 
very obliging manner in which you have been pleased to 
communicate your congratulations to me and the army on 
this happy occasion. The part your excellency has acted 
in the cause of America and the great and benevolent share 
you have taken in the establishment of her independence, 
are deeply impressed on my mind, and will not be effaced 
from my remembrance, or that of the citizens of America, 
but with the latent effects of time." 

The Quaker Benezet of Philadelphia addressed to him 
the following words : 

" Your memory will always be dear to us. You have 
never ceased to be a minister of peace among us. You 
have spared nothing to soften all that is inhuman in war." 

In 1789, when the Federal Government was organized, 
Jefferson, the Secretary^ of State, by order of President 
Washing-ton, addressed to the Chevalier a letter containing 
express and official acknowledgment of his services, and 
the sense of them entertained by the nation. 

Before the formal announcement of the treaty of peace 
in November, 1783, Luzerne wrote thirty letters to the dif- 
ferent authorities to advise them of its conclusion, and to 
prevent a speculation in breadstuffs likely to occur on re- 
ceipt of the news. 

After thus ably and satisfactorily discharging the high 
duties of his mission, and after the treaty of peace and rec- 
ognition of American independence to which he had so 
zealously contributed were secured, the Chevalier in 1783 
left the United States and returned to France. He was ap- 
pointed PLmbassador to England in 17S8, and continued to 
reside in London until his death on the 14th of September, 
1 79 1, at the age of fifty years. 

The following extracts from his dispatches to his Govern- 


ment, part of them in cypher, were obtained at the French 
foreign office, and have not, it is believed, been hitherto 
published. The first is dated at Philadelphia December 2, 
1779, shortly after his arrival. 

"Other States are also taking steps to efface every badge 
of their former dependance. Massachusetts has just sub- 
mitted a new constitution to the people for ratification. It 
has seemed to me wise and proper to establish a good gov- 
ernment in that State. The authors of this Constitution 
have ventured to propose to their constituents the admis- 
sion of all religions which recognize the Old and New Tes- 
taments. This proposition, made to a people originally 
united in the most violent intolerance, who, at the time of 
their first establishment on this continent, attached corporal 
punishment to the exercises of the Catholic religion, and 
infamy to Quakerism, this proposition. Sire, occasions lively 
debate." He adds in cypher : "It seems to me that Europe 
would not desire that this spirit of tolerance should prevail 
on this occasion. Many other advantages invite to emigra- 
tion people who live under governments less happy than 
ours. Perhaps it is even to be feared that this spirit of em- 
igration might extend to the subjects of his Majesty when 
peace shall have opened communication." 

"I know that Congress has ordered its plenipotentiaries to 
engage good workmen and artists to come to America. I 
know also that several of these have presented themselves 
I to the Minister of the United States in Paris, and that they 

\ would have come to this continent under his auspices if he 

f had had the means to send them." {^Appejidix E.) 

I Under date of August 27, 1 781, in a further dispatch, he 

|: says: "That bill which concerns emigration appears more 

I and more to merit attention. I have spoken with each 

I member in particular about this matter, and although the 

f interests of the United States evidently militate against ours 

I in this affair, I hope to determine Congress to take more 



efficacious measures than those which are mentioned in the 
projected Convention." 

"Independently of the precaution to be taken in the 
Kingdom and on the Continent to prevent the emigration 
of His Majesty's subjects, it is indispensable that the gov- 
ernors of our islands should see to it that they should not 
become a medium of communication." {Appendix F.) 

In a later note he again alludes to the subject of emigra- 
tion and suggests methods for its prevention. On the i6th 
of January, 1780, he writes to his Government: 

* * *'The Union would be exposed to a prompt disso- 
lution if it were delivered up to the jealousy and hatred 
which are beginning to manifest themselves between the 
North and the South. * * I have encouraged our friends 
not to depart from the policy of maintaining that harmony 
which it is important for us to conserve between the States, 
-at least during the war." {Appendix G.) 

From a dispatch dated 11 September, 1781 : 

"A few days ago, Sire, Congress addressed to me a reso- 
lution in which the United States were mentioned before 
the King. I showed it to Mr. Thompson, Secretary of Con- 
gress, who told me it was the fault of a copyist, and that it 
would be corrected on the Journal, and would not occur 
again." {Appendix H) 

From another of 27 September, 1 781, occurs the follow- 

"I sounded, in a few private conversations, several mem- 
bers from the East and South touching the question of a 
dismemberment of the United States, the independence of a 
part and a submission of the others. I added that this 
would probably be the first point which the mediators would 
take into consideration, and however far such project might 
be from his Majesty's intentions, still as it is in the order of 
possibilities, I endeavored to render the idea less revolting 
and more familiar to the different delegations. I cannot 


flatter myself with having attained the sHghtest success. I 
was obh'ged to insist in these conversations on the fidelity 
of the King to his engagements under the alliance, and this 
was the only part of my insinuations which they would take 
into consideration, and in spite of the precautions with which 
I presented the idea of partial submission, it was rejected 
with horror, and classed among the things impossible." 
{AppeJidix I) 

This was doubtless news to the King, who did not desire 
the reconciliation of the Colonies with England, and also 
shows their fixed determination never to abandon the strug- 
gle for independence. 

The following dispatch of 13th June, 178 1, concerning 
instructions to John Adams, who had been appointed Min- 
ister to the Court of Great Britain to negotiate a treaty of 
peace, refers to the serious question of the western boundary 
of the United States, which was complicated by the claim 
of Spain (whose aid and alliance we were seeking) to the 
exclusive navigation of the Mississippi, and in fact all of the 
territory west of the AUeghenies. It should also be re- 
membered that Luzerne came invested with more ample 
powers than Mr. Gerard from his Court, and had also limit- 
ed authority from Spain to negotiate with the United States 
concerning territories and boundaries in America,* 

"The first point which presents itself is to determine what 
constitutes the territory of the thirteen states. There are 
three distinct opinions on this subject in Congress. A few 
delegates desired that the limits fixed in 1779 should not 
be deviated from, and that nothing new should be substi- 
tuted. Their opinions did not prevail. Others demanded 
that the Ohio should be designated in the ultimatum. They 
observed that it was the most natural limit, the least subject 
to change, and there were so many opinions in favor of this 
motion that its passage depended on me ; but I did not 

• Lossing, n, 650. 



I think it politic to urge Congress to fix anything concerning 

I this matter." 

; "It appeared to me that circumstances might arrive ren- 

I dering it necessary to extend the frontier further back, and 

I although the territory beyond that river is considered a 

I great sacrifice made to the desire for peace, I thought it 

better to fix nothing with precision. I contented niyself with 
I being assured that if the Ohio formed its Hmit the thirteen 

I States would not complain ; that they would even believe 

i themselves under obligations to the King for all which they 

1 might obtain beyond. That they would not reject the peace 

even if circumstances necessitated still greater conceptions, 
but that peace would be less agreeable in proportion to the 
deviation from this line. It is difficult to say how far this 
conception might be extended. I believe, however, that 
should circumstances compel the adoption as the limits the 
mountains which separate the rivers which flow into the 
Atlantic from those which flow westward, that peace w^ould 
i still be accepted and ratified, but that it would cause gen- 

eral complaint, that it would cool the ardor of our partisans, 
and that it would be difficult to persuade the Americans 
that their interests were not sacrificed.* [Appendix J }j 

Speaking of the opinions prevailing in different States re- 
garding the conditions of peace, he adds : 

"In regard to Massachusetts, she has never ceased, as 
usual, to oppose everything that we might desire. * * =^- 
Among the Northern States there is only Massachusetts, 
which, always faithful to its principles, sustains without dis- 
tinction the pretensions of each State from New Hamp- 
shire to Georgia, however exaggerated they may be." 

The following letter to the King, for his private instruction 
and not intended for publication, in view of some of its 
statements, is produced and read with much reluctance : 

♦ V. Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America, VH, p. 92. 



i "Philadelphia, 25 August, 1783. 

"This is, perhaps, Sire, the proper occasion to give you 
a sketch of the character of General Washington, such as 
the frequent occasions that I have had to treat with him 
permit me to understand it. 

"This man, whom his century, and perhaps posterity, will 
elevate to the rank of the greatest of heroes, and to whom 
his enemies deny even ordinary talents, does not appear to 
me to merit neither so much glory nor so little praise. He 
received from nature a bodily vigor which temperance and 
exercise have augmented, and the fatigues of war and office 
work have not been able to diminish. He was from birth 
impetuous and violent, and the murder of AI. de Jumonville, 
committed by his orders nearly thirty years ago, proves how 
little command he had over himself at that time. Reflec- 
tion and age have moderated his passions, and if his primi- 
tive character still gets the better of him sometimes, the 
public is ignorant of his storms, and only those who live 
near him witness them. 

"Seven years of command have not confirmed the belief 
that he possesses a great genius for war; but he is a good 
judge of talents, and he willingly listens to the counsels of 
men whose experience is known to him. He is, neverthe- 
less, jealous of the glory of execution, and his most intimate 
confidents have ceased to be such as soon as he was led to 
believe that the public attributed to them whatever was 
good in his own conduct. He is naturally undecided, and 
he has been known in critical moments unable to take a 
resolution and to have allowed himself to be agitated by 
the contradictory advice of those surrounding him. He 
loves glory and still more transient applause and popular 
favor. Sometimes to secure the latter he has sacrificed 
truth, and it was thus that he endeavored to throw back 
upon the French army the blame for the delay in the oper- 
ations which were to bring succor to Virginia. But these 


Spots were effaced by great qualities. If he has not rapid 
insight and promptitude, he has at least a healthy judgment, 
and he forsees with sufficient sagacity, and when he has 
time for reflection and examination it is rare that he is mis- 
taken. His bravery is worthy of remark because it is calm 
and such as should belong to a general, although at the 
beginning of the war it exceeded the limits of prudence. 
Although general of an army that is scarcely organized, 
commander of raw soldiers without experience, making war 
among people which are jealous of their liberty and of their 
property, as well as miserly in regard to the succor which 
the war demands, not even the slightest murmur has ever 
been raised against him. Political passions and civil dis- 
sensions have been roused to the highest pitch, but his 
character and reputation have preserved him from every 
attack. Having become the most powerful among his fel- 
low citizens, he has shown himself to be the most obedient 
subject and the most faithful to the orders of his masters 
[superiors]. * * * jf those who have known him inti- 
mately deny him all these rare and precious qualities which 
constitute a great man, they cannot, however, deny that it 
would be difficult to unite in a more eminent degree the 
most of those qualities which should belong to his position, 
and which were necessary for conducting the revolution to 
a happy end." (Appendix K.) 

The "murder," as Luzerne terms it, of M. de Jumonville 
refers to the death of that person in May, 1754, near Fort 
Necessity, during the war between England and France, in 
the assertion of their respective claims for territory on this 
continent. Washington, then lieutenant colonel, surprised 
and attacked a French force advancing against him under 
Jumonville, and, after a severe skirmish, with losses on both 
sides, captured twenty-one and killed ten of the Frenchmen, 
including Jumonville. It was about the first blow dealt 
during the war, and the French, in palliating their defeat, 


unjustly sought to villify the character of Washington, by 
chiiming as a massacre, sometimes as a "murder," an act 
clearly justified under the rules of war. There were jealousies 
between the commanders of the French and American forces, 
and charges were made— General Sullivan, at Newport, 
boldly expressing his dissatisfaction in general orders — that 
the French, and especially their fleet, had unreasonably 
failed to cooperate with our forces, where their cooperation 
was essential to avoid disaster and to insure success. Mutual 
recriminations ensued which required all the influence and 
prudence of Washington to repress. Instead of endeavor- 
ing, as stated by Luzerne, to throw back on the French 
Army and Navy the blame for their delay in bringing suc- 
cor, he labored diligently and successfully to heal the dis- 
contents their delay occasioned. 

Whilst the foregoing analysis of Washington's character 
differs widely from the current estimate and opinion both 
here and abroad, it is of interest and value as a contempo- 
raneous, a disinterested, though very inadequate and inac- 
curate portrait. Washington's merits and virtues, during a 
century and a half, have become crystalized in a character 
towering above all his associates, and reverence and grati- 
tude have surrounded his memory with a halo so bright 
that no spots are seen, and it has become difficult for his 
countrymen to realize that he was subject to mortal frailties. 

Luzerne county was erected into a separate county from 
the northern part of Northumberland by Act of 25th Sep- 
tember, 1786. 

Mr. Otto, the French Charge d'Affaires at New York, 
communicated the fact to his Government in the following 
dispatch : 

"The Legislature of Pennsylvania, Sire, wishing to hand 
down to posterity a testimonial of its gratitude for the ser- 
vices which the Chevalier de la Luzerne rendered to the Union, 
has just given his name to a new county." {Appendix L) 


A copy of the Act having been sent to him, the Cheva- 
b*er replied from Paris : 

"Sir: I have received the Act of Assembly of Pennsyl- 
vania and the letter you have honored me with, from which 
I learn that that State has condescended to give my name 
to one of its newly erected counties. It is impossible for 
me to explain the grateful sense I have of this distinguished 
favor. Having the advantage of a long residence in Penn- 
sylvania, I have been witness to all the acts of Patriotism 
and valor performed in that State, which contributed so 
much to American Independence. I have had the further 
advantage of a personal knowledge of the different members 
of your government and the opportunity of judging with 
what wisdom, prudence and firmness they have succeeded 
in establishing one of the best governments in the world. 
Lastly, Sir, my long residence, my inclination, and the honor 
just conferred on me, are ties which bind me inviolably to 
the State of Pennsylvania. 

"Be pleased, Sir, to assure the illustrious body you pre- 
side over of my veneration and respect, and permit me to 
renew the assurance of the attachment with which I have 
the honor to be, Sir, 

"your most humble and obedient Servant, 

"La Luzerne." 

"The lion, the Speaker of the General Assembly of Pennsylvania." 

Read in the General Assembly March lo, 1788. 

The Coat of Arms of the Luzerne Family attached to this 
paper consists of a Cross of Gold, anchored, in heraldic 
phrase, and embellished with five Cockle-shells in red, one 
on each arm, and one at the centre or junction, referring 
back probably to the ancestral Crusader, who, under the 
banner of the Cross, battled for the relief of the Holy Land.* 

In submitting the foregoing imperfect summary we have 

* D'azur a la croix ancree d'or, chargce de cinque ccquilles de guenlis. 


the confident assurance that, althou^di biography and tra- 
dition have not transmitted to us all we would like to know 
^ of this early friend of America, his name and memory have 

at least an enduring monument in the name of this grand 
old county of Luzerne. 

Annotations and Appendixes. 

In the preparation of his valuable paper on Chevalier de 
la Luzerne Judge Dana, at some expense and trouble, pro- 
cured from the Archives of the French Government in 
Paris, copies of such official correspondence of Luzerne as 
related to his duties in America. These have never before 
been made public. They are all included in Appendixes 
A, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L. It has been thought wise to give 
them here in the original French in elucidation of this ad- 
mirable sketch. The printed copies have been made with 
great care by myself, and are verbatim copies of those sent 
to Judge Dana, They have also been submitted to others 
more expert in the French of that day. For these copies, 
and also for the matter in Appendixes B, C, D, E, F and 
M, the annotator is alone responsible. h. e. h. 


From La Chenaya-Debois et Badier Dictionaire de La 
Noblesse : 

"Luzerne (la), Terre situee sur la bords du bailliage du 
Cotentin pres du Grand-Vey & qui a donne son nom a une 
des plus anciennes IMaisons de la Province de Normandie. 
Cette Briqucvillc, par la marriage de Francois de Brique- 
ville. Baron de Coulombierres, &c. (qui fut tue a Saint-Lo : 
en 1574) avec Gabrielle de la Luzerne, heritiere des Seigneu- 
ries de la Luzerne, de Percy & de Soules, fille de Jean de la 
Luzerne. Seigneur des memes Terres, & de Gironde de 

"On trouve un Thomas de la Luzerne, qui fut un des 
Chevaliers qui accompagnerent Robert, Due de Normandie, 
a laconquete de la Terre Sainte en 1096, 11 en est parti dans 


VHist. dc Norinandie, par du Moulin, Cure de Manncval ; 
iiiais Ic filiation ne sc trouvc bicn etablie que depuis." 

**No. I. Gillaume, Seigneur de la Luzerne, qui vivoit en 
1233, marie avec Florence de Manneville!' 

No. VI. Gillaume, Seigneur de la Luzerne, put maintenu 
dans sa noblesse, par Raymond de Montfort, Commissaire 
due Roi Louis XI, en 1453, il dcfendit le Mont-Saint Michel 
durant la guerre des Anglois, & y mouruit en 1458." 

No. XIV. Cc€sar-Antoine de la Luzerne, Comte de Ben- 
zeville, Seigneur de Houlte & du Moulin Chapel le, Mestre 
de camp du Regiment des Cuirassiers du Roi, Chevalier de 

Anne Caesar, third son of the preceding, was born on the 
15th of July, 1741, was a Knight of Malta. The eldest son 
was C^sar Hemy, Comte de la Luzerne, born on the 23d 
of February, 1737. 


Gouverneur Morris, in his Diary, writes thus of Luzerne 
in 1790: 

** The Comte de la Luzerne is an indolent, pleasant com- 
panion, a man of honor, and as obstinate as you please, but 
he has somewhat of the creed of General Gates, that the 
world does a great part of its own business, without the aid 
of those who are at the head of affairs. The success of such 
men depends very much upon the run of the dice." Under 
April 4, 1791, he records: "To-day I visited M. and' Mad- 
ame de la Luzerne. They received me d'auta?it viieux as 
that, being no longer minister, my attention cannot be sus- 
pected." — Diary and Letters, 1888, i, 282. 

In a letter from Thomas Jefferson to James Madison from 
Paris, July 31, 1788, he writes of the aforesaid sister of Lu- 
zerne : 

"The Marquis de la Luzerne had been for many years 
married to his brother's wife's sister secretly. She was ugly 
and deformed, but sensible, amiable, and rather rich. When 
he was Ambassador to London with ten thousand guineas a 
year, he relinquished his Cross of Malta, from which he de- 
rived a handsome revenue for life, and which was open to ad- 
vancement. Not loner agio she died. His real affection for 


her, whicli was great and unfeigned, and perhaps the loss of 
Ill's order for so short lived a- satisfaction, has thrown him 
almost into a state of despondency. He is now here." — 
Jefferson's Works^ Hi, ^^5. 

Arthur Lee, writing from Paris May 21, 1779, speaks 
thus of Luzerne : 

"M. de la Luzerne's family is among the best and most 
honorable of this country. He has been Minister to the 
Court of Munich, and is a gentleman of honor and ability, 
insomuch that the Court of Versailles seems to me in noth- 
ing to have shown its wisdom more than in sending, at this 
important moment, a Minister whose conduct is likely to 
correspond with his rank and character, and who will not 
descend to anything that may either dishonor himself or 
disturb us." — Sparks' Dip. Corr., ii, 24.^ ; Wharton, Hi, ijj. 

President Adams wrote to the Congress concerning him 
from Braintree, Mass., August 3, 1779, having just then re- 
turned from Paris : 

"The Chevalier de la Luzerne is a Knight of the Order of 
St. John of Jerusalem, of an ancient and noble family, con- 
nected by blood with many characters of principal name in 
the Kingdom — a grandson of the celebrated Chancellor de 
la Moignon ; a nephew of Monsieur Malesherbes, perhaps 
still more famdus as first President of the Court of Aids and 
as a Minister of State ; a brother to the Count de la Luzerne, 
and of the Bishop of Langres, one of the three Dukes and 
Peers who had the honor to assist in the consecration of 
the King ; a near relative of the Marechal de Broglie and 
the Count his brother, and of many other important person- 
ages in that country. Nor is his personal character less 
respectable than his connections, as he is possessed of much 
useful information of all kinds, and particularly of the polit- 
ical system of Europe, obtained in his late embassy in Ba- 
varia; and of the justest sentiments of the mutual interests 
of his country and ours, and of the utility of both of that 
alliance which so happily unites them, and at the same time 
divested of all personal and party attachments and aversions. 
Congress and their constituents, I flatter myself, will have 
much satisfaction in his negotiations. — Sparks, iv, Jio; 
Wharton, Hi, 2'/'/ ; Life and Works of John Adajns, vii, pp. 


In his Diary President John Adanis gives some interest- 
ing reminiscences of Luzerne. 

"Saturday, June 12, 1779. Last night the Chevalier de 
la Luzerne arrived and took lodging at the Epee Royale in 
a chamber opposite to mine, up two pair of stairs. He did 
me the honor * * "' to come into my chamber this morn- 
ing and invited me to dine with him in his chamber with 
my son. The Ambassador, the Secretary [Marbois], M. 
Chaumont, my son and myself made the company. 

"Thursday, 17. * * * Sailed about three o'clock in 
company with the Bonhomme Richard, Captain Jones. 

* * * The Chevalier has an apartment about 8 feet long 
and 6 wide upon the starboard side of the quarter deck. 
I have another of the same dimensions, directly opposite to 
him on the larboard. * * * The Chevalier is a large 
and a strong man ; has a singular look with his eyes, shuts 
his eyelids," &c., &c. 

"Thursday, 24. * * * 'How happened it,' said I, 'M. 
Marbois, that I never saw you at Paris?' 'You have,' said 
he. *Ay, where ?' said L T don't remember it?' T dined 
with you,' said he, 'at the Count Sarsfields.' I said there 
was a great deal of company, but that I had never seen any 
of them before, they were all strangers, but I remember the 
Count told me they were all men of letters. 'There were 
four ladies,' said M. Marbois, 'the handsomest of whom was 
the Countess de la Luzerne, the wife of the Count de la Lu- 
zerne. The Count himself was there, who is the eldest 
brother of the Chevalier de la Luzerne. There was another 
lady there, who is not handsome, and who never married. 
She is a sister.' 'She was the lady who sat at my left hand 
at table,' said I, 'and was very sociable. I was charmed 
with her understanding, although I thought she was not 
handsome. * * * And there was a bishop there who 
came in after dinner.' 'Yes,' said he, 'he is the Bishop of 
Langres, another brother of the Chevalier de la Luzerne.' 

* * * 'The Chevalier de la Luzerne,' said I, 'is of a high 
family?' 'Yes,' said M. Marbois, 'he is of an ancient family 
who have formerly had in it Cardinals and Marechals of 
France, but not lately. They are now likely to regain their 
splendor, for the three brothers are all very well at court.' " 
— Life and Works of Joint Adams, in, 222. 



Marshall, in his Diary, says under date of August 20, 
1779: "Roused out of bed by a person at the door with a 
letter from Paul Fooks dated the 17th, with newspaper of 
that date giving account of the arrival of the new French 
Ambassador, Chevalier de Luzerne, with his Secretary, and 
John Adams, Esq., in a French frigate of 32 guns." (p. 288,) 

Luzerne lived, during his residence in Philadelphia, at 
Laurel Hill, between the city and the present Laurel Hill 
Cemetery. The property was owned by Hon. Samuel Shoe- 
maker, one of the Mayors of the city, who was distinguished 
as a Royalist. His estate was confiscated. Laurel Hill 
was purchased by James Parr and leased to Luzerne for five 
years. — Penn'a Mag. His., it, i66-i6y ; vi, 264.. 

Sparks, in his brief notice of Luzerne, says : 
"From that time [November 17, 1779] to the end of the 
war he applied himself sedulously to the duties of his sta- 
tion, and by the suavity of his manners, as well as by the 
uniform discretion of his official conduct, he won the esteem 
and confidence of the American people. His efforts were 
all directed to the support of the alliance, on the principles 
of equity, and the broad basis of reciprocal interests estab- 
lished in the treaties." — Dip. Corr., x, jjp. 


This subject has been exhaustively treated in a pamphlet 
entitled "General Sullivan not a Pensioner of Luzerne (Min- 
ister of France at Philadelphia, i^j^-xyZi), with the Re- 
port of the New Hampshire Historical Society vindicating 
him from the charge made by George Bancroft," second 
edition, 8vo, pp. 73, Boston, 1875. Winsor, in vol. vii, 
Narrative and Critical History of the United States, appears 
to coincide with Bancroft as to Luzerne's influence over Sul- 
livan. An apparent confirmation of Bancroft's charges 
appears in a letter from Luzerne to Vergennes under date 
of May 13, 1 78 1, printed in the Magazine of American His- 
tory, xi, 156-160. A reply to this new matter by Thomas 
C. Amory, the biographer of Sullivan, will be found in the 
same volume, p. 353. 



M. de la Luzerne to his government: 

"Philadelpiiie, Ic 2 Decembre, 1779. 

"D'autres Etats prennent aussi les mesures propres a 
iffacer jusqu'aiix moindres traces de leurs ancinne depend- 
ence. Celui de Massachusett's vicnt de soumettre a la re- 
vision du peuple un projet de Constitution nouvelle, elle ma 
paru sage et propre a eteblir dans cet Etat un bon Gou- 
vernement. Les redacteurs ont hazarde de proposer a leurs 
constituants I'admission de toutes les religions qui recon- 
naisent I'ancien et le nouveau testament. Cette proposition 
faites a des peuples re-unis originairement par la plus vio- 
lente intollerance, qui lors de leur premiere establissment 
avaient attache des peines corporelles a I'exercise de la reli- 
gion Catholique et I'infamie de Quakerisme cette proposi- 
tion, Monseigneur, occasionne des vifs debats." 

[He continues in cipher] : 

"II me semble que I'Europe ne doit pas faire des veux 
pour que cet esprit de tolerance prevals en cette occasion. 
Assez d'autres avantagcs invitcnt deja aux emigrations les 
peuples qui vivent sous un gouvernement moins hereux que 
le notre. Pent etre meme est il a craindre que cet esprit de 
deplacement ne setende jusquaux sujets de La Majeste lors- 
que la paix aura ouvert les communications. 

"Je sais que le Congres a ordonne a ses plenipotentiaires 

* The documents in the French archives relating to American affairs during the 
Revolutionar>- period contain information of the first importance to the historical 
scholar. Mr. Bancroft says in a footnote to one of his volumes : " The dispatches of 
the French envoys at Philadelphia to their government contain the most complete 
reports which exist of the discussions in Congress from 1778 to the adoption of the 
Constitution in 178S. Congress sat, it is true, with closed doors, but the French min- 
isters knew how to obtain information on every proceeding that interestt-d their coun- 
try." Mr. Bancroft, however, did not find it practicable to make an exhaustive use of 
this valuable material ; and the emissaries of the French statesmen who came to Amer- 
ica before the regular envoys, sent home reports and personal sketches of still more 
dramatic interest, which until recently have occupied deep burial places in the French 
archives. Extracts from these documents, translated and edited by Mr. Durand, give 
many picturesque views of America and the Americans through French eyes. A 
French officer who returned to France in 1779 reports : "Let the political antipathies 
of individuals and the squabbles between state and slate be what they may. General 
Washington is the -A.tlas of .\merica and the god of the army. His authority is mild 
and paternal. He is probably the only man who could have effected a revolution. This 
great man hasonly one defect, very creditable to him— too much integrity for a paay 
leader." — Magazine 0/ American History. 


d'cngager des bons ouvrlcrs et artistes a passer en Amer- 
iquc. Jc sais aussi que plusicures se sont prcsentes au Min- 
istre des Etats Unis a Paris, ct qu'ils seroient passer dans ce 
continent sous ses auspices s'il avoit le moyen de leure faire 
des avances." 

M. Gerard writes to his Government on the 27th of Sep- 
tember, 1779: 

" Enfin Mgr. le congres a nomme ses Plenipotentiaires. 
M. Jay est destine pour I'Espagne et les pleins pouvoirs 
pour la paix sont confier a M. John Adams. M. Arthur 
Lee n'a eu sa faveur qu'une seul voix isolee. On doit de- 
main elire un President a la place de M. Jay. Le Choise 
de se Ministre ne laisse rien a desirer a beaucoup de lumieres 
et aux meilleures intentions il joint du caractere et un esprit 
liant et conciliant. Quant a M. Adams pe ne le connais 
point et il m'est connu que d'un petit nombres des membres 
actuels du Congres. II a la reputation d'etre honnete homme 
et la presomption qu'il vous est agreable a inducer sur les 
opinions. M. le Chevalier de la Luzerne a eu occasion 
pendant la traversee de Chemeler son caractere et ses senti- 
ments. II une semble Mgr. que les resultat de ses obser- 
vations est qu'il eut ete a desirer que les deux commissions 
eurient ete differement distribues." 


Luzerne to his Government : 

" PfllLADELPHIE, Aoijt. 27, I781. 

"Celui (article de loi) qui regarde les emigrations parait 
de plus en plus meriter attention. J'ai vu chaque d'elegue 
en particulier et quoque I'interet des Etats-Unis milite evi- 
dement contre le notre en cette circonstance, j'espere de- 
terminer le Congres a prendre des mesures plus efficaces 
encore que celles qui sont indiquees par le projet de con- 

"Independement des precautions a prendre dans le Roy- 
aume et dans ce Continent pour prevenir les emigrations 
des sujets de sa Majeste, il sera indispensable que les gou- 
verneurs de nos Isles veillent attentivement a ce qu'elles ne 
deviennent pointes de communication." 



M. de la Luzerne to his Government : 

" Phila., le i6 Janvier, 1780. 
* * * 'Tunion qui serait exposee a une prompte dis- 
solution, si elle etait liverait a la jalousie et a la haine qui 
commence a se manifeste entre le Nord at Ic Sud ^■■- ^ ^ 
de rharmonie qu'il nous nous importe de conserver entre 
les Etats au moins pendent la duree de la guerre, et j'ai fait 
encourage nos amis a ne pas s'en ecarter. [The policy of 
uniting New York, Pennsylvania and Delaware with the 
object of forcing the other States to maintain a union.]" 

"le 18 Mars, 1780. 
"J'ai dans divers circonstances fas dcs insinuations a quel- 
ques mcmbres du Congres relativement a la ratification que 
chaque etat en particulier pouverait donner des Traites par 
lesquelles ils sont Her aves nous, ils m'ont fait observer que le 
parti que la Mar^^and et la Virginia avaient pris a cet egard, 
etait lie a des circonstances extraordinaires." 


"le II Septembre, 1781. 
"II y a quelques jours, IMonseigneur, que Le Congres m'a 
addresse une resolution dans le quelles on avait nomme les 
Etats Unis a.vant le Roy. Je I'ai fait voir a Mr. Thompson 
secretaire du Congres, qui m'a dit que cette faute achappe 
a un copieste seroit corrigie sur les Journaux et n'auroit 
plus lieu." 


"le 27 Septembre, 1 78 1. 
"J'ai sonde, dans quelques conversations particulieres 
plusiers Delegues de Test du Sud touchant la question d'un 
demembrement des Etats Unis, de I'independance d'une 
partie et de la soumission Ic lautre. J'ai ajoute qu'il ete 
probable que se serait la un des premiers objets que les 
Mediateurs prendraient en consideration quelqu eloigne que 


ce projct solt des intentions de Sa Majcste cependant 
comme il est dans Tordere des possibilites. J'ai tache d'cn 
rendre I'idee moins revoltante et plus familieres a differ- 
entes delegations ; 'J^ "^ puis me flatter d'avoir atteints le 
plus leger succes ; oblige d'insister dans ces entretiens sur 
la fidelite du roi a ces engagements a I'alliance, ce le seule 
partie de mes insinuations a laquelle en s'attache, et malgre 
les precautions avec lesquelles, Je presente I'idee d'une 
soumission partielle, on la rejette avec horreur, et on la met 
au rang des choses impossibles.' " 


M. de Luzerne to his Government : 

"Juin I, 1781. 

"Je me suis explique confidentiellement avec plusieurs 
Delegues touchant le caractere de ce Plenipotentiaire [Ad- 
ams] J'en ai parle avec la reserve convenable au President qui 
fait de lui un cas particulier ; Je le fait convenir neanmoins 
du danger qu'il y avait de laisser une negociation de cette 
espere entre les mains d'un Ministre, qui par humeur on 
trop faible pour une commission de cette nature, pouverait 
faire perdre aux treize Etats I'occasion de conclure a des 
terms raisonables une paix dont ils ont un si grand besoin." 

Luzerne to his Government on the instructions to John 
Adams : 

"Juin 13, 1781. 

" Le premiere [point] qui se presente est de determiner 
ce qui constitue le Territoire des treize Etats. II y a eu 
trois opinions differents sur ce sujet dans le Congres ; quel- 
ques delegues voulaient qu'on ne se dcpartit point des lim- 
ites fixies en 1779, et qu'on ninovat rien a cet egard ; leur 
opmion n'a point prevales. D'autres demandaient qu'on des- 
ignat rOhio dans I'ultimatum ; ils observaient que c'etait la 
limite la plus naturelle, la plus sure, la moins sujette a variee 
etil y avaittantd'opinionen faveurde cette motion qu'il auroit 
dependu de moi de la faire passee, mais J'ai trouvee des incon- 
venients a engagee le Congres a rien determiner sur cette ma- 
tiere. II m'a paru qu'il pouvait se presenter des circonstances 


ou il faudrait reculer encore d'avantage Ic frontiere,et quoquc 
ron considere cc qui est au dela de cette riviere conimc un tres 
grand sacrifice fait au desir de la paix, J'ai pcnsc qu'il valoit 
mieux ne rien fixer avec precision. Je me suis contenter 
de m'assurer si I'Ohio forme cette limite les treize Etats ne 
se plaindront point qu'ils se croiront menu obliges au Roi 
de tout ce qu'ils obtienderont au dela ; qu'ils ne rejetteront 
pas la paix, si les circonstances ne necessitent des plus 
grandes concessions que cette pais sera moins agreable a 
mesure qu'on secartera de cette ligne. II est difficile de dire 
jusqu'on Ton pourrait etendre cette concession. Jc crois 
cependant qui si les circonstances parevient a adopter pour 
limites les montagnes qui separent les rivieres qui se jettent 
dans I'Atlantique, de celles qui secoulent a I'Ouest la pais 


" Philadelphie, Aoijt. 25, 1783. 

"C'est peut-etre, ici, Monseigneur, I'occasion de vous 
peindre le caractere du G'nl Washington tels que les fre- 
quents occasions que j'ai eu de traiter avec lui m'ont permis 
de la concevoir. Get homme que son siecle et peut-etre la 
posterite metteront au rang des plus grands heros et a qui 
ses ennemies refusent meme des talents ordinaires ne me 
parait meriter ni tant de gloire ni si plu d'eloges. II a regu 
de la nature une vigueur de corps que la temperance et des 
exercises ont fait augmenter et qui n'a pu etre diminuee par 
les fatigues de la guerre et les travaux du cabinet. 

*' II est ne impetueux et violent, et le meurtre de M. de 
Jumonville commis par ses ordres il y a pres de 30 ans 
prouve combien il avait alors peu d'empire sur lui meme; 
la reflexion et I'age ont modere ses emportements ; et, si 
son caractere domine encore quelquefois, le publique ignore 
ses orages et ceux qui vivent dans son intimite en sont les 
seules temoins. Sept annees de commandement n'ont pas 
donne lui de croire qu'il possede de les grands parties de la 
guerre; mais il est bon juge des talents et il ecoute volon- 
tiers les conseils des gens d'ont I'experience lui est connue. 
II est jaloux cependent de la gloire de I'execution et ses 
confidents les plus intimes ont bientot cesse de I'etre lors- 


quil a pu croire que le publiquc leur attribuait ce qu'il y 
avait de bon dans sa conduite. II est naturcllcment indecis, 
et on la vu quelquefois dans les moments critiques dont une 
battaile perdue est suivie ne savoir quelle resolution prendre 
et se laisser agiter par les conseils contradictoires de ccux 
qui I'environnaient ; II aime la gloire, mais plus encore les 
applaudissements passagers et la faveur populaire. 

" Quelquefois pour la conserver il a sacrific la verite et 
c'est ainsi qu'il cherche a repetter sur I'armee fran^aise le 
blame des retards qu' eprouvaient les operations projetties 
pour secourir la Virginie, mais ces tache5 sont effacies par 
des grandes qualities ; S'il n'a pas le coup d'Oeil et la 
eromptitude du genie; du moins il a un jugement sain et 
il prevoit avec assez de sagacite, et lors qu'il a le temps de 
la reflexion et de I'examen il lui arrive rarement de se trom- 
per. Sa bravoure merite d'etre remarque parce qu'elle est 
calme et telle qu'il convient a un general, quoique souvent 
au commencement de cette guerre elle I'ait entraine hor les 
bornes de la prudence. General d'une armee a peine organ- 
isee, commandant des soldats nouveaux et sans experience 
faisant la guerre chez des peuples et pour des Etats jaloux 
J de leur liberte et de leurs proprietes autant qu'avares des 

j secours que la guerre exige on n'a jamais entendu la moin- 

dre murmur contre lui. Les fureurs et les dissensions civ- 
|- iles ont ete portees a leur comble, mais son caractere et sa 

W; reputation Tont preserve de toute attaque contre sa personne. 

F " Devenue le plus puissant des tous ces concitoyens, il 

I s'est montre le sujet le plus obeissant et le plus fidele aux 

ordres des ses maitres, * * * Si ceux qui I'ont comme 
particulierement ; lui refusent toute les qualites rares et pre- 
I cieuses qui constituent un grand homme ils ne peuvent dis- 

convenir cependant qu'il etait difficile de rassembler dans un 
degree plus eminent la plupart de celles qui convenaient a 
sa position et qui etaient necessaire pour conduire la revo- 
lution a un hereuse fin." 

**Seroit encore acceptee et ratifiee, mais qu'elle occasion- 
neraites des plaintes genejrals qu'elle refroidirait nos parti- 
sans et qu'il serait difficile de persuader aux Americain que 
leurs interets n'ont pas ete sacrifices." 

Speaking of the opinions of the different States in regard 
to the conditions of the Peace, Luzerne continues : 

94 c?:ntknnial of luzerne county. 

"Quont au Massachusetts, il n'a ccssc suivant I'ordinaire, 
d'etre oppose a tout ce que nous sommes dans le cas de de- 
sirer. * * * jj j-j'y ^ parmi les Etats du Nord que le 
Massachusetts qui toujours fidele a ces principes, soutient 
sans distinction, les pretentions de chaque Etat depuis le 
New Hampshire, jusqu'a la Georgie quelques exageres 
qu'elles soient." 


M. Otto, Charge d'Affaires, announces to his Govern- 
ment, in his dispatch dated "New York, Sept. 20, 1786," 
that the State of Pennsylvania had given the name of la 
Luzerne to a new county. 

** L'Assemblee de Pennsylvania, Monseigneur, voulant 
faire passer a la posterite un temoignage de sa reconnoi- 
sance pour les services que M. le Chevalier de la Luzerne a 

I rendus a I'union, vieut de donner son nom a un nouveau 

I Comte." 


On the retirement of Luzerne a gold medal was ordered 
to be presented to him by the United States as a testimo- 
nial of the high esteem in which he was held as Minister 
from France. Thomas Jefferson, in a letter to William 
Short, April 30, 1790, gives the following directions relative 
to this matter : 

" It has become necessary to determine on a present 
proper to be given to diplomatic characters on their taking 
leave of us ; and it is concluded that a medal and chain of 
gold will be most convenient. I have, therefore, to ask of 
you the favor to order the dies to be engraved with all the 
dispatch practicable. The medal must be of thirty lines 
diametre, with a loop on the edge to receive the chain. On 
one side must be the arms of the United States, of which I 
send you a written description, and several impressions in 
wax to render that more intelligible ; around them, as a 


legend, must be 'The United States of America.* The de- 
vice of the other side we do not decide on. One suggestion 
has been a Columbia (a fine female figure) delivering the em- 
blem of peace and commerce to a Mercury, with a legend 
"Peace and Commerce" circumscribed, and the date of our 
republic, to wit, 4th July, M. D. C. C. L. XXVI, subscribed 
as an exergue ; but having little confidence in our own ideas 
in an art not familiar here, they are only suggested to you, 
to be altered, or altogether postponed, to such better device 
as you may approve on consulting with those who are in the 
habit and study of medals. Duvivier and Dupre seem to 
be the best workmen ; perhaps the last is the best of the 
two." (v. Thomas Jefferson's Works, iii, 142.) 

I have never yet been able to discover what further steps 
were taken in this matter. It is probable that the proposed 
medal was never struck. 

Csesar Anne de la Luzerne, French Envoy Extraordinary 
to Bavaria 1776, Minister to the United States 1 779-1 783, 
and Great Britain 178S-1791, received the honorary degree 
of Learned Doctor of Laws from Harvard College 178 1, 
and Dartmouth College 1782. For an account of his visit 
to Harvard 1779, ^^^ Moore's Diary of the Revolution, ii, 


Much of the correspondence of Luzerne wall be found in 
Sparks' Manuscripts, No. 90 Harvard College Library; 
Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America, vii, 57, 
&€., viii, 414 note, and 466. His official correspondence 
while Minister to the United States will be found in Sparks' 
Dip. Corr., x, 367-500, and xi, 3-193; Wharton's Dip. 
Corn, iii. 

For the estimation in which Washington held Luzerne 
see his correspondence with the Chevalier, Ford's Writings 
of Washington, ix, 254-483; x, 197; xi, 48, 215, 475; 
xii, 60. The letter. Vol. xi, 215, is a parting word ex- 
pressing Washington's high sense of his abilities and con- 
duct. For Franklin's estimate of Luzerne v. Bigelow's 
Complete Works of Franklin vi, 386, 416, 426. 



The following- unpublished letter of Luzerne was procured 
for Judge Dana by Mr. Hayden. It has no bearing on the 
career of the Chevalier in America, but is given here as an 
unpublished letter from Luzerne: 

"Versailles, ce 29 Octobre, 1778. 

"J'avais deja discuse, Monsieur le Comte, avec i\L de 
Macnemara la demande d'un second batiment, demande qui 
avoit ete anterieurement faite par les ambassadeurs. II scait 
que I'intention du Roi est de n'en donner qu'un seul. 

"Les ambassadeurs et leur suite ont dit eux-niemes en 
arrivant qu'ils s' etoient trouves parfaitement bien a bord de 
la petite corvette I'Aurore. II n'y aura en passagers qu'en- 
viron vingt Francois de plus sur la Thetys, fregate portant 
du 18 et ces hommes sont des artisans. 

"On veut accelerer le retour (d'apres la demande de Tip- 
po Sultan meme) et epargner sur la depense qui a ete jusques 
ici excessiv^e. 

"i. Une gabarre quelconque ne seroit pas aussitot armee 
que la fregate. II faudroit ou qu'elle retardat le depart ou 
qu'elle rejoignit M. de Macnemara, dont les retaches doivent 
etre tres courtes, vous me faites cette observation vous- 

"2. La marche de deux batiments n'est jamais aussi celere 
que celle d'un seul. Les Ambassadeurs usent et abusent 
de ce qu'on fait pour eux, ils demandent sur tout objet et 
sans bornes. Ils en ont use de meme a I'egard des provis- 
ions. L'Aurore ne portoit assurement pas cinq cents mou- 
tons et trois mille volailles vivantes. II n'y a qu'a en dim- 
inuer le nombre, sauf a suppleer dans les retaches. A leurs 
deux parents pres, leur suite est composee de gens d'un 
etat peu considerable, a qui leur religion permet de manger 
du ris, des legumes, que la Thetys parte, d'autant qui lorsque 
vous recevrez ma response elle sera prete a mettre a la voile, 
et vous verrez qu'en mer tout s'arrangera. 

" J'ai ete malade depuis huit jours. Daignez excuser la 
brievete de ma reponse,etagreer les assurances de I'attache- 
ment sincere avec lequel j'ai I'honneur d'etre, Monsieur le 
comte, votre tres humble, et tres obeissant serviteur. 

" La Luzerne." 



William Henry Egle, A. M., M, D., 
Honorary Member of this Society. 

SEPTEMBER 25, 1S86. 

Members of the Wyoviing Historical and Geological Society, 
Ladies and Gentlemen : 

It is only the fact that I have ever taken a deep interest 
in your history which induced me to accept your invitation 
to participate in the services of this day ; and I know not 
any subject so little understood as that upon which I pro- 
pose to occupy your attention — the aid rendered the Con- 
necticut settlers of Wyoming by the so-called ** Paxtang 
Boys," which I have entitled "The House of Lancaster to 
the Rescue." 

It is not my intention to give an account of the causes 
which led to the Wyoming controversy on the one side, 
or to the events which for a century dimmed the honor 
and glory of the frontiersmen of Paxtang and Hanover in 
the county of Lancaster on the other side. 

The Susquehanna Company was organized at Windham, 
Connecticut, on the i8th of July, 1753. In the Agreement 
of its members, they state they are "desirous to enlarge his 
Majesties' English Settlem^^ in North Am^ & further to 
spread Xtianity, as also to promote our own temporal 
Ii-jj-sts." 'pj-jg j^g|- sentence, no doubt, presents the true 
cause, as it has been through ages ; the welfare of the indi- 
vidual leads him into unknown seas, and dark, impenetrable 
forests. Your ancestors, like my own, came here to better 
their "temporary interests" — neither the enlargement of his 
"Majesties' Settlements" nor the "spread of Christianity" 


being thought of. In looking back over their history wc 
cannot find that they were a whit more loyal or holier in 
their lives than their descendants who gladly bid adieu to 
friends and this lovely Valley, if the plains of the Far West, 
or the vine-clad slopes of the distant Sierras hold up to 
their visions the golden prospects of improving their "tem- 
poral interests." 

Those stern warriors of the French and Indian war, Dur- 
kee, and Butler, and Ransom, with a goodly company of 
enterprising men, found their way into the so-called "pur- 
chase" on the 8th of February, 1769. They also found the 
agents of the Proprietaries who had the month previous 
preceded them into the Valley, locating in the abandoned 
and desolated cabins of the first settlers who had been driven 
away by the marauding Indians six years before. Their 
presence boded no good to the Connecticut pioneers, who, 
amidst the privations of a severe winter, were the advance 
guard who came to regain their homes wrested from them 
by savage brutality. I need not rehearse the struggle of 
that year, of the treachery of the hirelings of the Provincial 
government, of the sympathy of the frontiersmen who de- 
spised Quaker rule and feudal sycophancy — nor of the ex- 
odus of those devoted people driven from their homes into 
the wilderness beyond. Miner and Pearce and other writers, 
with more graphic pen, have described the sufferings, pri- 
vations and struggles of that eventful period in your settle- 
ment. It forms one of the most disgraceful chapters in 
Pennsylvania's Provincial history. 

The return of the Connecticut settlers aroused their com- 
panions, who were preparing to follow them to Wyoming, 
into the most active and earnest efforts to recover possession 
of their homes and property. At this juncture overtures 
were made by the so-called Paxtang men. The latter were 
in a state of uneasiness, from the fact that having made 
themselves obnoxious to the proprietary government, there 


was little sympathy for it. They tendered their services to 
Major Durkee, who referred the subject to the officers of 
the Susquehanna Company. The latter promptly replied. 
Mere is what they say : 

"Colony of Connecticut, 

''Windham, Jan^' 15, 1770. 
"John Montc^omcry & Lazarus Young, Esqrs, : 

^^Gentle\^, We received a letter some time ago directed 
to Major John Durkee, wherein it was proposed by John 
Montgomery, Lazarus Young, and others, that as we have 
been so unjustly treated, in removing our Settlers off from 
the Wyoming lands, that if we would give unto the said 
Montgomery, Young, and their Associates, to the number 
of Fifty, a township of land, six miles square, in our pur- 
chase Att some suitable and commodious place, that the 
said Montgomery, &c., to the number of Fifty, would im- 
mediately enter on our lands at Wyoming, Take cair of our 
houses and effects, and with our people that are there, and 
as such as shall from time to time joyn them on said land, 
and hold possession of those lands with us. We have with 
the advice of a large Comm^^^ of said Company considered 
of s'd proposal, and do, in behalf of ourselves and the Sus- 
quehanna purchase, agree to, and with the said Montgom- 
ery, Young, and their associates, to the number of Fifty, 
that they shall have a good township of land of six miles 
square, within s'd purchase, invested with the same right to 
s'd township as the s'd Company now have, and shall fur- 
ther promise to be laid out when it shall be convenient for 
the purpose aforesaid and not so as to prejudice but in aid 
of our settlers, that have already been on. And it is to be 
understood that the said Montgomery, Young, &c., are to 
become parcel of our said settlers, and under the same reg- 
ulations with our settlers as such. And we have sent here- 
witli two of our proprietors as a Comm^^^ to treat with you 
on the affair and go with you to Wyoniing, to wit : Capt. 




Zcbulon Butler and Mr, Ebenezer Backus, and to lay out \ 
said township as they and you shall agree, if you think 
best; — Capt. Butler to remain at Wyoming with you, Mr. I 
Backus to return, and bring us advice as soon as the cir- | 
cumstances of the case will permit. You may expect Ma- j 
jor Durkee to join you as soon as his affairs will permit; | 
and v/hereas many of the Settlers will joyn you soon, we | 
have a good deal of reason to expect success with our As- | 
sembly in May. I 

"Now as there are sundry things in favor of the Colony ;;■ 
title that we have discovered lately, we wish you good sue- | 
cess in this and every lawful enterprise; and are your sin- 
cere friends and 

"Very humble Servants, 

(Signed) "Eliphalet Dver, 

"Sam^ Gray, 
"Nath'- Wales, Jun., 
"Comm^^^ for s'd Company." 

Some of the original signers did not leave Paxtang, but 
their places were taken by others. The first named, to 
whom this proposition w^as addressed, John Montgomery, 
located on the West Branch, where his descendants are to- 
day. However, acting promptly, about forty brave men, 
with all possible celerity, hastened to the relief of Wyo- 
ming. The most of them belonged to that daring band 
who checked forever Indian marauding and savage murder 
south of the Blue Mountains, by effectually wiping out the 
nest of red vipers on Conestoga Manor, in December, 1763. 
Hunted and hounded, with munificent rewards for their 
leader's capture, the Quaker government (I mean the As- 
sembly which controlled affairs, three-fourths of whom were 
members of the Society of Friends) became their enemies. 
The\' loved their frontier home, its cultivated fields and 
meadows, which for twenty-five years formed the barriers 


between the perfidious and treacherous Shawancsc warriors 
to the westward with the no less blood-thirsty Iroquois or 
Six Nations to the northward, and the peace-loving (?) 
Quakers who seemed to hate the very name of Scotch-Irish 
Presbyterians, which these Paxtang men were. But "for- 
bearance ceased to be a virtue," and taking with them cer- 
tain adventurous spirits of the neighborhood, they accepted 
at once the overtures of the Susquehanna Company. It 
was the beginning of February when they appeared in the 
Valley. They immediately "ousted" the few Pennamitcs 
from their comfortable quarters in Fort Durkee, allowing 
them to depart in peace. Samuel Parsons of Connecticut 
(afterwards General Samuel, of the Revolution), under date 
of March 12, 1770, writing to Capt. Zebulon Butler at 
Wyoming on Susquehanna, congratulating him on his suc- 
cessful expedition to Wyoming with two hundred settlers, 
sends his compliments to the Paxtang boys, stating that he 
"is under obligations to them for saving the settlers from 
the rapacious mouths of the grasping Pennsylvania propri- 

A protracted struggle now arose, the Provincial banditti 
hastily returning to the Valley fully armed and equipped 
for the contest, under the command of Captain Ogden, one 
of the agents for the Philadelphia land speculators ; the 
Connecticut settlers, with their Paxtang adherents, being 
led by that bold and courageous officer, Major Durkee. 
No man in all your early history was more feared by the 
the Provincial authorities, and it is somewhat surprising, 
that having him once in custody, the usual vigilance was 
relaxed and he allowed to escape from the Philadelphia jail 
where he was confined. Perchance, like a famous prisoner 
of State at the close of the war for the Union, the authorities 
found they had an "elephant on their hands" and opened every 
avenue which would invite his escape, ]\Iajor Durkee was a 
most formidable opponent of Pennsylvania rule, and although 


Miner states that his imprisonment cooled his ardor and he 
left Wyoming-, he seems to liave taken new inspiration, and 
until the eve of the War for Independence, continued a bold 
and defiant leader. 

On the 29th of April, 1770, Ogden was compelled to ca- 
pitulate, but left the Valley only to return at some unguarded 
moment. In the following autumn the Proprietary troops 
were the dominent party in the contest, and for the fourth 
time in the history of Wyoming came the expulsion of the 
Yankee settlers. And where was Stewart? 

Escaping from the snares laid for his arrest when on a 
visit to his home in Hanover, whence he had gone for the 
purpose of removing his family and effects to Wyoming, in 
December of that year, Captain Stewart and his Paxtang 
boys came upon the Pennamite garrison at Fort Durkee. 
After a desperate encounter they took possession of the 
fortification "in the name of Jehovah and the Colony of 
Connecticut." The Pennamites were no less vigorous. 
Wrought to desperation, and with the reinforcement of a 
hundred men or more, they renewed the struggle until vic- 
tory again perched upon their banners, while once more the 
Connecticut settlers became wanderers upon the mountains. 

In April, 177 1, the no less chivalrous Zebulon Butler, 
with Captain Stewart and his men, together with an in- 
creased force of new emigrants, descended upon the Pro- 
prietary troops. Reinforcements came to their assistance, 
but were swept from the Valley, until worn out by the un- 
equal contest, the besieged of Fort Wyoming surrendered 
to the intrepid Butler and brave Stewart, thus sundering 
forever the last military foothold in the Valley. 

Then began the low rumbling of that Colonial and Pro- 
vincial unrest which preceded the W^ar of tlie Revolution. 
Peace and Plenty rewarded the Connecticut settlers, until, 
like a cyclone, came the British and tories with their savage 
allies, and swept over "fair W^yoming." Your historians — 


Miner and Pearce, Chapman and Jenkins, Plumb, Wright, 
HolHster and others — have gone over that sad story of July 
3, 1778, until it has awakened the sympathy of the civiHzed 
world, nerved the arm of the painter, and fired the soul of 
the poet. It was on that terrible day that the bold and de- 
fiant partizan leader, Capt. Lazarus Stewart, with many of 
his brave associates from Lancaster, fell. The blood of 
those patriots have spinkled the door-posts of beautiful 
Wyoming, and never more will the angel of destruction 
tarry within it. 

And now, who were these heroes of the "House of Lan- 
caster" who, in the hour of peril and dire extremity, came to 
your relief? 

There were four Stewarts, all closely related — Captain 
Lazarus, James, William and Lazarus, junior. The first 
three belonged to the "Paxtang Boys," and all were natives 
of Hanover and of Scotch-Irish descent. 

Joseph and John Neal were natives of Ireland, coming to 
America with their father, John Neal, an early settler in 
Paxtang. They entered into the Revolutionary contest, 
and at its close possibly went to Western Pennsylvania. 

Robert and Pet^r Kidd, sons of Alexander Kidd, were 
natives of Hanover, and with Lazarus Young were closely 
related to the Stewarts — the latter a full cousin. 

Thomas and John Robinson, brothers, were natives of 
Derry, while John Simpson, a native of Paxtang, where his 
father had settled as early as 1720, was a brother of Gen. 
Michael Simpson of the Revolution, and a brother-in-law 
of Rev. John Elder, the revered Presbyterian minister of 
Paxtang and Derry from the year 1737 until the period of 
his death in 1792. 

George Espy, whose name appears incorrectly in your 
early records as Aspen or Aspey, was also of Scotch-Irish 
extraction, and a native of Hanover. He was the ancestor 
of some of your citizens of to-day. 


John McDonnel was the son of William McDonnel, an 
early settler in Paxtang. It is more than probable that he 
left Wyoming prior to the Revolution. 

John Laird, George Mease and John Stille were all na- 
tives of Hanover. Descendants of these heroes of a century 
ago are scattered in the country west of the Alleghenies. 

Thomas French, son of James French, an early settler, 
was born in Hanover, Lancaster county. His family re- 
moved to Western Pennsylvania, and thence to Ohio. He 
was about forty years of age when he hastened to the res- 
cue of the Wyoming people. And it may be here stated 
that the men who came hither were not venturesome youth, 
but persons in the prime of life, who were actuated by the 
sincerest motives and the promptings of the faith within 
them which conceded liberty of conscience and justice to all. 

Matthias Hollenback is a name with which you are all fa- 
miliar. He came with his father, John Hollenback, to 
Hanover, Lancaster county, as early as 1760, from "Falk- 
ner Swamp," where the first of the family settled, and where 
he was born. He was baptized at Lebanon, Pa., April 23, 
^753- Of German descent, it is surprising to us that John 
Hollenback located in the midst of the Scotch-Irish settle- 
ment, and the interests of himself and family become so 
thoroughly indentified with that sturdy yet restless race. 
The father subsequently removed to the southward, and 
hence arose the fact of your historian (Miner) giving to 
Matthias a Virginia origin. The authority seems to be 
conclusive that he was of Pennsylvania birth. His name 
and fame are so brilliantly interwoven with your history 
that no words of mine can add to his renown as one of the 
noblest of Wyoming's citizens. 

Time will not allow me to refer to others who were con- 
nected with this band of heroes. Some remained in the 
homes secured by strife and bloodshed, while others, 
wearied with years of litigation, wandered off to lands far 


more inviting because peaceable — either to the Genesee 
country to the north, or to the broad acres west of the Al- 
leghenies. You may call them "filibusters" and sneer at 
their deeds, but so were your Connecticut ancestors. I 
have not so denominated them, for they were worthies of 
the grandest type, and you may well be proud of them and 
of your heritage. 

The men of Lancaster did well. They deserve all the 
meed of praise I can give them, from that bold, defiant ranger, 
Captain Lazarus Stewart, down to the most peaceable. Ye 
who are descendants of those early settlers from the Valley 
of the Connecticut cannot too highly appreciate their ser- 
vices rendered your fathers in this charming Valley a cen- 
tury or more ago. Their hatred for the timid and lame 
poHcy adopted by the Quakers, who were the controlling 
element in Provincial affairs, and which held the Scotch- 
Irish Presbyterians as heretics of the worst kind, religiously 
and politically, was only in keeping with the supreme con- 
tempt the W}'oming settlers had for manorial rights and 
the squatter sovereignty under land jobbers. The Hessians 
of Provincial times were as abhorrent as the Hessians who 
fought British battles for British gold at Trenton and Prince- 
ton. My views may not be always orthodox, or rather not 
altogether consonant with those held by the great majority, 
but, in the light of the new revelation of Pennsylvania his- 
tory, unbiased by local prejudice, I have endeavored to say 
naught save that which I believe honest and true. 




William Penn Miner, Esq. 

SEPTEMBER 25, 1886. 

Mr. Preside7it : In accepting an invitation to prepare 
and read a paper upon the Progress of Printing in Luzerne 
before this Society upon the one hundredth anniversary of 
the organization of the county, the fact was not so forcibly 
presented, as now, that my personal and practical connec- 
tion with the mechanical part of this '^ Art preservative of 
all arts'' covers more than half the century. 

In 1832 a small, unpainted one story and a loft printing 
office stood at the corner of Franklin and Northampton 
streets, in Wilkes-Barre, on the site of the residence of Mrs. 
Isaac Smith Osterhout. Mr. Eliphalet Worthington was 
foreman of the office, and a young man from the borders of 
Chester county, along the Schuylkill river, was apprentice, 
bearing a cognomen little suited to a ''Reverend," and the 
young man is now the Rev. Edwin Rinehart, the venerable 
pastor of a Presbyterian church in Elizabethport, N. J. 

Under the teaching of Dr. Nicholas Murray, then the 
eloquent pastor of the Presbyterian church of Wilkes-Barre, 
Mr. Rinehart was induced to study for the ministry, and a 
journey to West Chester was necessary, as representative 
of Asher Miner in the office here, to secure release from 
his last year's apprenticeship. The journey was made on 
horseback, and I returned with him, on a young horse 

• This brief paper is ail that can be found of Mr. Miner's address, which at the time 
of delivery was much more extensive and complete. 



[ which Mr. Miner desired to place on his farm near Wilkes- 


The ride of four or five days on horseback from West 
Chester, in the mild September of 1832, was charming. 
We had the freedom of the land across country, from the 
Schuylkill, near which Mr. Rinehart bade farewell to his 
home, to the hills of the Lehigh at Bethlehem, enjoying 
the autumn fruits and new cider of Chester, Montgomery, 
Bucks and Lehigh counties. 

Jogging through the then quiet and quaint old town of 
Bethlehem, in the early morning, the weird music of trom- 
bones, floating in mournful cadences upon the air, drew 
attention to the performers upon the Moravian church 
tower, where we saw them speeding the departing spirit of 
a townsman with a requiem. Wilkes-Barre's older inhab- 
itants will remember the custom of tolling the bell in the 
graceful tower of our old church on the Square, and the 
separate, distinct blows at the close which told the restless 
listener, even at midnight, the age of the passing neighbor. 

Then the bleak hills of the Blue Ridge and Pocono 
mountains, with the great spectral pine trees, relics of devas- 
tating forest fires of former years, standing grim, leafless 
and stern, as if defying Time. You who never felt the ap- 
petite of the Pocono and enjoyed a breakfast or supper at 
Bill Sax's, can have had no adequate compensation in a 
ride through Central Park, or lunch in the best restaurant 
in the city. 

It must have been about the 20th of September when we 
reached Wilkes-Barre. The following day occurred the 
funeral of Mr. Arnold Colt, who had lived in the house at 
corner of River and Union streets, now owned and occupied 
by Dr. C. F. Ingham. 

Promoted from the office of assistant devil and paper- 
folder in the " Village Record'' office at West Chester, I 
took the place vacated by Mr. Rinehart as head Imp of the 


Ink Balls in the office of the " Wyomhig Herald',' printed 
and pubHshed by Asher Miner and Steuben Butler, at two 
dollars a year. 

In what particular crypt the memory of that little old 
printing house was preserved may never be known. The 
probability is that it is exclusively my property, as the once 
familiar faces about it are known no more in human circles. 
The senior proprietor has been at rest much more than forty 
years. Our valued friend, Steuben Butler, the junior pro- 
prietor, left us on August 12, 1881, lacking very few years 
of a full century. A short time before his final departure, 
in company with his son, C. E. Butler, and his warm friend, 
Timothy Parker, he was persuaded to ride out as far as 
Plains and break bread at the old Wright and Miner home- 
stead. As we returned to town the place of his birth was 
visited the first time in many years. The house stands near 
the Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad (Nanticoke branch), 
a mile east of the Public Square. He expressed pleasure 
in the excursion ; referring to the fact that he had been en- 
tertained by the son of his old master with whom he had 
learned his trade and with whom he had been partner in 
business so many years ago. 

The press in the Herald office was known as the Ram- 
age press, the same pattern as that used by Dr. Franklin, 
which is in the Patent Office at Washington. It held 
two pages of the paper in type, to which ink was applied by 
two balls of buckskin stuffed with wool, held, one in each 
hand, by the Imp, who, by practice, became proficient in 
taking ink and distributing it and in applying to the forms 
as rapidly as the pressman could prepare the sheets of white 
paper and have them properly laid when printed. The im- 
pression was made by a screw motion as the pressman 
rolled the bed of the press under the platen, bringing down 
the frisket, upon which the white paper was held by the air, 
until closed on the tympan just in time to escape the platen 




in rolling under it, and the right' hand of the pressman 
seized the rounce, or lever, and by a backward motion of 
body and hand pressed one page, and rapidly raising the 
impression, rolled the next page under, and again the rapid 
motion backward, and release, when the bed was rolled out 
and the perfected sheet placed upon the proper pile. The 
frame of the press was of wood. 

The art was at that time further advanced in West Ches- 
ter, the Washington press being used, requiring but one 

I motion for impressing the whole form, frame of iron and 

power applied by a joint, a "toggle joint," the motion sim- 
ilar to that of the Ramage. Ink was applied from composi- 

1 tion rollers set in a movable frame, just as it is appHed now 

to all modern presses. The boy folded the papers, the me- 
chanical folder being a modern invention. 

Among the bound volumes of old Luzerne newspapers 
in my library, the first to present its open page was the 6th 
volume. No. i, of the '' Republican Farmer ajid De^nocratic 
Journal,'' published by Benjamin A. Bidlack and John Ath- 
erholt, Wednesday, September i8, 1833. Full of fight 
against the United States Bank and Nick Biddle. This 
book contains volumes 6, 7, 8 and 9, to August 30, 1837. 
With the opening of the 8th volume Mr. Bidlack retired 
and went upon the Republican ticket for Assembly with 
Thomas Smith. In November 1 1, 1835, it is announced that 
"The proprietors of the 'Farmer' have purchased the es- 
tablishment of the ' Stisqiiehanna Democrat.' " Messrs. 
Christel and Schmoele had purchased it from Rafferty & 

December 7, 1836, Mr. H, Webb announces that the 
*' Farmer" is "printed and published by him for the proprie- 
tors," and on April 12, 1837, "By S. P. Collings" appears at 
the head, and the new editor takes the helm with an admi- 
rable address, and he made an able and independent jour- 


nalist. His name appears at its head through the next 
book, ending with September i6, 1840. Benjamin A. Bid- 
lack for Congress and Hendrick B. Wright for Assembly. 

Among the changes was January 8, 1834 : " 'The Wilkes- 
Barre Anti-Masonic Advocate' has been transferred by EH- 
jah Worthington to E. B. Worthington, a brother." 

The volumes of the " Wyoming Herald''' I have, bound, 
from 1818, to P>iday, September 7, 1821. The numbers for 
1832 must be exceedingly interesting. Mr. Beaumont was 
candidate for Congress in that year. The ''Farmer' of 
1834 is ardent in his support for re-election. But in 1832 I 
was part of the political machinery, inking the forms, and 
have some recollection of the excitement attending the can- 

The Whig candidate was Dr. Thomas W. Miner, whose 
name was at the head of our columns. There was opposi- 
tion to Mr. Beaumont in the Democratic party. He was 
an able man, very determined as a leader, and of course 
made enemies. The opposition centered on Mr. James Mc- 
Clintock, a rising young lawyer at the Luzerne Bar. 

The district was composed of Luzerne and Columbia 
counties, both much larger than now, and much less popu- 
lous. In searching for the returns of this election of 1834 
I find, sandwiched between the dates October 15 and Octo- 
ber 29, a copy of the "Farmer'' of October 21, 1835, with 
the returns of election of that year. The total vote of the 
three candidates for Governor was less than four thousand. 
Henry A. Muhlenburg, regular Democratic candidate, had 
1886; George Wolf, Independent Democrat, had 618; Jo- 
seph Ritner, Whig, had 1488. Total, 3992. 

The absence of the returns of election for 1832, and of 
reportorial and editorial remarks, relegates the subject of 
this exciting contest to my long pent up memory. There I 
find a barely legible record, but sufficient for an introduc- 
tion. There it is figured out in the first rough estimates 


that Dr. Miner was successful, and so far, beyond doubt, 
the prospective member, that his impatient friends gathered 
about him for suitable recognition of their services. He 
responded and had a jolly time. 

Sufficient allowance had not been made for the popularity 
of Mr. McClintock among the disaffected in Luzerne, and 
with the Whig element, who never had hope but in Demo- 
cratic revolts. Majorities came in most unexpectedly for 
the opposition Democrat, and a few hours served to elect 
him. Mr. McClintock was now surely elected, and in his 
turn responded socially, surrounded by all the opposition 
to Beaumont, ready for a jollification at anybody's expense. 
That touch of nature which makes the whole world kin, 
renders mankind magnanimous on such occasions. 

Under the warming influence of many smiles the member 
pro tern, sought his home, and on the way called for his 
wife at a social gathering on River street, and, unable to re- 
press his exultation, called out aloud as he entered the room: 
"My dear, to-night you wall sleep with a member of Con- 

Alas ! for the morning and the snail-paced returns from 
mountain districts of Columbia county, always to be de- 
pended on for loyaty to the regular Democratic ticket, Mr. 
Beaumont was elected to stay. 

The " Wyoming HeraW was established by Steuben 
Butler in 1818, succeeding the ''Gleayier!' I have it bound 
from Friday evening, September 18, 18 18, to September 7, 
1 82 1, No. 52 of Vol. 3. Mr. Pearce, in his interesting An- 
nals of Luzerne, says : "It was enlarged in 1828, and pub- 
lished by Butler and Worthington until 183 1, when Mr. 
Worthington withdrew and Asher Miner became associated 
with Mr. Butler. In 1833 it passed to Eleazer Carey and 
Robert Miner, son of Asher. In 1835 it was merged in the 
* Wyoming Republican', established by Sharp D. Lewis, 
Esq., at Kingston in 1832. Edited with ability by that gen- 


tleman until 1837, when the press and material were sold 
to Dr. T. W. Miner and rcDiovcd to Wilkes-Barre. Dr. Tvl., 
in conjunction with Miner S. Blackman, edited and pub- 
lished the 'Republican' until 1839, when it was purchased 
by S. P. Collings and united with the 'Republican Farmer' " 

Mr, Pearce is correct as to the final disposition of the pa- 
per, but in error as to dates, as I have several volumes 
bound dating from January 11, 1837, "New Series, Vol. i. 
No. I," under M. S. Blackman and A. S. Tilden, still in 

April 19 Mr. Henry Webb became an associate, and the 
''Republican'' was published by Webb and Blackman until 
May 16, 1838, when Mr. Blackman became sole publisher 
and continued until April 3, 1839, still in Kingston, when 
the sale to Mr. Collings was announced. 

The purchase by Dr. Miner served to introduce him to 
the democracy, and it was his pleasure to antagonize x^Ir. 
Beaumont until the transfer to Mr. Collings made things 
peaceable. They were always personal friends, and the 
Doctor was the family physician at Mr. Beaumont's. 

I am admonished that this paper must, hke 

" Th' adventure of the Bear and Fiddle, 
Be sung, but break off in the middle." 

It is but the beginning to an introduction of our subject. 

Of papers prior to the "Herald" I have "The Wilkes- 
Barre Gazette',' 1797- 1800; "The Luzerne Federalist^' 
1801 to 1811; "The Gleaner;' 1811 to 1818. 

To do justice to the subject and to our Society it will 
require weeks of careful research to arrange and condense 
within reasonable compass. 




Sidney Roby Miner, Esq., 

Recording Secretary of the Society. 


Isaac Barre, the orator, the soldier, the statesman, and 
the friend of the American colonies, was born in Dublin, of 
French parents, in the latter end of 1726. The fact that 
Colonel Barre was one of the two men after whom the city 
of Wilkes-Barre was named will undoubtedly make the sub- 
ject of his life one of special interest to the members of this 
Society. The township of Wilkes-Barre, one of the original 
seventeen townships laid out by the Connecticut settlers in 
Wyoming Valley, was surveyed, according to one authority,* 
in 1769, by Colonel John Durkee, according to others, in 
1770, by David Meade. All authorities agree, however, in 
stating that it was named in honor of Colonel John Wilkes and 
Colonel Isaac Barre. Colonel Durkee, who laid out the town 
plot of Wilkes-Barre, had served in the French and Indian 
War. A local historian,! engaged in writing a history of 
Wilkes-Barre, who has had access to original documents re- 
lating to the early history of this valley which were unknown 
to any of the earlier writers of Wyoming history, relates that 
Colonel Durkee and Colonel Barre were fellow officers in the 
Cape Breton and Quebec campaigns, and warm friends ; that 
the former originated the name of Wilkes-Barre and first ap- 
plied it to the settlement. The fact of his acquaintance and 
association with Barre, are sufficient to explain his desire to 
commemorate his comrade's deeds in the name of the new 

* O. J. Harvey, Esq. 


town. His giving Wilkes the more prominent place in the 
combination — so much so that Barre's connection with it 
has frequently been lost sight of entirely and the name has 
been spelled Wilkesbury, Wilkesberry and even Wilkes- 
burg — is perhaps not so easily explained. If we remember, 
however, that Wilkes was chiefly known on this continent 
as a friend of the colonists (perhaps without reason), and 
looked upon as a martyr to the cause of English liberty, 
that in all probability little or nothing was known of his real 
character or mode of life, and that the cry of " Wilkes and 
Liberty " taken up on both sides of the Atlantic made him 
the most conspicuous, if not the best known man in England, 
while the name of Barre, the dignified patriot, had been 
almost forgotten, we can better understand the motives 
which prompted Colonel Durkee to choose the name he 
did. His warm, personal feeling for Barre is further shown 
in his naming his son after him. 

It would probably surprise a stranger to find how little is 
known here of the men after whom our city was named — 
especially of Barre. From the fact that the Encyclopa:sdia 
Britannica contains no sketch of him, and scarcely the men- 
tion of his name,* and the fact that in the few biographical 
encyclopaedias where he is mentioned, only the merest out- 
lines of his career are given, it might be inferred that he 
was a man of no prominence and little influence. On the 
contrary, he was, in his day, not only conspicuous and 
prominent, but a man of influence and power, feared and 
respected by his opponents for his talent, his oratory, his 
invective and his courage, and loved by his friends for quali- 
ties which are not dwelt upon by his biographers, but which 
may be inferred from his associates and their devotion to 

John Britton, believing that he had unusual opportunities 
and facilities for the purpose, set about to discover the author 

• Encyclopsedia Britannica, vol. xix, page 140, 


of the " Letters of Junius," and having, as he thought, found 
liini in Colonel Barre, wrote a book,* or as he called it, an 
"essay" for the purpose of proving his theory. In this 
book he affirms that Barre was " one of the most celebrated 
men of the last century, remarkable and influential in the 
military, political and literary annals of his time." He also 
states that up to that time, owing probably to the fact that 
the materials were too much scattered, being found not only 
in " gazettes, parliamentary and other public records, but in 
I private as well as official documents, contemporary pamph- 

; lets, etc.," many of which, he says, were extremely difficult 

of access, no satisfactory memoir had been published. 
i Peter Barre, the father of Isaac, was a Huguenot refugee 

I from the small but celebrated French seaport town of La 

I Rochelle. This ancient city was, in the time of the Reforma- 

j tion, and subsequently, the stronghold of Protestantism. Its 

I inhabitants often sent out privateers to prey upon the mer- 

l chantmen of the Romanists. After the massacre of St. 

t Bartholomew the city successfully resisted a siege of six and 

r one-half months by a Romanist army, and finally compelled 

f the besiegers to disperse after enormous losses of men, and, 

although finally subdued by Richelieu, it was only when the 
inhabitants were nearly starved to death, after a hard struggle 
and a long siege. It is not surprising that such a place 
should produce a Barre.f 

The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, in 1685, by which 
every kind of persecution, even murder was legalized, if not 
the real cause, probably had much to do with the flight of 
the elder Barre. This fanatical and despotic act of Louis 
XIV was followed by the emigration of French protestants 
in numbers that seem almost incredible in view of the 
measures taken to prevent it. A fugitive captured on the 

*"The Authorship of the Letters of Junius Elucidated: Including a Biographical 
Memoir of Lieutenant-Colonel Isaac Barre, M. P.," by John Britton, F. S. A., 1S4S. 

tSmiles says the family came from Pout Gibau near Rochelle. — "Huguenots," 
Samuel Smiles. 


road was condemned, if a man, to the galleys — if a woman, 
to a nunnery; the frontier was well guarded and many 
vessels cruised along the coast, yet the number of protestants 
who left their native land for surroundings less congenial 
perhaps, but safer and more comfortable, has been estimated 
as high as 800,000 l"^ By this emigration Louis lost some 
of the most sturdy, intelligent and virtuous of his subjects, 
and some regions were almost depopulated. It was a loss 
from which France has never recovered. The lapse from 
religious freedom to persecution may partly account for the 
apparent decline of that chivalrous nation. 

The name of Peter Barre's father is not known, perhaps 
was not known even to his grandson Isaac, for he mentions 

him in a letter,t simply as " Barre," stating that he died 

in France about 1739, leaving two sons, Peter, the writer's 
father, and John. The latter, who remained in France, took 
possession of his father's estate, disposing of it as he wished, 
until he died in 1760. He left no will and no children, and 
the estate descended to collateral heirs. In 1764 Colonel 
Barre visited the home of his ancestors and made an attempt 
to recover his grandfather's estate, with what success I am 
unable to say, though from his letter I infer that he met 
with some opposition on the ground that his ancestors were 
protestants. He states that his uncle John was supposed 
to be a protestant but was " buried as a Catholic." It is 
probable, therefore, that when Peter fled to Ireland, John at 
least, if not his father also, became Roman Catholics to save 
their lives and estates. Probably to the French of that day 
Peter seemed a traitor, and John a wise and patriotic citizen. 

Early in the i8th Century a protestant maiden of La 

Rochelle, named Raboteau, was confronted with a 

choice of two evils. Her hand was sought in marriage by 

*An "impossible guess." History for Ready Reference and Topical Reading. 
Larned, vol. 2, page 1238. 

t Wade's Junius, vol. 2, page 419. 


a man of the Roman Catholic faith for whom she did not 
care, and she was threatened with the hving death of a nun- 
nery if she refused him. She had an uncle, a merchant, 
living in Ireland, who was then in La Rochelle with his own 
ship, getting a cargo. He took her aboard the ship in a cask 
and she escaped with him in safety to Dublin. It is there 
that she is said to have met and married Peter Barre. Little 
is known of Isaac's parents beyond the meagre facts I have 
given. It was said of them that they kept a small grocer's 
I' shop, with the emphasis on the " small." Elliot* suggests 
that there was an inclination to exaggerate their insignifi- 
cance in order to make Colonel Barre's audacity in attacking 
Pitt seem the greater, and therefore such statements should 
be accepted with reserve. One writer states that he "carried 
on a large business as a linen draper. "f It is not probable 
that the elder Barre was very wealthy, yet from the well 
known thrift and energy of the Huguenots, and the fact that 
his son entered Trinity College, Dublin, as a pensioner, and 
therefore had to pay his own expenses, we may infer that 
with the possible assistance of Mme. Barre's uncle, who we 
know owned at least one merchant vessel, and was probably 
wealthy, he succeeded at least moderately well. He appears 
in 1766 to have been the owner of a warehouse in Fleet 
street, and a country house at CuUen's Wood. BrittonJ 
states that he was a member of the *' Dublin Society of Arts 
and Husbandry" from its foundation in 1750, and an Alder- 
man in 1758; and judging by the offices he held, was of 
opinion that he must have risen to " wealth and opulence." 
He died in 1776. 

Trinity College, established by Queen Elizabeth in 1591, 
upon the decaying foundations of the University of Dublin, 
which had been in existence since 1320, was a large and 

* Hon. Hugh F. Elliot, " Col. Barre and his Times." McMillan's Magazine, xxxv, 
p. 109. 

t Smiles' "Huguenots." 

X Ibid, 20. 


flourishing institution for that time, when Isaac Barre entered 
its walls on the 19th of November, 1740. There were four 
classes of students : (i) Noblemen; (2) Fellow-commoners, 
who dined at the Fellow's table ; (3) Pensioners, who formed 
the great body of the students; and (4) Sizars, indigent 
students who had their rooms and commons free, and who 
corresponded with what were known as " Servitors " at Ox- 
ford. Scholarships were conferred upon the undergraduates 
who obtained the highest rank in public competitions. From 
the fact that Barre entered college at the tender age of four- 
teen and obtained a scholarship in the fourth year thereafter, 
we may be sure that he was a bright boy and a clever 
student. The entry of his name on the college register dis- 
closes the fact that he received his preparatory education 
under the guidance of one Master Lloyd and a tutor called 
Dr. Pellissier. It may be interesting to notice here that Oliver 
Goldsmith, who was at Trinity about the same time, entered 
at the age of seventeen as a Sizar. On receiving his degree 
in 1745, Barre began his preparation for the legal profession, 
which had been selected for him by his parents, and was 
sent to London to the Inns of Court. David Garrick hav- 
ing seen him in some amateur performance, and being 
charmed with his acting, recommended that he go upon the 
stage. But he was at heart a soldier, and he chose the army, 
although at that time promotion was not often for the faith- 
ful and valorous, but more frequently for those who had 
money or political influence. Not a promising outlook for 
a poor and ambitious youth, truly. Many people seem to 
look upon the condition of things in the War Department 
in 1898, under the administration of our late Secretary of 
War, as almost as bad as it could be and entirely unprece- 
dented. But the corruption and venality which prevailed 
in the war department of England when, in 1746, Barre 
obtained his commission as an ensign in the 3 2d Regiment 


of Foot, then stationed at Flanders, have probably never 
been equalled since. 

Twenty years, the age at which Barre entered the army, 
certainly is not a great age, yet it seems so in comparison 
I with that of his friend Wolfe when he began his military 

I career at the bottom of the ladder. The latter was but thir- 

teen and a half when he had his first experience of camp 
h'fe, and but fifteen when he received his first commission. 
Although a year younger than Barre, he had seen considera- 
ble service, was a veteran of several campaigns, and, without 
influence or money, had risen to the rank of brigade-major 
by the time the latter had donned his first uniform. The 
remarkable fact of his advancement under the circumstances 
would seem to show that merit did count for something. 
Wolfe's career seems, however, to be the one exception 
which proves the rule, and is the more conspicuous on that 
account. But even he was not always justly treated, and 
he suffered a severe disappointment when lieutenant-colo- 
nel, by the appointment of an outsider (Honeywood) to the 
colonelcy. The Duke of Newcastle, the predecessor of 
Pitt in the office of Prime Minister, could not understand 
Wolfe at all. The officers he had appointed had been more 
anxious for the pay than for the service, while Wolfe was 
anxious to fight. The duke once said to His Majesty 
f George II that Wolfe was mad. 

"Mad, is he?" said the King, who was himself a brave 
soldier, "then I hope he will bite some of my other generals" 
— a reply which reminds one of President Lincoln's famous 
answer when told that General Grant drank whiskey.* 

In speaking of the condition of the army and its admin- 
istration, Wolfe says (in a letter to his father) : "Our mili- 
tary education is by far the worst in Europe, and all our 

* "Well," said the President, "just find out what particular kind he uses and I'll send 
a barrel to each of my other generals." — The Career and Character of Abraham Lin- 
coln, by Hon. Joseph H. Choate. 


concerns are treated with contempt or totally neglected. It 
will cost us dear some time hence."* About the same time 
he remarks, in another letter, that it speaks badly for the 
army that he is considered as one of the best officers of his 
rank, and says he feels uncomfortable from the prospect of 
having responsibilities thrown on him with the expectation 
of high performances for which he is not yet ripe. Again, 
in speaking of the discipline of the army, he says, sadly : 
"Nothing can hurt that !"t From Hogarth's " March of 
the Guards," a good idea may be obtained of what that dis- 
cipline was like. 

The company with which an officer was thrown in most 
of the regiments, composed as it was largely of men with- 
out merit, ability or ambition, with extravagant and disso- 
lute tastes, was not congenial for men of the stamp of Wolfe 
and Barre. These two, with the exception of the short 
time Barre's regiment was in England in 1747, passed 
through the entire campaign in Flanders, ending with the 
peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. From that time until 1757, Barre 
is almost lost sight of, and the only thing we know about his 
career during those nine years is that he spent part of the 
time with his regiment in Scotland (possibly at the same 
time Wolfe was there), and part in Gibraltar, where the 32d 
was stationed for four years. During this time he is sup- 
posed to have employed his leisure in the study of literature 
and practice in speaking and composition. On the ist of 
October, 1755, he became a lieutentant. 

When, in 1757, Pitt determined upon the expedition 
against Rochefort, Wolfe and Barre both volunteered. The 
expedition resulted disastrously for the English, and Wolfe 
wrote : *' We return to England with reproach and dis- 
honor."J Yet it resulted in good fortune for both himself 

» "Wolfe." by A. G. Bradley, p. 78. 
iilliid, 87. 
p/bid, p. 86. 



and Barre. It brought Wolfe his commission as a briga- 
dier and made him acquainted with Barre. This meant 
much to them both, but especially to the latter. It is said 
that he was in Wolfe's own regiment, to which Lord Fitz- 
maurice, later Lord Shelburne, who afterwards became his 
intimate friend and patron, was also attached. 

Wolfe being placed in command of a brigade under Gen- 
eral Amherst in the campaign against Cape Breton in 1758, 
obtained from Pitt the appointment of Major of Brigade for 
his friend Barre (then a lieutenant) on the 12th of May of 
that year. The prime object of this campaign was the cap- 
ture of Louisburg, which had been surrendered to the 
French at the peace of Aix-la-Chapellc, and was deemed 
the strongest fortress in North America. On the 2d of 
June, 1758, the British fleet appeared in Gabarus Bay. Sev- 
eral days later, landing in a cove west of the fort, a brigade 
under Wolfe attacked and drove about a thousand of the 
French out of their intrenchments on the heights. Then 
began a siege which lasted more than a month, and ended 
with the surrender of the fortress on the 27th of July. We 
have no record of Barre's individual part in these operations, 
but we know he was a participant. His friend Wolfe was 
the chief actor, and we maybe sure that Barre did not neg- 
lect his opportunities. 

At the close of this campaign Wolfe was compelled by 
illness to return to England, and though the troops did not 
go with him, it is believed that he was accompanied by 

Pitt was now contemplating the capture of Quebec, and 
chose Wolfe for the chief command, with the temporary or 
brevet rank of Major General, his real or substantive rajik 
being that of Colonel. This temporary rank corresponded 
with the rank of regular army officers in our volunteer 
army. When the particular service upon which they were 
detailed was ended, they were degraded to their former rank. 


This arrangement was in deference to the prejudices of the 
old regime which Pitt had not yet entirely succeeded in 
overcoming, and to which the King was a devoted adherent. 
Barre accompanied the expedition with the temporary rank 
and pay of a brigade-major, and the substantive rank of a 
captain. On the 13th of January, 1759, at the age of thirty- 
three years, he was promoted to be captain in the army at 
large, and major in America only, and deputy adjutant 
general. On the 4th of May he was made adjutant general. 

The capture of Quebec was the last great achievement of 
Wolfe. Before the attack he sent a dispatch to Pitt, in 
which he describes his situation as furnishing such "a choice 
of difficulties" that he was "at a loss how to determine,"* 
and says that he is so ill and weak that he has had a con- 
sultation of general officers. This dispatch having been 
written when Wolfe was so ill with fever, must have been 
written by one of his officers, and its composition has been 
generally ascribed to Barre. Against the heaviest odds and 
in the face of an intrepid foe (for Montcalm was hardly the 
inferior of Wolfe in bravery, ability or patriotism), he ac- 
complished, after a siege of nearly three months, what had 
seemed to others an all but impossible task. On the 13th 
of September, 1759, he expired, pierced by three bullets, 
just as one of his men was crying, "They run ! they run !" 
On hearing this, he asked, feebly, "Who run ?" and on be- 
ing told that it is "the enemy," he gave some last instruc- 
tions, and exclaimed, "God be praised, I now die in peace !" 

A sketch of Barre's life says that he was by the side of 
his brave commander when he breathed his last, and W^est 
painted him in his picture of the "Death of Wolfe" as one of 
the group surrounding the dying general. In the back- 
ground of this celebrated picture a soldier is seen bearing 
a flag, waving his hat and running toward the central group. 
He is probably intended to represent the one who brought 

♦ Bradley's "Wolfe," p. 179. 



the good news. His cry of "They run !" is repeated by two 
others close to the General, who rouses himself at that mo- 
ment to ask, "Who run ?" The scene as it was at that mo- 
ment is evidently what the artist has intended to represent. 
Leaning over the General, holding him tenderly in his arms 
while the surgeon. Colonel Adair, staunches the flow of 
blood with a cloth, is Barre.* On Barre's right kneels Capt. 
Henry Smith, while behind him is Colonel Williamson. 
Opposite this group stands brave General Monkton, who, 
shot through the lungs, is just falling backwards into the 
arms of two of his brother officers. He has a handkerchief 
pressed upon the wound in his breast, but, forgetful of him- 
self, his eyes are fixed upon the face of his beloved com- 
mander, as if he would die gladly if only Wolfe could live. 
On the right stand a stalwart grenadier and the General's 
body servant, weeping as if their hearts would break. On 
the left, in front, an Indian chief, in feathers and war paint, 
watches eagerly to see how the great white chief will face 
death. One of Wolfe's biographers, however, states that 
only four men — Lieutenant Brown, a Mr. Henderson, a 
private, and an artillery officer — were present at this scene.f 
Which of these accounts is true I do not know, but proba- 
bly the former, for Barre himself says, "I received near his 
(Wolfe's) person a very dangerous wound."J But which- 
ever is true, the fact remains that they shared the same 
dangers and hardships, with the same fortitude, though not 
with the same results. Barre was disfigured for life by a 

* The position of the principal characters in West's picture were ascertained from a 
tracing made by Lionel Gust, Esq., Director National Portrait Gallery, London, from 
the painting in the British Museum, enclosed in a letter from the Hon. Joseph H. 
Choate, Ambassador of the U. S. to Great Britain, to whose kindness in securing this 
I tracing I am very much indebted ; and from a letter by F. C. Wirtele, Esq., Librarian 

of the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec, to our Corresponding Secretary, and 
now in the files of this Society, to all of whom I wish to tender my grateful acknowl- 

t Bradley, p. 201. 

X Letter of Colonel Barre to William Pitt, Secretary of State. 28 April, 1760. 


bullet which struck him in the cheek and destroyed the 
sight of one eye, and ultimately that of the other also, but 
his life was spared. He lived to mourn a friend who, had 
he lived, would in all probability have carried him upward 
with him to high rank ; and Barre's appreciation of the 
great loss he had sustained is evident from a clause in one 
of his letters. In his first letter to Pitt he says : "I am ap- 
prehensive that my pretensions (to military advancement) 
are to be buried with my only protector and friend."* In 
the prediction in regard to his pretensions he was practically 
correct, but not in speaking of Wolfe as his "only" pro- 
tector and friend, for few men have had better or more use- 
ful and devoted friends than Barre had in Amherst, Shel- 
burne, Ashburton and others. 

He evidently had no cause to be ashamed of his part in 
the capture of Quebec, for in April of the following year he 
applied to Pitt for promotion. f In refusing the request of 
the obscure captain, Pitt, whose disposition was not the 
most amiable, and who, a curious mixture of selfish ambi- 
tion and unselfish patriotism, seems to have had very little 
tact, probably used language which mortally offended the 
applicant. From the reason given for the refusal, that 
"senior officers would be injured by his promotion,"^ Pitt 
seems to have again given way to the influence of the King 
and the old regime in favor of the men with political influ- 
ence. Nearly a year later (29 January, 1761) Barre received 
his promotion to the office of Lieutenant-Colonel, but Pitt 
delayed the preparation of his commission for three months 

Barre remained with General Amherst during his opera- 
tions against Ticonderoga, Crown Point and Montreal 
(which resulted in the destruction of the French power in 

• Ibid. 
t Ibid. 
J "Junius." By John Wade. H, p. 417. 


Canada), and returned to England as the emissary of the 
General to report the successful termination of the campaign. 
With Wolfe's death, and the rebuff he had met from Pitt, he 
seems to have given up hope of further military advance- 
ment He now turned to Fitzmaurice, whom he had met 
in the expedition against Rochefort, and who, on succeed- 
ing his father as Lord Shelburne, in October, 1761, obtained 
for Barre a letter of service to raise, as "Colonel proprietor," 
the io6th regiment of foot, and in November nominated him 
to the vacant family borough of Chipping Wycombe. By 
this time Pitt had retired and was leader of the opposition. 
Barre, with the recollection of Pitt's lack of appreciation of 
his merits and services, and his unkind treatment still fresh 
in his mind, may have been influenced by personal dislike 
to enter the lists as a champion of the ministry of Bute, 
though it is said by one writer that Shelburne selected him 
as his nominee purposely to oppose Mr. Pitt.* There had 
not appeared at that time any one who dared to oppose the 
ex-premier and draw upon himself the storm of invective 
which Pitt had been pouring upon the new cabinet. Five 
days after his election,! Barre made his memorable attack 
on his future friend and ally, with a bitterness that fright- 
ened and almost disgusted even the friends of the ministry 
he was defending. In the course of his speech, the effect 
of which was heightened by the bullet he had received at 
Quebec giving a savage glare to his eye, he said of Pitt: 
"There he would stand turning up his eyes to heaven, that 
witnessed his perjuries, and laying his hand in a solemn 
manner on the table — that sacrilegious hand, that had been 
employed in tearing out the bowels of his mother country."! 
This speech attracted much attention to its author, but was 
not well received. It is said that no one not of the court 

• Britton, p. 40, and Political Magazine, 1776, 
t 3 December, 1761. 
t Britton, p. 41. 


was pleased, and its effect may perhaps be inferred from the 
remark of Charles Townshend on seeing him eat a biscuit 
soon afterwards: "Does it eat a biscuit?" he said, con- 
temptuously, "I thought it ate nothing but raw flesh." The 
Earl of Bath spoke of the speech as rude and foul-mouthed."* 

A year later he made a second and last attack on Pitt, 
which, though less bitter than the first, was no better re- 
ceived. But through his efforts, and those of Shelburne in 
the debate on the articles of peace, the measures of the gov- 
ernment were carried in spite of the opposition of Pitt. The 
strength of the army was reduced and Barre's regiment dis- 
banded. He had gained the friendship of the ministry, 
however, and in March, 1763, received the appointment of 
adjutant general of the British forces, and two months later 
that of governor of Stirling Castle. Lord Bute resigned 
the same year and was succeeded by George Grenville as 
premier. This ministry having instituted the prosecution 
of Wilkes, aroused the opposition of both Pitt and Shel- 

John Wilkes (our Wilkes), a member of parliament, having 
attacked the government in his paper, the ''North Briton,'' 
was arrested on what was called a "general warrant," direct- 
ing the officers to seize "the authors, printers and publish- 
ers of the seditious libel entitled the 'North Briton,' No. 
45," but naming no one. This was declared by Pitt and 
Shelburne to be unlawful and a breach of the privilege of 
parliament, and in their opposition they were joined by 
Barre. Their view was held by the courts to be the correct 
one, so far as it related to a breach of the privilege of par- 
liament, but the warrant and arrest were held to be regular 
and law^fuL Wilkes was committed to the Tower, but was 
released on a writ of habeas corpiis.\ He was dismissed 

* Ibid, p. 41. 

t Wilkes's own account of his arrest and subsequent treatment makes interesting 
TesidiQg.—Fiizgerald's Life of John IVilkes, I, pp. ijj, ij8 to 146. 



from the colonelcy of a militia regiment. The House of 
Commons, at the instance of the ministry, resolved that the 
privilege of parliament did not extend to seditious libels, 
and expelled him from the House (1764). These acts of 
the government being opposed by Barre and Shelburne, 
both incurred the enmity of the king and were dismissed from 
the army. Pitt was with them, and he and Barre, becoming 
reconciled in February of 1764, eventually became fast 

The efforts of these disinterested and patriotic statesmen 
in behalf of Wilkes were not prompted by any affection, 
admiration or respect for him, but by their desire to defend 
and preserve the rights of Englishmen. Although a brilliant 
man and a pleasant table companion, he was, no doubt, in 
the opinion of most Englishmen of the better class, a mere 
demagogue, and Barre himself spoke of him as "a wicked, 
daring, infamous incendiary," and an 'infernal parricide."* 
Fitzgerald, his biographer, calls him "the bold demagogue, 
and a professional gourmond."! It was not because he did 
not deserve all the punishment that was meted out to him, 
but because it had been administered in an illegal manner, 
and the same tyranny displayed in Jiis prosecution, if un- 
rebuked and unopposed, might be used against the most 
virtuous citizen. "What was Mr. Wilkes's case yesterday," 
wrote Junius to Sir William Blackstone, "may be yours or 
mine to-morrow^,"J and in his first letter, Junius explains his 
position as follows : " Prudence and self-preservation will 
oblige the most moderate dispositions to make common 
cause, even with a man whose conduct they censure, if they 
see him persecuted in a way which the real spirit of the 
laws will not justify."§ 

♦ Ibid, p. 33. 

t Ibid, p. 38. 

\ Wade's "Junius," I, p. 189. 

\ Ibid, p. 103. 



Owing, doubtless, to his connection with the opposition, 
Barre incurred tlic disapproval of the ministry, and was re- 
moved from his offices of adjutant general and governor, be- 
fore he had enjoyed them a year. Speaking of this afterwards 
in the House of Commons he said : "As he had served a cam- 
paign as adjutant general to the immortal Wolfe, he was 
appointed to that office at home; he was at the same time 

} made Governor of Stirling Castle. It was true that he ought 

! not to look upon these places as a tenure for life ; however, 

I they were military places, and he had a right to imagine 

that he should have been dismissed from them for a mili- 
tary offense only. In this, however, he had been mistaken. 
He was an enemy to General Warrants. He had voted 
against them as a member of Parliament, and the very next 
day he was dismissed from his military appointments for 
this political offense," etc.* 

The celebrated Stamp Act was passed in March, 1765. 
It was in the debate on that subject in the House of Com- 
mons that Barre most distinguished himself It is said that 
there were not more than two or three other members of 
Parliament who openly opposed the measure. Charles 
Townshend, speaking in its favor, asked : "And now will 
these American children planted by our care, nourished 
up to strength and opulence by our indulgence, and pro- 
tected by our arms, grudge to contribute their mite to re- 
h'eve us from the heavy burden under which we lie?" 
This question called forth Barre's famous speech,t which is 
such a fine bit of spontaneous oratory, as well as such a 
complete and startling answer to the complaint of Town- 
shend, that I cannot forbear to quote it here. "They planted 
V by your care ? No, your oppression planted them in Amer- 

* ica. They fled from your tyranny to a then uncultivated 

and inhospitable country, where they exposed themselves 

♦ Britton.p. 82. 

f Delivered 6 February. 1765. 


to almost all the hardships to which human natuie is liable; 
and, among others, to the cruelties of a savage foe, the most 
subtle, and I will take it upon me to say, the most formi- 
dable of any people upon the surface of God's earth; and 
yet, actuated by principles of true English liberty, they met 
all hardships with pleasure, compared with those they suf- 
fered in their own country from the hands of those that 
should have been their friends. They nourished by your 
indulgence ? They grew by your neglect of them. As 
soon as you began to care about them, that care was ex- 
ercised in sending persons to rule them, in one depart- 
ment and another, who were, perhaps, the deputies of dep- 
uties to some members of this house, sent to spy out their 
liberties, to misrepresent their actions, and to pry upon them 
— men whose behavior on many occasions has caused the 
blood of those so7is of liberty to recoil within them — men 
promoted to the highest seats of justice, some who to my 
knowledge were glad, by going to a foreign country, to 
escape being brought to the bar of a court of justice in their 
own. They protected by your arms ? They have nobly 
taken up arms in your defence ; have exerted a valor, amidst 
their constant and laborious industry, for the defence of a 
country, whose frontier was drenched in blood, while its 
interior parts yielded all its little savings to your emolu- 
ment. And believe me, remember I this day told you so, 
that same spirit of freedom which actuated that people at 
first will accompany them still — but prudence forbids me 
to explain myself further. God knows I do not at this 
time speak from motives of party heat ; what I deliver are 
the genuine sentiments of my heart. However superior to 
me in general knowledge and experience the respectable 
body of this house may be, yet I claim to know more of 
America than most of you, having seen and been conversant 
in that country. The people, I believe, are as truly loyal 
as any subjects the king has; but a people jealous of their 



liberties, and who will vindicate them if ever they should 
be violated — but the subject is too delicate — I will say no 
more."* Mr. Jared IngersoU of Connecticut, who was 
present when this debate took place, sent home a report of 
it, and the colonists adopted with delight the name, "Sons 
of Liberty," which Barre had applied to them. It has been 
said that Barre's speech was in reply to Grenville,t but In- 
gersoll's report shows that it was Townshend who asked 
the question. J 

When the report of this speech reached America, so great 
was the enthusiasm it aroused, that Congress solicited Barre 
to allow his portrait to be painted by Mr. Stuart, and when 
in 1766 the obnoxious act was repealed, the town of Boston 
had a portrait of him painted and hung in Faneuil Hall. 
It was afterwards destroyed by the British during the siege. 
A painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds of Barre and his two 
friends, Lord Ashburton and Lord Sheldon, a copy of which 
is the frontispiece of Britton's book, an engraving by W.T. 
Fry, from another portrait by Stuart, and another engraving 
by William Hall,§ also from a painting by Stuart, are all the 
portraits of Barre I have heard of, except a caricature which 
may be found on page 98 of Vol. VII of Winsor's Narra- 
tive and Critical History of America. 

Lord Rockingham became First Lord of the Treasury 
and Premier in July, 1765, and his principal achievement 
was the repeal of the Stamp Act. Barre was asked to join 
the cabinet, and at the same time offered rank in the army 
as an inducement, but for reasons which are not apparent, 
unless he foresaw the early change which took place in the 
ministr^% he declined. A new ministry was formed with 
the Duke of Grafton as prime minister, and both Shelburne 

* "Gems of Oratory." 

t Winsor's Narrative and Critical History' of America, VI, p. 72, Note 3. 

X Frothingham's "Rise of the Republic," p. 175. 

g In the rooms of this Society. 


and Barrc were included — the latter as a vice-treasurer of 
Ireland and a member of the privy council, which latter 
office he held until October, 1768. About this time he was 
also restored to his rank in the army, but, owing to the 
King's dislike for him, he never rose above the rank of 
lieutenant colonel in the regular army, and was always 
called "Colonel Barre," although he had held the office of 
adjutant general. 

In a speech in Parliament, supposed to have been deliv- 
ered in March, 1769, Colonel Barre is said to have predict- 
ed the loss of the Colonies, as in his speech on the Stamp 
Act he had predicted their revolt. In 1771, he opposed 
the ministry on the question of reporting the proceedings 
of Parliament. At the close of a speech, in which he ex- 
posed the corruption of the government and denounced the 
corrupt members of the House of Commons, he is said to 
have left the hall, calling in a dramatic manner upon every 
honest man to follow him. During the administration of 
Lord North he was persistent in his opposition to the ob- 
noxious measures proposed for the government and chas- 
tisement of the American Colonies. Britton* says that he 
distinguished himself as one of the ablest and most intrepid 
speakers on the opposition side of the House of Commons, 
boldly and repeatedly encountering the minister with fervid 
eloquence and animation, mingled with a degree of sarcasm 
and humor which is noticeable even in the scanty reports 
of his speeches. 

In January, 1773, Lieutenant Colonel Morrison, who was 
Barre's junior, was promoted over his head, to the rank of 
Colonel. He felt the same keen disappointment that Wolfe 
had expressed when he experienced the same injustice. 
Under stress of this feeling, he wrote to his friend Pitt as 
follows: "The particular manner in which his Majesty has 
been advised to make a late promotion in the army, has so 

* Page 80. 



much the appearance of a premeditated affront to mc, that 
I feel myself under an absolute necessity of retiring from a 
profession in which I have served six and twenty years. 
* * * This new discipline, my Lord, is surely not cal- 
culated to cherish the spirit of an army, which your Lord- 
ship has taught to conquer in ever^^ climate. Directed as 
it has been lately, I am proud of renouncing the profession. 
To enable me to take this step with propriety to myself, and 
with decent respect to the king, I feel that I stand in need 
of the long experience and sound judgment of much abler 
men than myself." Pitt advised him to petition the King for 
promotion in his proper turn. He did so, but being unsuc- 
cessful, he asked leave to retire from the army. Permission 
being granted him, he resigned on the 2ist of February, 
1773- On leaving the army he was, of course, deprived not 
only of his half-pay, but also of his military rank. 

A change came in 1782 when the Rockingham ministry 
was formed with Shelburne for Secretary for Foreign Affairs. 
Barre was appointed Treasurer of the Navy and given a 
pension of ^3200 a year, *'to take effect whenever he should 
quit his then office." This grant having aroused some 
severe criticism in the House of Commons, Barre made a 
speech in his own defence. He stated what his military 
services had been, and what compensation and treatment 
he had received. Then, mentioning the pension, he said : 
"It appeared to be high; ^^"3200 sounded big; but in fact, 
after the deduction of taxes, fees, etc., the real amount to 
him would be little more than ;^2ioo. If this appeared to 
the House to be too much, let them say so, and curtail it ; 
or if they disliked the whole, let them annihilate it ; for he 
should not wish to put into his pocket a single shilling of the 
public money which that House should think he ought not 
to receive.*" On the death of Rockingham, the same year, 
Shelburne became premier, and his friend Barre paymaster 

* Brittoii, p. S3. 


of the army. He and Shelburne retired from the cabinet 
together, the latter being forced to resign in 1783. The 
younger Pitt, who succeeded Shelburne, gratified Barre, in 
1784, by giving him the clerkship of the Pells with ;{^3000 
per annum. This sinecure was his last official position, ex- 
cept that of member of Parliament. About this time he 
was afflicted with a total loss of sight, owing to his old 
wound receiv^ed at Quebec. Nevertheless, he was returned 
to Parliament for Calne, and remained until the general 
election of 1790, when he retired permanently. His old 
opponent, Lord North, retired into seclusion about the same 
time, from the same cause — blindness. It is related that later, 
at Bath, Barre heard that North was also in the city, and re- 
marked, with a touch of his old-time humor, that though they 
had been old antagonists, he was sure they should be glad 
to see each other. After the loss of his sight he only spoke 
in public a few times, and then only briefly, and once only 
(in 1785) alluding to his infirmity. He lived in retirement 
and declining health for some years longer, and died of pa- 
ralysis, at an advanced age, on the 20th of July, 1802. 

The following notice of his death appeared in the Ge7i- 
tkinan's Magazine for July 20 : *'At his house in Stanhope 
street. May Fair, after two days' illness, in his seventy-sixth 
year [died] the R. H. Isaac Barre, Clerk of the Pells. His 
health was declining for a considerable time past ; and a 
few hours before his dissolution he was seized with a para- 
lytic stroke, which was the immediate cause of his death. 
Though blind for the last twenty years of his life, he still 
continued a cheerful companion to the last." Then, follow- 
ing a brief resume of the principal events of his career, the 
notice continues : "Colonel Barre has died possessed of no 
more than ^24000, a moiety of which he has bequeathed to 
the Marchioness of Townshend."* He had known the 
marchioness before her marriage to Lord Townshend, and 

* Britton, p. 84. 


she and Iier husband are said to have brightened his de- 
clining years by their attentions. As Barre's relations with 
some members of the Townshend family during his active 
career in the army and in Parliament were anything but 
friendly, it would be interesting to know something about 
his relations with the Marquis and his wife, and whether 
the latter brought about a reconciliation between Barre and 
his old-time enemies. 

- In regard to the contention of Mr. Britton that Colonel 
Barre was the author of the letters of Junius, I can only say 
that I am convinced that he w^as right, and that no reason- 
able person, who had never heard the claims of any other 
candidate for the honor presented, could avoid the same 
conclusion. About the only good reason for doubting it 
is the denial he is supposed at one time to have made to 
one Samuel Bayard. But it must be considered that by 
disclosing his identity Junius might not only have insured his 
imprisonment and persecution by powerful and unscrupulous 
enemies for the remainder of his existence, but certainly 
have endangered his life as well. Whether there was a dif- 
ferent standard of morals at that day from the one held 
by writers now, I do not know, but when Junius wrote 
it was not only, I believe, deem.ed fair and proper for, but 
the "admitted right" of, an anonymous writer to deny em- 
phatically the authorship of his own productions. Dr. 
Samuel Johnson, the "strict moralist," when asked by Bos- 
well : "Supposing the person who wTote 'Junius' were asked 
whether he was the author, might he deny it?" says: "It 
may be urged that what a man has no right to ask, you 
may refuse to communicate ; and there is no other effectual 
mode of preserving a secret, and an important secret, the 
discovery of which may be very hurtful to you, but a flat 
denial; for if you are silent, or hesitate, or evade, ?t will be 
held equivalent to a confession. But stay, sir, here is an- 
other case. Supposing the author had told me confiden- 


llally that he had written Junius, and I were asked if he had, 
I should hold myself at liberty to deny it, as being under a 
previous promise, express or implied, to conceal it. Now, 
what I ought do for the author, may I not do for myself?" 
The author of the Junius letters doubtless held the same 
views in regard to the matter, and I have no doubt he 
foresaw that he should be asked the question, and prepared 
liimself for it. We do not know the exact nature of his reply, 
but it may have been more equivocal than emphatic, and I 
v^enture to say that there are none here who would censure 
him for that. 

In closing I wish to express my surprise that so httle has 
been written and published about one who occupied so 
prominent a place in public life. A man who was Adjutant 
General and a Lieutenant Colonel in the regular army be- 
fore he was thirty-three years old; a member of Parliament 
for nearly forty years, during the greater part of which time 
he was one of the leading debaters and unsurpassed in elo- 
quence, animation and invective ; who was Governor of Stir- 
ling Castle, a cabinet officer, Vice-Treasurer of Ireland and 
a Privy Councillor, Treasurer of the Navy, Paymaster of 
the Army, Clerk of the Pells, and during all this time a 
warm friend of the American Colonists, certainly deserves 
greater recognition at our hands if not at the hands of the 
English. The apparent lack of appreciation of his services 
in England may perhaps be accounted for by the fact that 
early in his career he incurred the dislike of the King and 
all tories, and was violently opposed to almost all their 
measures, and they may have been instrumental in prevent- 
ing the proper recognition of his services, after death, as 
they succeeded in a measure in preventing it, during his life. 

Lest some of my hearers should infer, from wliat I have 
said, that I regret the linking of the name of Wilkes with 
that of Barre, in the appellation of Wilkes-Barre, I hasten to 
say that I do not. Unworthy as the Lord Mayor of Lon- 


don may have been to have bad tbat honor conferred upon 
him, we cannot change it now ; therefore let us preserve the 
name with pride in memory of his gallant nephew, the late 
Commodore Charles Wilkes of the United States Navy, 
who deserved it all and more. 

I believe it would be a mistake to suppose that Barre was 
not well known in America in the early days of the Repub- 
lic, or that Wilkes-Barre is the only town named after him. 
The following list of municipalities which probably derived 
their names from the same source will bear me out in that 
opinion : Barre (a village), Barre Township and Barre Plains, 
in Worcester county, Mass. ; Barre Township and Barre 
Centre, in Orleans county, N.Y.; Barre Township, Barre 
Junction, and Barre, in Washington county, Vt. ; Barre 
Mills and Barre, La Crosse county, Wis. ; Barreforge and 
Barree, Huntingdon county. Pa. ; and Barreville, ^McHenry 
county. 111,, besides the Barrys and the Barries which may 
be misspelled. 



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Facsimile op' a Letter from Washington 
• .TO Colonel Zeculon Butler 



The following letter from General Washington to Colonel 
Zebulon Butler while in charge of the post at Wilkes-Barre 
in 1780, has already been published by Hon. Hendrick B. 
Wright in his Sketches of Plymouth, Pa., page 205. It is 
giv^en here verbatim and in fac-simile to prove its authen- 
ticity, and also to give it the proper place in Wyoming his- 
tory. It does not appear in Ford's Letters of Washington. 
It is a reply to a letter from Colonel Butler of the same date, 
April, 1780. In the pamphlet published by the Wj'oming 
Historical and Geological Society, entitled : 

"The Massacre of Wyoming — the Acts of Congress for the defense 
of the Wyoming Valley, Pennsylvania, 1 776-1 778, with the Petitions 
of the sufferers by the Massacre of July 3, 1778, for Congressional 
aid — with an introductory chapter by Rev. Horace Edwin Hayden, 
M. A., Corresponding Secretary, &c., Wilkes-Barre, 1895," 

will be found the letter from Colonel Butler, page 6^. This 
letter was reprinted from the "Report No. 1032 of the House 
of Representatives, on Wyoming Claims, July 2, 1838." At 
the time when this pamphlet was prepared the relation of 
the Washington letter to that of Colonel Butler referred to 
was not known to Mr. Hayden. The original is in the 
hands of the family of Hon. Hendrick B. Wright of this 
city, and its presentation here is due to the great kindness 
of his son, George R. Wright, Esq., who has permitted its 
reproduction. H. e. h. 



"Head Quarters Morris 
"Sir Town April y'^' 1780 

"I received Yesterday your letter of the 2^ Instant; and I 
am extremely sorry to find that parties of the Enemy have 
appeared & committed hostilities in the neighbourhood 
of Wyoming. It is not in my power to afford any Troops 
from the army and I should hope those already there & the 
Inhabitants will be able to repel at least incursions by light 
parties. It was my intention as I informed you that you 
should join your regiment immediately after your return ; 
however I am induced from the face of things, to let you 
continue where you are for the present and you will remain 
till further orders. Should further depredations and mis- 
chiefs be committed by the Enemy — You will take occasion 
to inform me of them. 

"I am Sir 

"Y^ Most Obet Servant 

''To "G^ Washington 

"Col° Zebulon Butler,'* 

i^^-.«^-^r=:-:.^->-,.-.v-.— , 


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William Penn Ryman, Esq, 




Wesley E. Woodruff, 
• Historiographer. 

William Penn Ryman, one of the most prominent citi- 
zens of Wilkes-Barre, and a leading lawyer of the Luzerne 
Bar, passed into his final rest at his home on South Franklin 
street, July 31, 1899, just as the shades of evening had 
closed around the brightness of one of nature's loveliest days. 
Mr. Ryman had not been a well man for years, for he had 
recovered from a former desperate illness only by force of 
will and by extreme care in his routine of life. In this way 
he was spared to those whom he loved, and who loved him, 
and for useful endeavor, until some months ago, when he 
again failed in health. Such was his strength of resolution, 
however, that he kept up, until exhausted nature made it 
impossible to do so longer. Even as he felt the shadows 
deepening he never lost his courage, his serenity or his 
cheerfulness of spirit, and he still had the pleasant greeting 
and the smile of a cordial spirit until a merciful oblivion 
closed his eyes. For several hours before the end he was 
not conscious, and the end was peaceful and beautiful — like 
a child falling into slumber at the closing of the day. 

William Penn Ryman was born in Dallas August 23, 


1847. He was the son of Abram and Jemima (Ktuikle) 
Ryman, whose family was of German extraction, and settled 
originally in New Jersey, though three generations were 
born on the old homestead farm at Dallas. William P. 
attended the schools of Wilkes-Barre and then prepared for 
college at Wyoming Seminary. He entered Cornell Uni- 
versity as a sophomore at the first opening of that institu- 
tion, and completed the usual four years' course in three 
years. He was graduated in the class of 1871. He then 
took the two years' course at Harvard Law School, com- 
pleting it in one year, and afterwards came to Wilkes-Barre, 
being admitted to the Luzerne bar from the office of the late 
Edward P. Darling September 20, 1873, and to the United 
States Court 1882. He continued the practice of law from 
that time. Li 1892, at the building of the Wilkes-Barre 
and Eastern Railroad, he accepted the presidency of the 
corporation and held that position until the merging of the 
road with the Erie. He still retained official connection, 
however, as counsel for the road. 

He organized the Algonquin Coal Company, 1893, was 
its president from the time of its inception until his death, 
and was one of the largest stockholders. 

He was elected a member of the Wyoming Historical and 
Geological Society January 7, 188 1, and became a Life 
Member February 12, 1897. 

Mr. Ryman was a man of the most studious habits, and 
the atmosphere of the scholar was always about him. His 
law library was a particularly fine one, and his private library 
was one of singular richness, excellence and variety. Pie 
was beloved by everybody who knew him, and close ac- 


I quaintance invariably added to the esteem and the affection 

|- in which he was held. As a citizen, he was a man who 

f considered duty above all else, and his sense of duty was 

;if clarified by an appreciation of the privileges and the obliga- 

I tions of the individual, as they stand related to government 

I and to authority. As a professional man, his acquirements 

I were of the highest type — moulded in a thorough knowl- 

f edge of the law, and framed in honor and unimpeachable 

I integrity. He was a man also of broadest culture, of an 

I innate and a developed refinement. He was always a reader, 

I and his researches extended to history, to science and to the 

I languages. Art and music w^ere his relaxations, and he was 

f a connoisseur in the highest realms of culture. In short, 

I whether in professional or merely personal attainments, he 

I was a man of the type of which communities boast, and a 

man whom any city might well be proud to call her own. In 
the home, in the associations that make life perfectly round- 
ed and beautiful, he was esteemed and beloved as few are. 
These associations from which the beauty and the fragrance 
of life exhale are not for the public ear, nor for the analysis of 
a public chronicle. A heart of the most generous impulses 
was his; a heart of the tenderest sympathy and of sincerest 
yielding to duty. The community is poorer because of this 
loss, and the business world has lost one of its brightest 
ornaments. All who knew him will breathe a sigh of the 
sincerest regret at this summons of death, and, indeed, the 
expressions that have already come to those bereaved have 
been many and have been from the heart. 


I The following extended and valuable history of Dallas 

I township, Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, was originally 

1 prepared by Mr. Ryman as a brief paper for the Wyoming 

,1 Historical and Geological Society, and was read before the 

; Society, by request, December ii, 1885. It was so full of 

interest that it was at once referred to the publishing com- 
mittee, and Mr. Ryman was unanimously requested to pre- 
pare a second paper on the same subject. This latter paper 
was also read before the Society at the annual meeting Feb- 
ruary II, 1886. At his own suggestion, that a much larger 
amount of data was still unrecorded about the township, 
both papers were returned to the author for enrichment. 
This task was with him a labor of love, taken up during his 
leisure hours, and the last touches were added after the 
disease which ended his useful life had fully developed. 
Even in his last days he still hoped to have strength to add 
a chapter on the part played by Dallas township in the late 
Civil War. But the pen fell from the weak hands, and this 
chapter remains unwritten. h. e. h. 

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ARRA.n \\\>\t\\. 




Up to the present time, local historians have found so 
much of interest connected with the settlement and growth 
of Wyoming Valley that they have neglected to note many 
important events in the rise and progress of the country 
surrounding. There is, no doubt, a vast deal of interesting 
historic material connected with every township in the pres- 
ent county of Luzerne, which, years ago, could and should 
have been recorded and given permanent place in its annals, 
but which, from long neglect, is now either lost forever, or 
so poorly and inaccurately handed down to us as to be 
comparatively valueless. In some parts of the county the 
work of collecting this material has been too long delayed 
to make it possible n 3W to get anything like an accurate 
account of men and events from the date of the first settle- 
ment. The men who knew of their own knowledcre, who 
' . . . . 

lived and had experiences in the earliest days, are gone, 

leaving us only the children or grandchildren to relate what 
was told them by their ancestors. This kind of hearsay 
and tradition lets in an element of uncertainty which should 
not exist in any historic record. 

With the view and purpose of writing down what I can 
learn, at this late day, concerning the "over the mountain" 
or hill country west of Wyoming Valley, and especially of 
the present township and borough of Dallas, I began in the 
year 1885 to make some effort to collect these materials 
and data from every source known to me, fiom examination 
of records, from conversation and correspondence with those 


whose memory runs farthest back and is clearest, from mon- 
uments, maps, deeds, &c., and have, in the following pages, 
recorded, as best I can, the result. I have endeavored to 
collect abundant proofs and the best evidence to be had 
before putting down any statement herein as fact. For the 
reasons given above, I have not been able to entirely ex- 
clude hearsay evidence or tradition ; but whenever relied 
upon it has been fortified by the testimony of more than 
one witness on the same point. 

The township of Dallas originally embraced all the ter- 
ritory of Luzerne county northwest of the present boundary 
lines of Kingston, Plymouth and Jackson townships, ex- 
tending to the present Sullivan, then Lycoming county line. 
It included all of the township of Monroe and parts of 
Forkston, North Branch, Northmoreland and Eaton town- 
ships, in present Wyoming county. All of Lake and Leh- 
man townships and parts of Ross, Union and Franklin 
townships in present Luzerne county. Dallas township 
originally joined to Kingston township as it now does on 
the line of the southeasterly side of certified Bedford town- 
ship. The northern portion of present Dallas township is 
drained by Leonard's Creek which passes through the vil- 
lage of Kunkle to Bowman's Creek and with that into the 
Susquehanna river near Tunkhannock. The southern and 
larger portion of present Dallas township, including nearly, 
if not quite all, of certified Bedford, is drained by Toby's 
Creek, which passes, by an easy grade, through a cut or 
gap in the mountains to Wyoming Valley at a point near 
the center of greatest population and activity. This is 
noted as an important fact, because the first immigrations to 
a country always follow the streams. This opening through 
the mountains made the country about the head waters of 
Toby's Creek very accessible to those living near its outlet. 
As soon as the settlements in the valley increased so that 
neighbors Hved near enough to see each other, there were 


some restless souls who felt crowded and began to seek 
homes farther back into the woods. The soil in the valley- 
was sandy and not very rich. The trees that grew upon it 
were scrubby and small, while upon the higher lands about 
Dallas the soil seemed stronger and was covered with a 
heavy forest of very large trees. Some who first settled in 
the valley reasoned from this that the soil about Dallas, 
which could raise such very large trees, must be richer and 
better for farming purposes than the soil of the valley, and 
they sold their farms in the v^alley and moved back. Of 
course the anthracite coal of the valley was not known of 
or considered then. 


The difficulties of settling Dallas township were very 
great. It was comparatively an easy thing to cut a path 
or road along the banks of Toby's Creek and find a way- 
even to its source, but to settle there alone, many miles 
from any clearing, and meet the wolves, bears and other 
wild animals, which were terrible realities in those early 
days, saying nothin^r of the still pending dread of the prowl- 
ing Indian, was a very serious undertaking. 

When a young boy I heard Mr. Charles Harris, then an 
old man, tell some of his early recollections, which ran back 
to about the time of the battle and massacre of Wyoming. 
He told us of the Indians who once came into the house 
where he and his mother were alone and demanded food. 
There being nothing better they roasted a pumpkin before 
the fire and scraped it off and ate it as fast as it became soft 
with cooking. He also told us about his father's first set- 
thng on the westerly side of Kingston mountain at what is 
still known as the "Harris Settlement" about two miles 
north of Trucksville. He said that his father worked all 
the first day felling trees and building a cabin. Night came 
on before the cabin could be enclosed. With the darkness 


came a pack of wolves, and, to protect his family, Mr. Har- 
ris built a fire and sat up all night to keep it burning. 
The wolves were dazed and would not come near a fire, 
and when daylight came they disappeared. To pass one 
night under such circumstances required bravery, but to 
stay, build a house, clear a farm and raise a family with such 
terrors constantly menacing exhibited a courage that com- 
mands our highest esteem. 

The time had arrived, however, for the settlement and 
clearing up of that "back of the mountain" country, and 
there were volunteers ready and anxious to do it. Of those 
volunteers I have been able to get the names of a very few 
and to learn where some of them lived. They settled alone 
and lived alone, leaving almost no evidence except a thread 
of tradition as to how they Hved. 

Among those earliest settlers in that vast wilderness 
about Dallas were John Kelley, John Wort, Elam Spencer, 
Ephriam McCoy, William Trucks, John Leonard, Thomas 
Case, the Baldwin family and the Fuller family. There were 
many others who came after the beginning of the present 
century, but most, if not all, of the above named, had set- 
tled in that region before the year 1800. 

John Kelley and John Wort were revolutionary soldiers 
and settled near each other in present Dallas (then Kings- 
ton) township. They were, in my opinion, the first who 
settled and built homes within the present township of Dal- 
las, probably earlier than McCoy or Leonard (Mr. Pearce 
in his Annals of Luzerne County gives McCoy as the 
builder of the first house in Dallas), as both names appear 
in the assessment books of Kingston township for the year 
1796, while McCoy's name does not appear there (until 
several years later) probably for reasons hereafter explained. 

John Wort then (1796) had fifty acres of land, three of 
which were already cleared, while John Kelley had a like 
number of acres in all, of which six acres were then cleared. 


Wort then had one horse and two cattle while Kellcy was 
credited with owning no horses but four cattle. John 
Wort's settlement was on the southerly side of the present 
road leading from Dallas borough to Orange post office or 
Pincherville, in Franklin township. The old log house in 
which he afterwards lived was still standing a few years ago 
nearly opposite where Leonard Oakley then hved, about 
half a mile southwest of late residence of Sanford Moore, 
now deceased. John Kelley hved on the same side of the 
same road about three-quarters of a mile nearer Orange post 
office on the lot in the warrantee name of John Eaton. In 
the early days of this century the ''Kelley clearing," as John 
Kelley's improvement was called, was a somewhat noted 
spot, and is found frequently mentioned in the early road 
views, descriptions in deeds, &c., in that part of the country. 
People went there from miles around to cut hay from his 
low marsh land, where grass grew abundantly before it had 
yet been started on the newly cleared land of the neighbor- 
hood. Among other things most difficult to get at that 
time was hay for horses and cattle. The first clearings, I 
am told, were all ured and needed to raise a sufficient sup- 
ply of grain and other food for the families, and a long time 
elapsed before enough land was cleared so that farmers 
could spare a part of it to stand in grass or hay. The first 

f. hay crops were, as a rule, exhausted long before the new 

grass could be had, and one of the methods of piecing out 
the horse feed was to send the boys in early spring to 

I gather the ferns that would push themselves up from the 

ground and begin to unroll almost before the snow was 
gone. Another expedient was to cut evergreen trees and 
brush of different kinds and drag them into the barn yard 
for the cattle and sheep to feed upon. 

John Leonard settled and made a clearing at the lower 
or southeastern end of part two of lot one and part one of 
lot two of certified Bedford (then Kingston and now Dallas) 


township, near the new stone county bridge across Toby's 
Creek, ahnost exactly at the point where the northernmost 
and the middle branches of Toby's Creek come together 
near the easternmost corner of Dallas borough, now called 
Leonard's Station on the Wilkes-Barre and Harvey's Lake 
Railroad. The clearing made by him still remains sur- 
rounded by almost unbroken woods as he left it. A few 
.stones from the tumble down chimney of his house and a 
few apple trees standing near mark the spot where his house 
stood, near the eastern end of the clearing. It has always 
been and is still known as Leonard's Clearing or Leonard's 
Meadows. He bought this land, 150 acres, of a relative, 
Jeremiah Coleman of Plymouth, in the year 1795, and prob- 
ably settled there soon after. In the deed for the land 
Leonard is named as a resident of Plymouth township. In 
1796 he was assessed in Plymouth township as the owner 
of 45 acres of land, a log house and four cows. He does 
not appear to have been assessed in Plymouth township 
after 1796. The assessment books for Kingston township 
for the next seven years cannot now be found ; but in the 
year 1804 we find him assessed in Kingston township with 
18 acres of cleared land (about the amount of the present 
clearing) and the 145 acres of unimproved land, one house and 
four cows. He was regularly assessed thereafter in Kings- 
ton township for the same property until 1807, when all 
trace of him disappears. He was a shingle-maker, and the 
spot where his clearing was made is said to have been an 
old halting place for the Indians, who used to travel up to 
Harvey's Lake and across the country that way. 

Joseph Shaver, of Dallas borough, informed me that his 
father, John P. Shaver, who afterwards bought and settled 
near the Leonard clearing, used to tell of the trials he had 
when a boy, about the year 1802, in driving a team from 
Wilkes-Barre up Toby's Creek to John Leonard's clearing 
to get a load of shingles. There were no roads, only a road- 


way cut through the woods from the valley along Toby's 
Creek to where Trucksville now is, and from there over the 
hills somewhat as the main road now runs, to a point near 
the maple tree by the present road on the present line be- 
tween Kingston and Dallas townships, near the cross roads 
and late residence of James Shaver, deceased. From there 
he said there was a path down to Leonard's house. There 
were no bridges then, and the difficulties of the trip were 
greatly increased by his being obliged frequently to cross 
and re-cross the creek and part of the way to drive in the 
bed of the creek, both going and returning. 

In the woods a few rods south of the Leonard clearing there 
is still standing a carefully dug and walled up cellar in the 
center of which stands a tall pine tree. I have been unable 
to find anyone w^ho could give me any information as to 
who built this cellar. It may have been the commencement 
of a house for John Leonard, Jr., who appeared about the 
year 1806 as a single freeman, but who disappears with 
John Leonard, Sr., in 1807, after which date the records of 
this county show no further trace of either of them. 

Charles Car ScacMen (or Skadden), of Plymouth, bought 
a lot next to Leonard's from same grantor in the same year, ' '^ ^ 
but, as far as I can learn, never lived on it. 

Rev. William Case, of Kingston borough, tells me that 
Leonard was related to his family and to the Skadden fam- 
ily — all formerly of Plymouth — through marriage, and that, 
in his opinion, this same John Leonard moved to Ohio and 
settled near Cleveland about the year 18 10. This fact, and 
the vague uncertainty about ii" and about the exact name, 
no doubt gave rise, a few years since, to an effort on the 
part of a portion of the Case and Skadden families at Ply- 
mouth to establish relationship with the great philanthropist 
and millionaire, Leonard Case, who died at Cleveland, Ohio, 
in the winter of 1879 and 1880, leaving, as it was by some 
supposed, no nearer heirs. 


Elam Spencer, a Connecticut Yankee, bought the balance 
of lot one of certified Bedford — 168 acres — of Jeremiah Cole- 
man in the year 1800, and is said to have moved into the 
house with John Leonard and to have lived there while 
erecting a domicil for himself on the upper end of the tract, 
near where his son, Deming Spencer, afterwards lived and 
died. While Elam's family was living in the Leonard 
House, this son Deming Spencer was born, in the year 1800. 
(This is given as an old tradition about Dallas, although 
the tombstone of Deming Spencer gives the date of his 
death 1873, age j6 years.) He is said to have been the 
first white child born within the territory of present Dallas 

Ephraim McCoy settled, made a small clearing, and built 
a house in the year 1797 on the lower side of the present 
road, about half way between Raub's hotel in Dallas bor- 
ough and the "Corner School House," near present resi- 
dence of William Goss. This house, like all the houses of 
that region at that time, was built of logs, and was but little 
better than a hunter's cabin. McCoy was the original 
grantee from the state of the northwest quarter of lot two 
of certified Bedford township. He was a Revolutionary 
soldier, and was lame from a wound received in battle. He 
was unable to do much work and drew a pension. He 
cleared a small spot when he first settled there, but in later 
years worked but little, spending much of his time fishing 
at Harvey's Lake. When he first settled in Dallas, Har- 
vey's Lake was a famous fishing and hunting resort. Mc- 
Coy said it was still visited by Indians and that he fre- 
quently saw them passing by a trail through the woods 
where Dallas village now stands, to and from the lake. 

Abram Honeywell informs me that he remembers McCoy 
well, and says than when McCoy died the nearest burying 
ground was at Huntsville, and there being no drivablc roads 
yet opened between Dallas and Huntsville, McCoy's body 


I was carried by the pall bearers about two miles to the Hunts- 

I villc burying groud for interment. I give this incident as 

I it was related to me by Mr. Honeywell, but it is proper to 

I' state that McCoy sold his Dallas lands in 1817, and is noted 

I in the first assessment book of the newly organized Dallas 

i township (18 1 8) as having "removed," and his name does 

I not appear thereafter as a taxpayer of Dallas township. 

I This may be the date of his death. He left no kin and but 

I little can be learned of him. There is no tombstone to mark 

I his grave at Huntsville. 

I William Trucks, a Connecticut Yankee, in 1801 bought 

? of Daniel Barney, of Wilkes-Barre, the Connecticut title to 

? lot three "of certified Bedford with a warrant against all 

'- persons claiming the same by any title derived from, by or 

I under the state of Connecticut or the Susquehanna Com- 

I pany." William Trucks, Jr., aftewards completed the title 

H by securing a patent from the Commonwealth of Pennsyl- 

I vania. It is on this lot three of certified Bedford that nearly 

I all of the present village and much of the borough of Dallas 

I now stands. William Trucks, however, though a pioneer, did 

I not go so far into the wilderness from the settlements of 

I Wyoming Valley. He did not venture beyond the banks 

I of Toby's Creek at the present village of Trucksville, which 

;j took its name in his honor. 

I As early as 1796 he was a resident of Kingston township 

? and the owner of 36 acres of "occupied" land and 208 acres 

I of "unoccupied" land, one horse and two cattle, and was by 

I occupation a carpenter and millright. In the year 1804 his 

f. holdings were 13 acres of improved land, 803 acres of unim- 

I proved land and three cattle. In the year 1800 Benjamin 

I Carpenter, Oliver Pettibone and William Trucks were ap- 

I'f pointed as committee, "by the proprietors of Kingston, for 

f the purpose of leasing the public lands in said town to 

I William Trucks." Seventy acres were thus leased for a 

i term of 999 years. The lease was dated 4th April, 1800. 


In 18 1 3 William Trucks, Jr., conveyed all of lot three of 
certified Bedford to Philip Shaver. 

In the year 1807 we find him, for the first time, assessed 
as owner of a grist mill and a saw mill. These mills were 
at Trucksville. The grist mill must have been built at 
an earlier date however, as we find it mentioned in a peti- 
tion for a road view as early as 1804. It was built of 
logs, two stories high, and stood on the same ground now 
occupied by the present steam grist mill in that village. 
It had but one pair of mill stones, and they were made 
from a large boulder of conglomerate rock, known as "fiat 
iron rock," which used to stand by the road side opposite 
the old John Gore saw mill that formerly stood a quarter 
of a mile above the present toll gate of the Kingston and 
Dallas turnpike. These mill stones were cut out and set 
by Mr. Trucks himself. At this mill the grain was first run 
through the stones and ground. It was caught in bags 
below and carried up stairs again by hand where it was 
thrown into a hopper and shaken by hand through a coarse 
cloth and thus bolted. 

The saw mill was erected by Mr. Trucks about the same 
time, possibly a year or two later. It stood against the 
steep and rocky hillside, about four rods above the stone 
mill dam which now stands at the point where the Kings- 
ton and Dallas turnpike crosses Toby's Creek in the lower 
end of the village of Trucksville. Those mills and the 
William Trucks settlement at that point were very impor- 
tant improvements in the early part of this century. It was 
the first foothold of settlement and civilization on that side 
of Kingston mountain. William Trucks built substantially 
as if he intended to stay and develop the country. The 
house in which he lived was built of logs, hewn on four 
sides, and stood on the flat ground where the store building 
late occupied by J. P. Rice, Esq., and now by William Pat- 
terson, Esq., stands, about four or five rods below the 



A : 





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--• ■ -' ■' •" ■ .----■.■' -Ji-jtt.. . 

-U- ■:. - ■. *^.^ -'j 

Captain Jacob Rice 


present grist mill. This house had two rooms down stairs. 
The chimney was built in the center and had two fire places. 
It was warm and strong I have been told by those who re- 
membered it. 

In the year 1809 William Trucks w^as commissioned jus- 
tice of the peace by Governor Snyder, for Plymouth, Kings- 
ton and Exeter townships. In 181 1 he sold his mills to 
Joseph Sweatland who soon afterwards added a distillery to 
the grist mill. The same year William Trucks moved to 
Wayne township where he spent the balance of his days, 
leaving powers of attorney/ with his son William Trucks, 
Jr., and his friend Daniel Ayres of Plymouth, to dispose of 
the balance of his interests in Luzerne county, Pennsylvania. 

About 1 8 14 Jacob Rice purchased part of the Trucks im- 
provement from the Sweatland family and settled atTrucks- 
ville. The distillery was distasteful to Mr. Rice and soon 
disappeared. Mr. Rice came from Warren county, New 
Jersey, and was a local preacher of the Methodist faith. 
He was a man of great enterprise and industry. He made 
many improvements at Trucksville, and became one of the 
foremost and wealthiest citizens of his time in that vicinity. 
He erected a tannery, plaster mill and fulling mill, opened 
a store, and for many years conducted a large and prosper- 
ous business at that village. He built a handsome residence 
on the hill above the grist mill which is still standing, and 
which, at the time of its erection, was far in advance of any 
other house in that country. It was painted white and had 
green blinds on the windows, and when new was generally 
regarded as palatial for that place. Joseph Orr, father of 
Albert S. Orr, of Wilkes-Barre, was the builder. 

Another enterprise started at that point by Mr. Rice was 
a corn roaster intended for preparing roasted corn to send 
south for the negro slaves. Roasted corn was afterwards 
found to be injurious as a negro diet, and this enterprise 


Almost contemporary with the William Trucks settle- 
ment, possibly a little earlier, was the settlement, at Hunts- 
ville, on the southwest fork of Toby's Creek, then in Ply- 
mouth township, afterwards just on the border line of Jack- 
son township and Dallas township, as originally laid out. 
The place took its name in honor of William Hunt who 
went there about the year 1800. One of the first stores at 
that place was kept by Mr. Hunt, and of him the story is told 
that he was once complaining, in a half bragging way, about 
the extravagance of his family in the use of sugar, and added, 
by way of justification of his complaint, that if they had 
their full swing he really believed they would consume 
forty pounds a year. Hunt was the original certified grantee 
of part of lot five in certified Bedford, part of which was by 
him sold to Peter Ryman in 1829, has since remained in the 
hands of his family and descendants, and constitutes a part 
of the Ryman homestead farm. 

The earliest settlers of Huntsville, however, were the 
Baldwins and Fullers. Jared Baldwin had already erected 
a saw mill there in 1796. Amos Baldwin and Jude Bald- 
win, "hatters" by trade, also had a half interest in a saw 
mill, possibly partners of Daniel Allen in another mill, at 
the same time. Jehiel Fuller is credited with having a still 
house in the same neighborhood in the same year. In the 
year 1799 Jared Baldwin still owned the mill while Amos 
and Jude Baldwin confined themselves to their trade as 
"hatters." The Fuller "distillery" is not mentioned again 
by the assessors, and possibly disappeared. The country 
was not enough cleared about there at that day to make a 
distillery at that point pay. About this time, 1799 or 
1800, Jared Baldwin and Amos Baldwin erected a grist mill 
near where the present grist mill in the village of Hunts- 
ville stands. In the year 1804 the active business portion 
of the Baldwin family in that settlement consisted of Jared 
Baldwin, the father, and Tibball Baldwin, Amza Baldwin, 



Amos Baldwin and Jude Baldwin, sons. All were united, 
at that time, in the ownership of the grist mill and half of 
the saw mill at Huntsville. The following additional facts 
concerning the Baldwin family may be of interest, viz : 
Jared Baldwin came from Connecticut in 1795 and built 
the hat factory at Huntsville with the remnant of his means. 
He had been a quartermaster in the Connecticut line of the 
Continental army, and quartermasters in that struggle put 
their fortunes into supplies and trusted the government to 
reimburse them, but the Continental script became worth- 
less. After building the hat factory and saw mill, which 
stood about six rods above the present county bridge at 
Huntsville, and a flouring mill which burned in 1809, on 
the opposite side of the stream from the present one, he re- 
turned to Connecticut where he died about 181 7. His son 
Tibbals built a log house near the little old orchard back of 
Harvey Fuller's present dwelling and died there. Other of 
the sons removed to Pitcher, N. Y. Jude continued in 
business in Huntsville, but died of typhus or (typhoid) fever 
in 1 82 1, as did several of his family. There had been 
erected a dam to overflow the old marsh where the Wilkes- 
Barre Water Company's dam now is. This overflow killed 
a lot of standing timber and is said to have caused an epi- 
demic of fever of some very fatal kind. Ambrose, Lewis 
and Watson, sons of Jude went to Ohio in 1832. Burr fol- 
lowed in 1839, and died in Williams county in 1855. Mrs. 
Eleanor Brown, late of Lehman, was a daughter of Jude. 
Ambrose afterwards m.oved from Ohio to Ottawa, Kansas, 
where he was twenty years justice of the peace, and died a 
few years ago. [For these I^aldwins, see Baldwin Family, 


Joshua Fuller and Benajah Fuller were the owners of the 
other half of the saw mill. Next year, 1805-6, this saw mill 
was burned down. The same joint owners rebuilt it, how- 
ever, at once, and with it a distillery. These mills stood 


within, or very nearly within, the territory afterwards in- 
cluded in Dallas township at its formation in 18 17. Mr. 
Pearce states, in his Annals of Luzerne County, that the 
first saw mill in Dallas township was built by Jude Baldwin 
on a branch of Toby's Creek in the year 181 3. Jude Bald- 
win did build a mill at that date on Toby's Creek about one 
mile above Huntsville, but there is doubt about its being 
the first mill in Dallas township as originally laid out, 
though it may have been the first within the present terri- 
tory of Dallas township. Miner Fuller, afterwards, about 
1847, built another saw mill about half a mile farther above 
the Jude Baldwin mill on the same creek. Both of these 
mills have been torn down within the past twenty years, 
there being no longer any need for them. The Fullers and 
Baldwins were vigorous pioneers and natural mill builders. 
I cannot more appropriately conclude this subject than by 
quoting from some valuable letters regarding those early 
people, which Hon. Evart Bogardus, of North Monroeville, 
Ohio, in response to my earnest solicitations, did me the 
honor to write, dated April 7th, 1886: 

* * * "Jude Baldwin was one of the early settlers. 
He had a large family. His sons were Burr, Abed, Lewis J., 
Watson and Ambrose. The last is still living somewhere 
in the west, as is also his youngest daughter, Mrs. Eleanor 
Brown, widow of the late Amos Brown, Jr. Abed and Burr 
carried on the mercantile business in Huntsville in my 
father's old store house. 

"The Fullers settled in Lehman and Plymouth (now Jack- 
son) townships in an early day. There were two brothers 
that settled near Huntsville, Benajah and Joshua. They 
built the first saw-mill and grist-mill "over the mountain" (as 
we were in the habit of calling it). They came from near 
Kent, Connecticut, and first purchased in Kingston, nearly 
opposite Colonel Dorrance's, and, if my memory is correct, 


sold to Mr. Sharp and purchased a large tract of wild land 
about Huntsville on the Jackson and Lehman sides. The 
saw-mill was situated just above the present bridge. When 
I lived in Huntsville a heavy freshet uncovered the old mud- 
sill — a hemlock log — that had been buried beneath the 
ground for fifty years, and it was as sound as the day it was 
first put in. The grist-mill was located just below where 
the present one is now standing. It had two run of stones, 
one of burr and one of pudding or conglomerate stones, 
such as is found on the Shawnee Mountain. The grist-mill 
was built some time after the saw-mill. There was a very 
good water privilege to supply these mills before the coun- 
try was settled and the forest was cleared- away, but the 
advance of civilization has lessened the supply. Just above 
the saw-mill, at the mouth of a large marsh, through which 
the west branch of Toby's Creek runs, the hills coming near 
together left a narrow passage for the escape of the water. 
The beaver, with his cunning instinct, selected this outlet to 
erect a dam, which they did in a most substantial manner. 
When I first remember Huntsville the remains of this dam 
were visible. I should judge it was originally about four 
feet high, which would overflow some two or three hundred 
acres of land. But since the country has been cleared up 
the sudden and heavy freshets have washed away its last 

"Benajah Fuller was a Revolutionary soldier and drew a 
pension, as did his widow. His wife, "Aunt Katy" {nee 
Catherine Thompson) survived him eight years, They had 
three sons, William, Jeremiah and Isaac. Chester Fuller, 
son of William, now resides in Lehman — a prosperous 
farmer — living on the old homestead. Harvey Fuller, son 
of Jeremiah, is living at Huntsville. Both brothers had 
other children who went west. Truman Atherton married 
their daughter Clarrissa, w^th whom the old folks made 
their last earthly home. The sons of Isaac Fuller were five. 


One now resides, I think, in Bradford county. Pa. Two 
went west and two died. Bcnajah Fuller was an industrious 
and upright man, beloved and respected by all who knew 
him. His eldest daughter married William Trucks, the 
founder of Trucksville. Louise married Daniel Ruggles. 
Laura a Mr. Trundall, whose son James lives opposite my 
present dwelling house, and is one of our wealthiest and 
most respected citizens. 

"Joshua built near his brothers on the farm now owned 
by Dr. Rogers. He had three sons, Sylvanus, Stephen and 
Abram. The latter died when a young man. Sylvanus, 
or 'Uncle Vene,' as he was known, lived near Jude Bald- 
win. He was a thrifty farmer, and was always full of fun and 
good nature; one of the best-hearted men in the world, 
respected and beloved by all his neighbors. He removed 
to Loraine county, Ohio, about 1830 or 1835, and accumu- 
lated a handsome property. His son Abram, the only child 
left, is still living on the old homestead, a wealthy man. 
Stephen also moved farther west. I know but little of him 
since he left Pennsylvania. Joshua also had four daughters. 
One married the late Benjamin Reynolds ; one married 
Amos Brown ; another married Joseph Worthington, Jr. ; 
the fourth, Amzi, never married. She lived near Harvey's 
Lake, and died within a few years back. There was another 
brother, who settled in Northumberland, of whom I know 
but little." 

There were no other mills built on the northeastern fork 
of Toby's Creek above William Trucks' mills until about the 
year i8i5,when Philip Shaver built a saw-mill about half a 
mile below the point where Toby's Creek crosses the line 
between Dallas and Kingston townships, on the site where 
the old mill now stands near the residence of Lewis R. 
Shaver. (Now ''Shavertown" station on W. B. & H. L. R. 
R.) On this mill Philip Shaver sawed the siding which are 


now (1886) in use on the old wagon bridge across the Sus- 
quehanna at Wilkes-Barre. [Replaced 1892-3 by new steel 
bridge.] They were furnished by Philip Shaver under a 
contract at ^5.00 per thousand feet, delivered at the bridge, 
and to be two-thirds panel. 

About the year 1818 another saw-inill was erected by 
Christian Rice (vv^ho came from near Greensburg, Warren 
county, New Jersey, about that time) a few rods below the 
point where the main road crosses Toby's Creek in the 
present village of Dallas. That mill was still standing up 
to about 1880. Another mill was erected along in the 
thirties by Jacob Frantz near the present Frantz school 
house, on the northernmost branch of the north fork of 
Toby's Creek. Still another mill was erected about the same 
time midway between the Frantz mill and the John Leon- 
ard clearing. This was known as the Weston mill. This 
branch of Toby's Creek was too small to afford any suffi- 
cient water power, and these mills had to be abandoned 
many years ago. 

About the year 1840 Abram and Richard Ryman built a 
saw-mill on site of present steam saw-mill of Ryman & 
Shaver, about a half mile below Dallas village. In the year 
1852 a steam saw-mill was added, and these two were run 
together until about the year 1870, when both were torn 
down and a large steam mill was erected, occupying the 
ground of both the former mills. This new steam mill was 
burned about July or August, 1 88 1, and the present mill 
was built in the same year. 

The foregoing comprise the saw-mills on Toby's Creek 
within the territory of Dallas township. Prior to 1890 there 
has never been a grist-mill within the territory of present 
Dallas township so far as I can learn. In that year a steam 
grist-mill was erected about 100 feet northeast of the site 
of the old Christian Rice saw-mill in the borough of Dallas 
by Gregory & Pleitzman. 




At Kunkle post office, in the "Green Woods*' country, on 
I Leonard's Creek, a branch of Bowman's Creek, there were 

two or three other mills. About 1840 Levi Hoyt built a 
saw-mill there about a half mile below or north of the 
village of Kunkle. Wesley Kunkle afterwards, about 1 841, 
erected a mill about one-fourth of a mile south of the village 
of Kunkle, towards Dallas village. Still later Wesley Kun- 
kle built another mill in the village of Kunkle which occu- 
pied the site of present (1886) steam saw-mill of A. Ryman 
& Sons. The steam power was put in by Abram Ryman 
in the year 1871. 

The Newbury mills at Monroe, in present Monroe town- 
ship, were erected at quite an early date. They were 
marked on the map accompanying the report of viewers 
opening road from Wilkes-Barre to Bradford county line, 
via Dallas and Monroe, in 1820. Hitchcock & Church built 
another mill at **Churchdale," near Kunkle, about 1840. 

Still another mill was built by Elijah Harris about 1840, 
near site of present mill of Richard Ryman, at point known 
as Ryman's pond. This mill was supplanted by a very large 
steam saw-mill erected by Richard Ryman about 1858. The 
latter burned a few years later, and in its place the present 
mill (1886), run by water power, was built. 

About 1834 Christopher Snyder built a distillery and ran 
it for a few years. It stood near the center of the north- 
western half of lot six certified Bedford, being the part cer- 
tified to Abel Wheeler and Sarah Seeley, near late residence 
of Edward Hunter. Apple whiskey made from distilled 
cider was the principal product of this and most of the 
other small distilleries of that day. Apples were then, as 
now, a bountiful crop in Dallas township. 

The settlements in Dallas township during the first dec- 
ade of this century were not numerous; but just after the 
close of the war of 1812, when the soldiers had returned 



and were seeking homes, a new impetus was given to the 
house-hunting and settling about Dallas. 

Among those who came in the first decade was Joseph 
Worthington and wife — the latter a daughter of Jonathan 
Buckley. They came from Connecticut in the year 1806 
and settled near Harvey's Lake. His first house was built 
of logs, and stood about ten rods northwest from the late resi- 
dence of his son, late Henry Worthington, on the hill about 
a quarter of a mile from the eastern inlet to Harvey's Lake. 
When Mr. Worthington first moved into that country there 
was no road from Huntsville to Harvey's Lake except a 
bridle path. Air. Worthington cut a way through and built 
a house when his nearest neighbor was miles away and no 
clearings in sight anywhere. Wolves were then very nu- 
merous and bold at night, and the only way Mr. Worthing- 
ton could protect his family from their assaults was for all 
to climb the ladder to the second floor and pull the ladder 
up after them. Mr. Worthington used to say that his life 
during those early days was most lonely and disheartening. 

Concerning Mr. Worthington and other early settlers in 
that vicinity, I cannot do better that to further quote from 
the valuable letters of Mr. Bogardus : 

"Joseph Worthington was one of the prominent men of 
I Lehman. When he settled at Harvey's Lake it was a wild 

wilderness. The old homestead never departed from the 
family. He was twice married. His first wife was a Miss 
Buckley, by whom he had five sons and three daughters. 
Joseph L. built the house where James Myers now lives 
(1886). Eliphat located in Doylestown. Elijah was an 
editor of a Whig paper in Wilkes-Barre. Jonathan was a 
shoemaker and moved to Loraine county, Ohio, he died 
about a year ago (1885). Thomas moved to Sauk City, 
Wisconsin. Nancy married Isaac Fuller. Maria married 
and lived in Doylestown, Pa. Eliza married Asaph Pratt. 



Elijah married Caroline Pratt. Asaph and Elijah were 
courting each others sisters at the same time. The four 
lovers met at the lake one pleasant day and proposed a sail 
on the water. Thomas was also with them. They lashed 
two canoes together, putting boards across both for seats, 
and to hold them level. They were fortunately not far from 
shore when, by some mishap, the boats doubled in and let 
them all in the water. Elijah and Asaph could not swim, 
nor, of course, could Caroline. Thomas being a good 
swimmer was rescuing them as fast as he could. Eliza 
said to her lover, 'now you follow my direction and I will 
save you and myself.' After getting the promise she di- 
rected him to lay his hand on her shoulder and struck for 
shore. Had she not been a swimmer both would have 
drowned, as Thomas had all he could do to save the other 
two. Not one of the family ever brought disgrace on them- 
selves or their much respected father and mother. 

Mr. Worthington's second wife was Sally Perry, a very 
estimable lady, by whom he had one son, the late Henry 

Of Jacob I, Bogardus, a conspicuous and for many years 
a leading citizen of Dallas (now Lehman) township, I glean 
the following from the letters of his son above quoted. 

He was born in the city of New York 1783, his father 
being a merchant in that city. He married the only daugh- 
ter of Jonathan O. Moseley, of East Haddam, Conn. He 
engaged for a time in the mercantile business at Katskill, 
N. Y., and not being successful, removed to Pennsylvania 
and settled in Bradford township, afterwards a part of Dal- 
las, and now of Lehman township. He settled there about 
about 1812 in the midst of the forest. His nearest neigh- 
bor on the south was Thomas Case, two miles ; on the east. 
Amos Brown, three miles ; on the north, John Whiteman, 
two and a half miles. There were no public roads to any 



|l" of the neighbors. Mr. Bogardus and his wife were both well 

P educated, and Mr. Bogardus wrote a large portion of the 

f| early deeds, mortgages and other papers needed in that time. 

He was appointed by the Governor Justice of the Peace 
soon after coming to Pennsylvania, which office he held until 
he resigned many years after. He was at one time the only 
Justice of the Peace within the present territory of Lehman, 
Dallas and Jackson townships. His decisions and opinions 
■ were considered by most people about there in those days 
as final ; but few of them were carried to higher courts, and 
of these but few were reversed. 

Abram S. Honeywell was the standing Constable. Es- 
quire Bogardus married most of the young people about 
there in those days. " I well remember," says the letter of 
Evart Bogardus, "the marriage of A. S. Honeywell. He 
and his bride came on horseback, followed by most of the 
young folks of Dallas. They had a jolly time and returned 

"Uncle Peter Ryman," continues the letter, "and after- 
wards his son, Joseph Ryman, were the people's lawyers 
that practiced at this court. They would lay down the 
law to the court, sometimes rather crudely, but the court 
would listen to them respectfully, and when they got through, 
decide. Peter and Joseph were often engaged to represent 
opposite sides in the same law suit. Peter spoke with a de- 
cided German accent. He was also the owner of a copy of 
Pardon's Digest, and usually prepared his cases by study- 
ing this book, and recognized no other authority. On one 
occasion when they were thus opposing each other, Joseph 
stated a legal proposition which did not suit Peter very 
well. It was good law and good sense, as Peter seemed to 
feel, but some reply had to be made to break its force and 
leave some ground for him to stand on before his client. 
This Peter did with all the force at his command, by saying : 
' Yosep^ dat may be good law ^ put you caiCt ji)idit in Pur ton' 


"John Ryman, another son of Peter Ryman, had also a 
taste for the law. He went west at an early day and was, 
for twenty years, up to the time of his death in 1856, a con- 
spicuous and leading lawyer in the states of Indiana and 
Ohio, as the early volumes of the Supreme Court Reports 
will abundantly show. He was a man of great physical 
strength, and, as Smaton Holman recently remarked of him, 
*he had a courage equal to his strength, and probably never 
knew what fear was.' 

"Esquire Bogardus was a tall, athletic man. He had but 
few equals in strength, yet was good natured and never quar- 
relsome ; always full of fun. Militia training was a great in- 
stitution in those days. Once a year there was a general 
training day, when the brigade inspector was to inspect the 
arms of the patriots. They were all armed. Some with 
old muskets, broom-sticks, corn-stalks, canes, &c. Some 
time about 1820 general training was held at Shawnee. 
Esquire Bogardus was a private in (I think) Captain Oliver 
Davenport's Company, who for some reason, whether just 
or unjust, I cannot say, put Esquire Bogardus and some 
others from over the mountain under guard, which made 
them feel very indignant. While walking home they re- 
solved to raise a volunteer company which was to be called 
*The Dallas and Plymouth Rifle Company.' Esquire Bo- 
gardus was elected captain. I have not a distinct recollec- 
tion as to the other officers. I think Joseph Worthington 
and William Fuller were lieutenants. It was said to be the 
finest looking company in the regiment and the best drilled. 
Almost every man stood full six feet high. The uniform 
was green round-about coats, trimmed with gold lace and 
round brass buttons. A high white feather tipped with red. 
Otis Allen, a tall, muscular man was the 'file leader.' 
When the company wished to pass over a fence Uncle Otis 
would get down on all fours and the company would use 
him as a step to vault over the fence. A few evolutions 


would bring him to the head again. Many a time have I 
looked on these evolutions with pride while getting outside 
of a 'fippenny-bit's worth of gingerbread. 

"About 1825 Col. Jonathan O. Moscley left East Haddam 
and settled in Lehman on the same place with my father. 
He built the first frame house in either Dallas or Lehman, 
which is still standing on the old homestead. It was the 
marvel of the times, high walls, lathed, plastered and papered. 
The furniture was of a costly kind, being of solid mahogany 
with two good sized pier-glasses. This furniture was hauled 
by wagons from New York. 

"Col. Moseley was a graducite of Yale College under 
presidency of Theodore Dwight. He represented the dis- 
trict in which he lived, Middlesex county, Conn., sixteen 
years continuously in Congress. He was a pohshed gentle- 
man, as his education and surroundings gave him every op- 
portunity to be. He was a good lawyer, but he labored 
under the mistaken idea that it would be degrading to return 
to his practice. Col. Moseley and my father built and 
started the first store back of the mountain at Huntsville. 
That was their mistake. The goods had to be carted from 
Philadelphia by wagon. The country was new, money very 
scarce, and consequently a good deal of credit was given, 
and when accounts were due the pay was not forthcoming. 
After three or four years the money that had not been spent 
on the farm was in the hands of the dear people and re- 
verses followed. Garrick Mallery, Esq., bid in the farm 
and permitted Col. Moseley to occupy it until he removed 
to Michigan in 1839, Mr. Mallery being a good friend to 
Col. Moseley. 

"The writer remembers seeing deer in fliocks in the woods, 
wolves howhng at night, bears come and drink from 
the spring brook. Our first near neighbor was William 
Newman who married Peggy Lee. He sold to 'Governor' 
Sitese, who got the title of Governor in rather an amusing 


way. Joseph Worthington who was the only resident at 
Harvey's Lake was expecting the Governor of Pennsylva- 
nia to call on him on a certain day. In the morning, as he 
went out on his farm to work, he told his daughter Eliza, 
a mischievous young lady, that when the Governor came 
she should call him and he would come in the back door 
and change his farm clothes for his store clothes. The call 
came, and, after Mr. Worthington had attended to his toilet, 
he went into the room only to meet Cornelius Sites. What 
added to the amusement of the daughter was that Mr. Sites 
was a tall, raw-boned, uneducated man, and exceedingly 
homely. The title of "Governor" never departed from him. 
"Governor" Sites was, however, a clever man and good 

"Our nearest school house was a log house situate two 
miles distant on the road leading to Harvey's Lake through 
a dense woods. The first post office established back of 
the mountain was at Huntsville. It was named in honor of 
William Hunt, an old resident of the place. Truman Ath- 
erton was the first postmaster. He was appointed under 
John Quincy Adams' administration. He held the office 
until about 1849 when he resigned, and Major Abed Baldwin 
was appointed as his successor. Truman Atherton occupied 
quite a prominent place in the respect of his neighbors, 
holding, frequently, two or three township offices at the 
time, and represented his county two years in the legisla- 
ture of Pennsylvania. 

"Oliver McKeel bought a farm adjoining ours. His wife, 
nee Charity Pringle, is still living (1886) on the old home- 
stead now owned by their son Lewis McKeel. 

"John Linskill came from England and settled near what 
is called the Linskill school-house, in Lehman, about 1830; 
purchased his farm of Russel T. Green, and married for his 
second wife Polly Steel. His first wife was a sister to 
Thomas Major, Sr. Mr. Linskill worked at his trade 


(tailoring) in a shop near his house. He was an honest, in- 
dustrious man, very quick in his movements and decisions ; 
of strong rehgious faith, rather intolerant towards those who 
differed from him. I remember very well when they were 
building the Christian Church at Huntsville he would not 
look at it, and I believe never went into it ; but he was a 
good neighbor and kind-hearted, and commanded the re- 
spect of the neighborhood. 

"Amos Brown was one of the first settlers of Lehman. 
He was living there when my father came to Pennsylvania 
in 1812. He had two sons, Jeremiah and Amos; three 
daughters, Rachel, Annis and Sybil. Jerry and Rachel 
never married, but always lived on the old homstead. Amos, 
Jr., married Eleanor, youngest daughter of Jude Baldwin. 
Annis died young. Sybil married William Major. Jerry 
was a jolly, good-hearted fellow, fond of young company. 
He passed through three generations as a young fellow ; or 
rather one among the young folks. 

"Jerry quoted 'Uncle Vere' very often. He would gen- 
erally finish a sentence with 'as Uncle Vere said.' A com- 
mon answer to a saluation as 'How are you, Jerry?' would 
be 'Forked end downwards.' Dr. Robinson, who married 
Polina Fuller, Uncle Vere's oldest daughter, Jerry's cousin, 
could never get over laughing about Jerry's 'forked end 

"Elder Griffin Lewis was an early settler there. He lived 
in Jackson township near Huntsville. He was the only 
minister among us for many years. He was a large, stal- 
wart Vermonter — a man of unimpeachable honesty and 
integrity, an exemplary Christian. He was not noted for 
his eloquence, but for his solid, good sense, and among his 
neighbors a peacemaker. He married Hannah Rogers, 
sister of Dr. Rogers' father, Elder Joel Rogers. He has 
two sons, James and Jonah. The latter is now living at 
Battle Creek, Mich. James died a few years since in De- 



troit. Abed Baldwin married one of his daughters. One 
married Captain T. O. Bogardus ; one married Palmer 
Brown (she is still living, 1886); the youngest married 
Thomas Worthington. 

"As you wish me to say something about myself, I will 
give a short outline of my life. I was the third son of Ja- 
cob I. Bogardus ; was born in Lehman (or Bedford as it 
then was) September 15th, 18 13, five days after the battle 
of Lake Erie. At the age of fourteen I went to the city of 
New York, where my father apprenticed me to the saddle 
and harness trade. I remained in , the city about five years, 
after which I returned to Lehman and helped work on the 
farm. The first office I ever held was constable. I had 
an execution in favor of Joseph Worthington against Mc- 
Carty (I forget his first name). [Probably Edward.] He 
turned out his only cow. Mrs. McCarty came out with 
tears in her eyes and said it was her only cow. I told her 
to keep her cow until I called for it. I laid the case before 
Mr. Worthington. He directed me not to sell it. I thought if 
that was the business of a constable, to be the instrument in 
the hands of the law to distress the poor, I had had enough 
of that glory. I resigned and John Linskill w^as appointed 
by the court as my successor. I shortly after left for Phil- 
adelphia and entered into the employ of J. M. Botton & 
Co. as shipping clerk in a forwarding and commission busi- 
ness. I remained with them three years. In the spring of 
1838 my father remov^ed to Kalamazoo, Mich. I followed 
him in next December with a bright prospect of entering 
into the mercantile business, but was disappointed by false 
promises. In 1840 I returned to Pennsylvania, stopped at 
Williamsport, and through the kindness of a good friend, I 
obtained a situation as book-keeper for John B. Hall & Co. 
In November following I was married to Miss Louise, only 
daughter of Truman and Clarrissa Atherton. At the ear- 
nest solicitations of my wife's father I left Williamsport in 



the Spring of 1841 and took charge of his farm. Remained 
on the farm seven years (as long as Jacob worked for his 
wife). My old friend G. M. Hollenback said to me several 
times, when I met him in Wilkes-Barre : *Mr. Bogardus, it 
seems to me you could do better than work on a farm.' I 
thought perhaps he had something for me, so I would see 
what it was. I told him I though I could, and wished I 
could see an opening. Said I, 'Perhaps you have one.' He 
said he had, and invited me into his office. He then un- 
folded to me his plan, viz., to rent me his old warehouse, 
put me up a store at the canal basin (on the same ground 
where now stands the new L. V. R. R. depot in Wilkes- 
Barre). Had he thrown a pail of cold water on me I 
could not have received a more sudden chill. I could not 
see even a living in it, but he assured me there was money 
in it ; and knowinsf him to be a g^ood business man, I trust- 
ed in his judgment, which proved to be correct. The first 
year, by strict attention to business and by the help of my 
good wife, I found, at the "close of navigation the following 
fall, I had accumulated ^1200 over and above my living and 
house rent, and had built up a paying business. I retailed 
I in one year 15,000 bushels of oats. My prices for hay and 

oats, corn and chop governed the market. I introduced 
the first dray in Wilkes-Barre, drawn by a large bay horse 
weighing between 1700 and 1800 pounds. Joe Keller was 
drayman. My business was always prosperous, and my 
business relations with the people of Wilkes-Barre and 
the surrounding country were almost of the most pleasant 
kind, and it does me good when I visit my old home to re- 
ceive so many hearty greetings. 

"In 1855 I joined my father-in-law in building the grist- 
mill at Huntsville. After it was finished, we sold out our 
farms, both his and mine, in Jackson and Lehman, to Anson 
Atherton. I then sold out my store and good will to J. 
M. Hollenback, my house and lot to Robert Watt, and in 


the fall of 1856, in company with my father-in-law and 

brother-in-law, G Atherton, and our families, we left 

for the West, and located in Huron county, Ohio, my pres- 
ent home. We purchased a good farm and bought out the 
only merchant in our village, and did a prosperous business. 
I was always active in politics — a Democrat up to the 
breaking out of the Civil War in 1 86 1. I then united with 
the Union party. The only plank in their platform was to 
put down the Confederacy at any cost. The course pursued 
by the Democrats of Ohio I could not approve, and I be- 
came identified with the Republican party. I held the 
office of county commissioner six years, justice of the peace 
six years, and had the honor of representing Huron county 
four years in the Legislature of Ohio, and have been notary 
public for the last fifteen years, and hold that office still. In 
early youth I was baptised into the Church by Elder Griffin 
Lewis. I have tried to live a consistent Christian, never 
denying my religion. My hope in Christ is the comfort of 
my declining years — looking for the coming of my Saviour 
with joy, in the full faith of having a part in the resurrection 
at His appearing. .j 

"I could say much more about the Ides, Whitemans, J 
Jacksons, Harrises, Husteds, Majors and many others of I 
those early days, but I suppose you have had enough. * * | 
"Your friend, E. Bogardus." | 

. I 

Coming back again to the territory within the boundaries 

of present Dallas township, the Shaver family appears as an 

early, and, like the Honey wells, a numerous settler. The 1 

name was at first spelled Shaver or Shafer and Shaffer. ! 

Adam Shaver, Peter Shaver and Frederick Shaver were J 

residents of Kingston township as early as 1796. Adam | 

was a shoemaker by trade, but, in 1806, he started, and for 

several years, ran an oil mill at Mill Hollow, now Luzerne 

borough, at the place now (1886) occupied by Schooley's 

Joseph Shaver 


plaster and chop mill. Adam Shaffer was also certified 
grantee of the nortluvestern half of lot five in certified Brad- 
ford, now principally owned and occupied by John Fergu- 
son, Esq. The exact date when the Shavers first settled 
in Dallas cannot now be determined with certainty. They 
were Germans and most of them came direct from New 
Jersey, vicinity of Newton. 

About the year 1812-13, Philip Shaver and his sons John 
and William became the owners of large bodies of land in 
the southeasterly portion of what is now Dallas township 
and in adjacent portions of Kingston township. For a long 
time, and even to this day, the settlement is locally known 
as and called "Shavertown." Philip Shaver was a pro- 
gressive man. One of his earliest purchases was in 181 3, 
of the whole of lot three, certified Bedford, from William 
Trucks. The same year he sold a portion from the north- 
west half to Jonah J^IcLellon, also a Jerseyman (from Knowl- 
ton township, Warren county). On that portion bought by 
McLellon the present village of Dallas, or McLellonsville, 
as it was originally named, was built. 

Philip Shaver was born and spent his boyhood in the 
valley of the Danube River, near Vienna, Austria. It was 
a cardinal principle with him that a man was not really run- 
ning in debt when he bought and owed for real estate at a 
reasonable price. He settled and built his home, a log 
house, on the hill about a quarter of a mile south of the cross 
roads near late residence of James Shaver, deceased, on the 
ground afterwards occupied and owned by Asa Shaver, 
now deceased. Philip Shaver was generous and public 
spirited to a marked degree for the time and place. He 
gave the land for the public burying-ground, on the hill 
near the pine grove just south of Dallas village, on the road 
to Huntsville. He also gave land for what is known as the 
Shaver burying-ground, which lies about a mile southeast of 
the former. The land upon which the first school-house 


in Dallas township was built was likewise a gift from him. 
This land lies partly in the cross-roads just south of and 
adjacent to the present public school building- in Dallas 
borough. That school-house was erected in 18 16 of logs. 
It was standing yet within my recollection (about 1853 or 
1854). I remember attending a Sunday-school in it once. 
Mr. George Oliver was superintendent, and they sang 
"Happy Day," and it was the first time I had ever heard it. 
This school-house was also used for holdino- meetino-s and 

o o 

services of all kinds, divine and secular. Candles, in small 
tin candle-holders, turned over at the top to form reflectors, 
and hung on nails driven here and there, in window and 
door frames, furnished the only light at evening meetings. 
The candles were home-made dips contributed by the differ- 
ent persons who were in the habit of attending the evening 
meetings there. Evening meetings at that time were always 
announced to commence at "early candle light." The lux- 
ury of a clock was indulged in by but few, and of a watch 
by almost none, so that the surest way to get a congrega- 
tion together at a particular time after sundown was to fix 
the hour as above. I am told by a lady who attended meet- 
ings in that school-house when she was a girl, nearly fifty 
years ago, that a bonnet was seldom seen. The ladies wore 
handkerchiefs tied over their heads instead. 

The first or one of the first schools in that school-house 
was taught by one Doty, an Irishman. He was very strict 
and had a long list of rules, to break any one of which was 
sure to subject the offender to severe chastisement. No 
two pupils were allowed to go out or be out of doors at the 
same time during school hours ; and in order to avoid such 
an occurrence, a card was suspended on the door, on one side 
of which was printed in large letters the word "out" and on 
the reverse side the word "in." When anyone went out he 
must turn the card so that the first named word could be 
seen, and when he came in the card must be again turned 


SO that the second word could be seen. No coaxing or 
reasoning would prevail to let anyone go out while the word 
"out" could be seen on that card. 

As previously remarked, the country about Dallas was 
very rapidly filled with settlers just after the close of the 
war of 1812. It was regarded as the frontier country to 
those living farther east in New Jersey and Connecticut, as 
Ohio, Indiana and California soon after became in the minds 
of the people of this region. 

Aaron Duffee was one of the ex-soldier settlers. In 1813 
he appeared first in that country. He settled and built a 
house on the Amos Wickersham warrant, near and north- 
east of the point where the main road from Dallas to Kun- 
kle crosses Chestnut hill or Brace hill ridge. Though an 
Irishman by birth, Duffee was a most aggressive and un- 
compromising Methodist preacher. He preached about the 
neighborhood in private houses and barns, and later, after 
its erection, in the log school-house. 

That was an age of distilleries and liquor drinking. There 
were very few people then, in that region, who did not have 
whiskey in the house at all times. About the year 1823 
Peter Roushey, a tailor by trade, living near the road at the 
upper or northwest corner of lot number one of certified 
Bedford township, near late residence of Enoch Reily, un- 
dertook to sell liquor by the "smalle" or drink. There had 
probably been difficulty before, but this enraged DufTee, 
and he prosecuted Roushey. To beat him and get rid of 
him, Roushey took out a tavern license. This was in the 
year 1823, and was the first tavern license taken out in Dal- 
las township. It was not renewed next year, and there was 
no other license taken out in that township until one was 
taken out by Jacob Meyers in 1837. Since 1837 a hotel 
has been continuously kept in Dallas. 

About 18 1 2-1 3 William Honeywell moved from New 
Jersey and bought and settled on a portion of the Edward 


Duffield tract, near where the farm of his grandson, WiUiam 
J. Honeywell, now is, also part of the same land now occu- 
pied by the Dallas Union Agricultural Society for a fiir 
ground and racing track. For much of the information 
that I have concerning that period I am indebted to Abram 
S. Honeywell, Esq., son of William Honeywell, who is still 
living (September 5, 1885) and very active at the age of 
ninety-five years. Mr. Honeywell's narrative in connection 
with his father's moving to Dallas is very interesting, and I 
give it in his own words as he gave it to me on the 19th 
day of September, 1885, at the house of his son, William J. 
Honeywell, in Dallas. 

"I have a very distinct recollection of many things that 
occurred about the time my father moved into this countr}' 
(Dallas). I cannot give the year, exactly, that we came, 
but it was in the spring. My father had been out here the 
fall before and had bought a large body of land, part of lot 
one certified Bedford (this deed is dated 20th September, 
1813, and the deed for part of Edward Duffield tract is 
dated 3d November, 18 14, but the purchases may have been 
contracted for before either of those dates), and we moved 
in the next spring. We came from Nolton (Knowlton) 
township, near Greensburg, Warren county, New Jersey 
Many of the early settlers of Dallas came from there. The 
township of Dallas had not yet been cut off from Kingston 
and Plymouth townships, from which it was taken."*" There 
were five families who came in from New Jersey when we 
did. Widow Sweazy and her son, Thomas Sweazy, about 
my age, were in the party. We drove our teams and wagons 
all the way. We first came down to Wilkes-Barre, and ex- 
pected to cross there and come up to Dallas, through the 
narrows and along Toby's Creek by the way of Trucksville, 
but the water was so high in the river that spring that we 

* The first petition for the new township was filed October sessions. 1S14, and the 
court appointed Oliver Pettibone, Charles Chapman and Josiah Lewis viewers, but 
they never made any return or report of any kind to the court, 

f'^^ -^^^ 




■■■^^^^a.."' ■iaa'-.A-.^f-^^ikifcii:- •.:,-ii&s*ai^^'Si; 


William J. Honeywell 


could not get over, and we had to go back to Pittston to 
cross. After crossing at Pittston we came down to New 
Troy (Wyoming) and came up along the creek (Abraham's) 
that cuts through the mountain at that point, and on through 
the woods to the place where father had bought and in- 
tended to settle. There was no road at all, and we had to 
cut our way through woods the whole distance. It was a 
dreadful hard job, and it took us about five days to get 
through. We had brought our cows, sheep and hogs with 
us, and it was almost impossible to get them through the 
woods and across the streams. The water in the creeks 
was very high, and of course there were no bridges, so we 
had to ford them all and carry the sheep and hogs over. 
The forest was very dense and heavy, and everything 
looked most discouraging to us. My father's name was 
William Honeywell, and we settled almost exactly on the 
spot where stood the house lately occupied by Enoch Reily. 
It was on the upper end of lot one certified Bedford. There 
were only four or five houses within the territory of present 
Dallas township at that time. Ephraim McCoy lived there 
then on the lower side of the present road, about half way 
between the Goss or corner school-house and Raub's hotel. 
There was also a man by the name of Vanscoy living back 
of us somewhere, about where Ferdinand Ferrell lives. 
Elam and Daniel Spencer each had a httle log house down 
along the creek in a direct line between our house and the 
present village of Dallas. When we arrived our house was 
not yet done. My father had hired a man the fall before 
to build it and have it ready by a certain time when we 
should arrive. We had to all turn in and help finish it. 
Just back of this house there was a small clearing when w^e 
went there and on it stood the ruins of a old log hut. This 
clearing was old, for the ground had been planted until it 
was quite run down. I don't know who cleared it or who 
ever lived there. 


"The old Leonard Meadows or Leonard Clearing was 
then about as it is now, but John Leonard had moved away 
when we came. The original forest covering Dallas town- 
ship was very heavy. There was a growth of very large 
pine trees, many of them 150 to 200 feet high. There were 
also oak, maple, chestnut and hemlock in abundance. There 
were many other kinds of wood, but these predominated. 
There were no worked roads or bridges when we first went 
to Dallas. The best roads we had were simply the natural 
ground with the trees and brush cut so as to let a w^agon 
through. The w^oods were full of game of all kinds — bears, 
deer, wild turkeys, &c. Wolves were very thick, too. 
There w^ere no Indians in Dallas when w^e went there, but 
I have heard McCoy tell about seeing them, when he first 
moved in, as they went from the valley, through where Dal- 
las village now stands, to Harvey's Lake, on their hunting 
and fishing trips. Harvey's Lake was a grand place to 
hunt and fish then. You could kill a deer there almost 
any time. Many of the settlers who came in after we did 
moved away very soon because the country was so rough 
that they could not stand it. It was very hard for any of 
us to get a living then. There was no money a-going. 
The most important thing wdth us was to get our roads 
opened and fixed up so that people could get about through 
the country. We were often called by the supervisors of 
Kingston to work out our road tax on the roads in the 
valley, and we had to get down there by seven o'clock 
in the morning or have our time docked. To do this, we 
had to get up and eat breakfast before daylight even in the 
summer time, and they kept us at work until sundown, so 
that we had to go home in the dark also. It was very dis- 
couraging. We could not get supervisors to go over into 
the Dallas end of the township to work the roads, nor 
would they let us work our tax out there. At last we be- 
gan trying to get a new township. (This was first tried in 


1 8 14.) We had very hard work of that, too. The people 
in the valley fought us all they could, and we had to work 
three or four years before Dallas township was set off. 
Then we began harder than ever to lay out and open roads. 
Everyone was so poor, however, that we had almost no tax, 
and so we had to turn out and have working bees on the 
roads in order to make them even passable. Dallas town- 
ship filled up very fast after the separation. Most of the 
settlers were Jerseymen, though there were a few Connecti- 
cut Yankees among them. 

"Peter Ryman came in about 1 8 14. He was from Greens- 
burg, Warren county, New Jersey. John Honeywell, my 
father's brother, came in the year before we did. Richard 
Honeywell, another brother, came in soon after we did. 
They all came from Warren county. New Jersey. My 
brothers were Joseph, Thomas and Isaac. I had one sis- 
ter, EHzabeth, who married Eleazor Swetland, brother of 
William Swetland of New Troy (Wyoming). John Orr 
came here about the time we did. He was a blacksmith, 
and used to sharpen plowshares. He would not shoe horses 
much. The only plow in use then was the old fashioned 
shovel plow. The only iron about it was the blade, which 
was about the shape of an ordinary round-pointed shovel. 
This was fastened to the lower end of an upright post. To 
the post was attached handles to hold it with, and a beam or 
tongue to which the team could be hitched. This plow was 
jabbed into the ground here and there between the roots, 
stumps and stones, and with it a little dirt could be torn up 
now and then. There was no patent plow in use then, nor 
i\- could it be used there for many years after we settled in 

Dallas. Nor could we use a cradle for cutting grain. At 
that time the ground was so rough, and there were so many 
stumps and roots and stones, that we had to harvest at first 
with a sickle." 


As narrated by IMr. Honeywell, and as may yet be in- 
ferred from the great number of large pine stumps still seen 
in the fields and numerous stump fences about Dallas, there 
was at one time a species of very tall pine trees cov^ering 
that country. A very few of them can still be seen (1886) 
towering far above the other highest trees in the woods 
below Dallas, near the Ryman and Shaver steam saw- mill, 
but they are the last of their race. For some reason they 
do not reproduce, and will soon be an extinct species. I\Iany 
of them grew to a height of 175 to 200 feet, and often the 
trunk would be limbless for 150 feet from the ground, with 
a diameter of from five to six feet at the ground.* 

It is difficult to fell them without breaking them in one 
or two places. They are so heavy and have so few limbs 
to retard their fall, or to protect them in striking the ground, 
that they come down with a terrible crash, and any stone, 
stump, log or unevenness on the ground where they fall is 
sure to break them. 

Little benefit was ever derived by the people of Dallas 
from this now valuable timber. The most important con- 
sideration with the first settlers was how to clear away and 
get rid of the vast and impenetrable forest that covered the 
entire country. Saw-mills were built to make sufficient 
lumber to supply the wants of immediate neighbors. There 
was no great market for lumber anywhere, because all parts 
of the country had mills and lumber as abundant as it was 
in Dallas. Furthermore, there were no roads over which 
it could be conveyed, even if there had been a market, so 
most of it had to be cut down and burned on the ground. 


Mr. Abram Honeywell tells me that when his father 
wanted a few slabs to cover the roof of his house in Dallas, 

* This statement, when originally read before the Historical Society, was questioned 
somewhat by Hon. Steuben Jenkins, who was then living and present. I have since 
had some of the trees measured, and find that my statement as to their height is correct. 



[^ they had to carry and drag them from Baldwin's mill at 

L Huntsville, about three miles, because the roads were so 

poor a wagon could not then be driven between Dallas and 

While on the subject of roads, a few dates may be noted 
when some of the earlier roads of that country were peti- 
tioned for, laid out or opened. 

At August sessions, 1804, the petition of Zacariah Harts- 
hoof and others was read asking for viewers to be appointed 
to lay out a road from James Landon's saw-mill, the nearest 
and best route to the bridge near William Truck's grist- 
mill, whereupon the court appointed viewers. No report 
was made, and nothing more seems to have been done with 
this petition. 

At January sessions, 1806, the petition of Samuel Allen 
and others was read praying for viewers to be appointed to 
lay out a road from Dallas and Baldwin's Mills (afterwards 
called Huntsville) to intersect the road that was laid out 
from Mehoopany to Wilkes- Barre (old state road, now en- 
tirely opened, superseded by road of 1820, hereinafter men- 
tioned), at or near William Truck's grist-mill. The said 
road to begin at or near Mr. Foster's. Whereupon the 
court appoint John Goss, Zacariah Hartzshoof, Philip Mey- 
ers, John Tuttle, Elijah Shoemaker and Elisha Atherton 
to view the ground proposed for said road, etc., etc. At 
November sessions, 1806, the viewers return a road as fol- 
lows, leading from Fuller & Baldwin's Mills (Huntsville) to 
William Truck's mill (Trucksville) : Beginning at a stake 
and stones near Mr. Foster's, which is the centre of the 
road ; from thence south, 63 degrees 75 perches to a stake 
in the Reynolds meadow ; from thence south, 40 degrees 
east, 92 perches to a stake ; thence north, 72 degrees east, 
128 perches to a stake; thence north, 54 degrees east, 56 
perches to where it intersects with road that leads from Me- 


hoopany to Wilkes-Barre, one mile and seventy-one perches 
long. This report was confirmed and the road opened. 

At January sessions, 1807, a road was ordered from "near 
where Cephas Cone formerly lived in Exeter by Alexander 
Lord's to intersect the road leading from Northumberland 
to Wilkes-Barre near John Kelley's." 

At November sessions, 18 19, a road was ordered in Dal- 
las, beginning at a large white pine tree near Jonah Mc- 
Clellon's (where Raub's hotel now stands), and on road 
leading from Jacob Rice's mill (formerly Truck's mill at 
Trucksville) to upper part of Dallas township via "John 
Orr's improvement," west, etc., etc., "to a road leading from 
Baldwin's Mills (Huntsville) to Harvey's Lake. The above 
road runs fifteen perches through improvement of Jonah 
McClellon's and thirty perches through an improvement of 
John Orr." (This is the present road from Dallas to Har- 
vey's Lake.) 

1820. Road was laid out "from public road near line of 
William Honeywell" (corner east of Goss school-house), 
"northeast via corner by Conrad Kunkle's mill, etc., etc., to 

1821, April sessions. Road laid out from near school- 
house near residence of Ezra Ide, southeast across Hunt- 
ington road via Jacob I. Bogardus' improvement, also via cen- 
tre line of certified Bedford township, whole distance 716 
perches to line between lots 38 and 39, near house of Jacob 

'L Bogardus. 

January 3d, 1 821. Road is ordered from line of Bedford 
township to Harvey's Lake, on petition of Joseph L. Worth- 
ington and others, whole distance 380 perches. 

April sessions, 1822. Road opened from Bedford county 
line, via Dallas, to Wilkes-Barre, whole distance 31 miles 
307 perches. (This is the main road in present use from 
Wilkes-Barre, via Dallas, to Bowman's Creek.) 

November sessions, 182 1. Road laid out from near Bald- 


win's mills (Huntsville) on line of road leading from Bald- 
win's Mills to Harvey's Lake, via Wyncoop's, Wheeler's 
and Whiteman's improvements, crossing Harvey's Creek 
and Pike's Creek, and through F'lagler's, Wilkinson's and 
Long's improvements to an established road leading to 

January sessions, 1822. Road laid out and opened in Dal- 
las from Philip Kunkle's, via line between John M. Little, 
Aaron Duffy and others to highway at or near Warren Da- 

January sessions, 1823. Road laid out "beginning at 
public road near saw-mill of Christian Rice (McLellonsville. 
now Dallas, village); thence south, 10 degrees west, 60 
perches to a white oak at a school-house (old log school- 
house) ; thence south, 6 degrees west, 30 perches ; south. 
10 degrees west, 29 perches to house of Christian Rice; 
south, 323^ degrees west, through improvements of John 
Honeywell, 74 perches to corner ; south, 4Z/4 degrees west, 
past Peter Ryman's barn 40 perches to W^illiam Hunt's 
line; thence south, 40 degrees west, 40 perches through an 
improvement of William Hunt and 46 perches more to a 
white pine sapling; south, 1$ degrees west, 14 perches to 
a white oak ; south 64 perches to a pine; south, 14 degrees 
west, 17 perches to a corner; south, 20 degrees west, 40 
perches through improvement of Fayette Allen to public 
road; same course, 34 perches to white oak sapHng; south, 
3 degrees west, across small run, 12 perches to a pine; 
south, 10^ degrees west, 74 perches to a road running from 
Fuller's mill (Huntsville) to Philip Shaver's mill (or Toby's 
Creek just below Dallas borough line); thence along said 
road south, 19 degrees west, 72 perches to the corner at 
McLoskey's store, near Fuller's mill (Huntsville). This is 
the present main road between Huntsville and Dallas. 

August 6th, 1827. Road opened from main road between 
Dallas and Trucksville, via old log school-house in Dallas, 


west, via Henry King's (now Robert Norton), Alexander 
Ferguson's (now John Ferguson), and A. Wheeler's (now 
) improvements, to road leading from Burr Bald- 
win's (Stroud's) house to Harvey's Lake. 

November 3d, 1828. Road laid out from near house of 
Peter B. Roushey (corner of Goss school-house) ; thence 
on centre hne of Bedford township south, 44^ degrees 
west, 102 perches to road leading from Kingston to Har- 
vey's Lake, near house of Nathaniel Worden (M. E. Church). 

August sessions, 1828. Road laid out from Stephen 
Brace's (Brace Hill) south, 50 degrees east, through swamp, 
etc., to road leading from Kingston to Bowman's Creek. 
(This road reviewed 1837.) 

1 823-1 824. Road laid out from north side of Stephen 
Ide's cider-mill (near Ide burying-ground and Presbyterian 
Church in Lehman township), on road leading from Hunts- 
viile to Harvey's Lake, via Stephen Ide, Miner Fuller and 
Jonathan Husted improvements, to road leading from Ben 
Baldwin's (late Allen & Honeywell's) saw-mill to Amza B. 
Baldwin's ; thence via old road, Joseph Meyer's and Simeon 
Spencer's, to Joseph Orr's improvement. 

January sessions, 1844. Road laid out from house of 
Anthony Foss (near M. E. Church in Dallas borough), 
along center line of Bedford township, to "Baldwin's road" 
at or near house of Joseph Wright. 

It is very probable that some of the foregoing roads were 
opened and actually used for some time before they were 
legally declared to be public roads by decree of court. 
While on the other hand, some of them were not actually 
opened for public use for a considerable period after they 
were ordered by the court. It may be stated, also, that 
some of the earlier roads were opened and accepted as pub- 
lic roads by common consent without any action of the court 
ever being taken. 





] Christian Rice settled in Dallas about the time the new 

township was set off from Kingston and Plymouth. He 
I bought part of lot number four certified Bedford, and built 

I on it near the graveyard on road between Dallas and Ilunts- 

I ville. This farm is now (1886) owned by his son, Jacob 

I Rice, and lies within the present borough of Dallas. Both 

I Christian Rice and his son Jacob Rice have been closely 

f identified with the growth and progress of Dallas. While 

I the present village of Dallas was not honored with having 

I built in it the first house that was erected in Dallas town- 

f ship, it became evident at a very early day that a village 

i would be built there, largely due, perhaps, to the willing- 

ness of Jonah McLellon to sell lots of small size to anyone 
who wanted to buy and improve. 

The Ephraim Moss house stood in the field, on a little 
knoll just over the spring run, about twenty or thirty rods 
northwest of the present public school-house in Dallas bor- 
I ough. There are a few pear trees or apple trees yet stand- 

ing (1886) near the spot. The ruins of the old chimney 
I were still standing twenty or twenty-five years ago. Ephraim 

I Moss was a shoemaker, I am told. 

I Jonah McLellon's house stood on the spot where rear end 

I or kitchen part of Raub's hotel now stands, and was proba- 

bly the first house built in the present village of Dallas. 
McLellon bought this land, as before stated, in the year 
18 1 3, and probably moved there and built soon after. He 
p was an Irish Jerseyman. He came to Dallas from Knol- 

" ton township, Warren county, N. J. He originally owned 

I all the northwest end of lot number three certified Bedford 

4 down to a point 160 rods or one-half mile southeast of 

I center line (middle of road by old M. E. Church), which 

^ included nearly all the land within the present village of 

f'^ Dallas. In 1816 he sold twenty-five acres to Christian 





Rice, on which tlic latter built the saw-mill before referred 
to. The new Dallas Cemetery grounds were also included 
in that purchase. On this ground Christian Rice also built 
a log house, which, until a few years ago, stood on the 
northeasterly side of the street just across an alley and west 
of A. Ryman & Sons' store. One of the first to occupy it 
was his son, Jacob Rice. This house was torn down to 
make room for the house now occupied by Clinton Honey- 
well, which stands on the same spot where the log house 
stood up to about 1 861-2. 

Patrick O'Malley, a son-in-law of Jonah McLellon, and 
a cooper by trade, built a log house and lived on westerly 
side of road leading to Harvey's Lake, nearly opposite 
Raub's hotel, about four hundred feet west of the Wilkes- 
Barre and Harvey's Lake Railroad depot. 

Another log house built in Dallas village, probably the 
third, was erected by Joseph Shonk, Esq., on the ground 
now occupied by "Odd Fellows' Hall." This house was 
built about 1819-20. Joseph Orr, afterwards, about the year 
1838, built a frame front to the house, the first frame build- 
ing in Dallas, and converted it into a hotel. It was the 
custom at that day to make a "frolic" or "bee" and invite all 
the neighbors to help whenever there was any extra work 
to be done, like the raising of a barn or other building, 
clearino; of the logs and rubbish from new land, or the burn- 
ing of a "new ground," or removing the stones from a ver\^ 
stony field, or the husking of a big field of corn when the 
farmer was, from some cause, belated in his work. 

These "frolics" or "bees" were usually very well attended; 
by some from motives of neighborly kindness and charity, 
but by many, it is probable, because plenty of free whiskey 
and food were on such occasions to be had. They were 
often occasions of general debauching, and ended frequently 
with many trials of strength, or, worse still, with brutal 
fights among the young men. On the occasion of the rais- 



2 ing of the Orr Tavern there was a convivial crowd present, 

I and much hilarity prevailed. The erection of the first frame 

f house in Dallas, and that too for the purpose of a perma- 

nent hotel, was an event of sufficient importance to be 
marked in some way. There were then five houses in the 
village, and it was decided that this was sufficient to war- 
rant them in dignifying the settlement with a special name. 
That the christening might be properly solemnized, several 
young men from the crowd climbed part of the almost un- 
supported frame, and from the highest peak of the rafters 
one of them, standing erect, held up a bottle of whiskey, 
I swung it around once or twice above his head, and then 

I hurled it dov/n, breaking it over the timbers, and named 

the place ''McLcllonsvillc'' in honor of Jonah McLellon, 
while from below came approving shouts, mingled with the 
firing of guns and pistols. By this name the place is still 
I known, and by many it is still so called to this day, though 

% through some oversight the postoffice and borough charter 

I took the name of Dallas from the original name of the 

I township, rather that the more proper one, McLellonsville. 

;• Like many men of his time in that vicinity, Jonah Mc- 

I Lellon was very fond of whiskey, and frequently indulged 

I his fondness. He had not always lived in perfect harmony 

I with his wife Eunice, and I am told by several who person- 

I ally knew of the facts, that, finally when Death called him, 

I for hours before his final dissolution he lay in a semi-dele- 

I rious state, his eyes partly closed, breathing long and heavy, 

I and with each exhalation forced out a half articulate groan, 

I *'God d Eunice'' and so continued expelling this curse- 

I laded breath, with gradually weakened force, through the 

I l^ng hours of nearly one whole night, stopping only when 

I the last spark of life had left his body, and just as the first 

I light of a new day was appearing in the east. 

\ Those who witnessed this scene pronounce it one of those 

] weird events which brings on a cold chill when recalled. 


It is fair to the memory of Jonah to say that his wife, 
Eunice, was not generally regarded in the community as 
distinguished for womanly loveliness. On the contrary, 
she was believed to be a v/itch. Joseph Honeywell, when 
alive, was sure of it, and, as proof of his assertion, used to 
say that on one occasion when driving towards Dallas from 
the Trucksville grist-mill, he overtook Eunice, who was 
walking. She asked him to let her ride. He declined, for 
some reason, and she took offence. "Goon, then," she 
said, "I will get to Dallas yet before you do." She kept 
her word, "for," said Mr. Honeywell, "she witched my load 
of grist so that it would not stay in the wagon ; whenever 
I went up hill it would slide up hill and fall out of the front 
end of the wagon, and when I went down hill it would slide 
the other way and fall out behind, so that I had to keep 
putting the bags back into the wagon all the time and was 
hardly able to get home at all with my load." 

The son-in-law, Patrick O'Malley, was in some respects 
unique. He had been a soldier in the war of 1812, and 
was lame from a wound received in battle. Otherwise he 
was a man of powerful physique. It is by many remem- 
bered of him that he would any time bare his breast and 
let any man strike him with all his power for a drink of 
whiskey. The Irish reputation for a quick answer was also 
well preserved in him. He had a very peppery temper, 

withal, and on one occasion was pressing Mr. R , a 

well-to-do neighbor, who was then keeping a store in Dal- 
las, for the payment of a small debt which he claimed the 
neighbor owed him. The claim was denied, and, of course, 
payment was refused. Some words followed, when suddenly 
O'Malley turned to go away, remarking as he went: "God 

Almighty has made you able to pay me, Mr. R , and 

I'll d soon make you willing," 

The old Orr Tavern served its purpose well for many 
years, and the father, Joseph Orr, died a few years later, 




and was succeeded first by his son, Miles Orr, and later by 
A. L. Warring, followed by another son, Albert S. Orr, late 

I'- postmaster at Wilkes-Barre, in the proprietorship. On the 

night of April 27, 1857, the entire structure was destroyed 
by fire. Albert S. Orr was then owner and proprietor. 

^ With characteristic energy, he began immediately to rebuild, 

not on the old site, but on the more desirable one where 

J the new hotel still stands, now known as Raub's hotel. This 

hotel was completed almost as it now stands (1886) within 
about six months after the destruction of the old one. It 
was the first three-story building erected in Dallas. It was 

I followed soon after by another three-story building, the 

Odd Fellows' Hall, still standing (1886), erected by Joseph 

I Atherholt, Esq. Those buildings were considered very 

large and grand for that place at the time they were built, 
and they added much to the dignity and importance of the 
village. On the completion of the latter building, the Odd 
Fellows' Lodge, which formerly had been held at Hunts- 
ville, was moved to Dallas. A lodge or chapter of the Ma- 
sonic fraternity has since been established in the same 


As previously stated, the first efforts on the part of the 
citizens to get a separate township set apart to them, like 
some of their first efforts at getting roads opened, v/ere o( 
little avail. Some of the early petitions for roads, etc., for 
that country were stuck away in the files by malicious or 
irresponsible clerks, and were never allowed to appear again 
where action of the court could be taken on them. In one 
instance a clerk, wishing to emphasize his villainy, wrote 
some trifling words of disapproval on the petition, clearly 
indicating that it should never see light again, and it never 

* This building: was burned down in 1S94. and a new two-slory building has been 
erected by the Odd Fellows in its place. 


did. No action of court was ever taken, and no record of 
it was ever made. 

The first petition for the new township fared a little bet- 
ter, but not much. It was filed at October sessions, 181.}. 
The petition was signed by Nehemiah Ide, Joseph Worth - 
ington and others, inhabitants of Plymouth and Kingst(M^, 
townships, setting forth cogent reasons for their demands. 
and asked for practically the same boundaries given in th.c 
subsequent petition, and which was finally granted. 

Oliver Pettebone, Charles Chapman and Josiah Lewis 
were appointed viewers on this first petition, and that ap- 
pears to have been the last o( it. There is no record of 
anything having ever been done by the viev/ers. After a 
year and a half patient waiting, another petition was pre- 
pared and numerously signed. It was presented at April 
sessions, 18 16, and Judge Gibson, who was then on the 
bench, appointed Anderson Dana, David Richard and 
Phineas Waller as viewers, with the order to ''view and, any 
two agreeing that said township is necessar}', they shall 
proceed to lay out the same, designating the lines by natu- 
ral lines or boundaries, if the same can be so designated, 
and make report thereon to the next court of quarter ses- 
sions" (August). Order issued May 4th, 18 16. 

At August sessions following (5th August), the report 
not being ready, the order was continued, viewers to report 
at next (November) sessions. 

In September, 18 16, the viewers filed their report, but on 
5th November, 1 8 16, it was referred back to them again to 
make a plot or draft as \\ell of the new township laid out 
as of the township out of which it was taken, and to make 
report thereon at next Court of Quarter Sessions (January. 
1817). This work was completed on 5th December, 18 16, 
and at January sessions, 1S17, the report was filed and con- 
firmed fizsi. 

At April sessions, 1 817, which began on the first Mon- 


I dap of that month, with Hon. Thomas Burnsidcs, President 

I Judge, and Jesse Fell, assistant judge, on the bench, the 

I following order was made in relation to that report, viz : 

I "The court confirms the division, and in testimony of the 

I respect which the court entertains for the late Alexander 

I James Dallas,* call the new township 'Dallas! " 

I On the loth day of April, 1817, the court order and 

I direct "that Isaac Fuller be appointed constable for the 

t new township of Dallas, and further direct a rule to issue, 
I ' returnable forthwith, to be served by the sheriff on said 

I Isaac Fuller to appear to show cause, if any there be, why 

I he will not perform the office of constable for the ensuing 


% "Rule issued, whereupon, on the 5th of August, 18 17, 

I the said Isaac Fuller, being in court, accepted the appoint- 

'j ment, whereupon he was sworn according to law." 

\ William Fuller and Peter Worthington were appointed 

f> supervisors at the same court for the first year. 

I The list of officers "elected, returned or appointed" for 

I Dallas township from 18 18 to 1844, as they appear upon 

I the records of the Court of Quarter Sessions of Luzerne 

I county, are as follows, viz : [See following pages.] 

f * Alexander James Dallas died at Trenton, N. J., 14th January, 1817. 



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Aniza Baldwin . 
Jude Baldwin . . 
Amos Brown . . 
J.icob I. BoErardus 
Almon Church . 
.Major Church . 

Daniel Davidson 

Aaron Duffy . . 
Warren Davidson 
Daniel Davidson 
Jeremiah F"uller . 
Isaac Fuller . . . 
William Fuller . 

Abraham Fuller 

Stephen Fuller . 
Sylvanus Fuller . 
Levi Hunt . . . 
John Honeywell 
Richard Honevwe 
William Honeywe 
Thomas Honevwe 
Abram Honeywell 
William Honevwe 
Joseph Honeywell 

John Honeywell, 2 

Nehimiah Ide, Jr 

Nehimiah Ide . . 
Klijahlde. . . . 
Nathaniel Ide . . 
John Ide .... 
Stephen and Ezra 
Wiiliam Ide . . . 

Joseph Jackson . 

Henry H. King . 
Henry Kizer . . 
Henry Kizer, 2d 

Conrad Kunkle . 

James Mears . . 

Ephraim McCoy 

Isaac Montanye 
John Man . . 
John Orr .... 

Joseph Orr . . . 

Joseph Orr, Jr . 
John Ross • . . 















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' 652. Sini;K- Freeman, Jioo. 
• <;79. Saw-tnill, ;>I75. 

, M2. 

Single Freeman, $100. 

f Translcrrcd to Jos. L. Wotth- 

\ iuKton and Isaac Fuller. 


32. "Tenant."' 
' «3o. 
t 201. 


.,r / i"^ transferred to J. Orr. 

"5- t Half saw-mill, $75. 


829. Half saw-mill, <75. 


6.)S. . 

Single Freeman, 5ioo. 

Sin^de F"reeman, 5ioo. 

Single Freeman, :?ioo. 

f Removed— Transferred to 

\ Henry H. Kin?. 
Carpenter, 5100. ) Moved since 
S.Freem'n.^'ioo. J Trien. Ass't. 

. 760. 


: 128. 




, j^j, (Moved in since Triennial 

^' \ Assessment. 


; (Berwick land transferred to 
; I Alex. Fcrjiuson. 
; 2.S5. 

\ ( Removed— Land transferred 
: { to Aaron Becket. 

._, /Movrd in since Triennial 
^"•*- 1 As-v-sment. 
fCarpetiUr, -Jn. Moved in 
( since 1 livnnial Assessm't. 
1 3S2. SinKlcman, <ioo. 




LAND. 1 1 

— n 



Christian Rice . 
Mary Robbins . 
Elijah Robbins . 
Stephen Robbins 
Peter Ryman . , 
Elam Spencer . . 
Philip Shaver . . 
Thomas Swayze 
William Shaver . 

Daniel Spencer 

Jos. L. Worthington ) 

and Isaac Fuller J ' " 
Joseph Worthington . . . 
John Whiteman -. 

David Wynkoop 

Samuel and John Worden 

Abel Wheeler 

Nev Wheeler 

Amariah Watson and) 
James Nesbitt ) " 

Aaron Burkel 

John M. Little 

Lewis Griffin (?) .... 
William Newman . . . 

Oliver Pettebone 
Jonah McClellon 
Alex. Ferguson . 

I . 

73 names. 






5 i 

S. ^ 



i2| 3; 

105 25 

20: 141 



10 145' • . 

10 60 100 I 2 

30: 160' . 

.1 73i . 

i I 

. ! 82' . 


15 - 

4; • 
10! . 

• ' 59 
8 60 

I, 2 

I 2 


Total J^ahir. 


il 271I 71859'! I05'i597 5254 340. :54! 63433:73 

199. -i 

42. I 

Carpenter, J60. i 

162. i 

152. i 


252. Singleman, vioo. 

f Removed— Land tmr.s- 
( ferred to O. Petlebuiit \ 



( Mov( 
1 nia 

ed in since Tri 
1 Assessment. 





Single Freeman. 

i Moved in since Trie: 
nial .Assessment. 
Moved in since Trici. 
nial Assessment. 

f Moved in since Tricri 
1 nial Assessment. 


Total number of acres of improved land in Dallas twp. worth $38 per acre, 2 
" " " " " " " " " " " $23 " •' 71 

" " " " " " " " " " " i 6 " " 718 

(( <( (4 << « (( (< (( <t << *' S ^ " " ^O 

Grand total improved land, 850 

Total number of acres of unimproved land in Dallas twp. worth $4 per a., 105 

" «i «< a i<. i<. .* u a .1 I. ^2 " 1597 

«. « u « a «< a u «< <i u 5j <. ^254 

" « '« " " " «♦ " " " '* 50c " 220 

Grand total of seated land, improved and unimproved, 8026 

Total number of dwelling houses, 54 

" ♦' " outhouses, 6 

" " " horses, 34 

" " " oxen, 33 

** " " cows, 73 

Total valuation of foregoing, jg20,840. 



All the balance of the vast territory then included in the 
township of Dallas was in the list of unseated lands, which 
was very large ; but few of the tracts would then sell for 
enough to pay the taxes. There have been no sales of un- 
seated lands in Dallas township for taxes for several years 
past. In fact, none have been advertised. This is striking 
evidence of the changes since the first organization of the 
township. The lands in Dallas township are now all in the 
seated lands, i. e., are occupied or improved lands. 


The new township grew and prospered with great rapidity 
both in wealth and population. Starting with seventy-three 
taxables in 1818, the number was increased next year, 1 8 19, 
to eighty-eight. Among the new taxables of this year ( 1 8 1 9) 
were Jared R. Baldwin, Abram S. Honeywell, Oliver Ide, 
Joseph Mears, Joseph Mears, Jr., and WiUiam Orr, all "sin- 
gle freeman." 

1820. In the year 1820 the number of taxable inhabi- 
tants had increased to loi. Among them appears for the 
first time the name of Peter B. Roushey, assessed as *'Tay- 
lor." Among the improvements of this year must be noted 
the laying out of the great road from Wiikes-Barre to Brad- 
ford county line near Mehoopany Creek. This road is the 
one in use at present (with a few slight changes in Kingston 
borough) from Wilkes-Barre bridge, up Toby's Creek, 
through Dallas, Kunkle, Monroe, to Bowman's Creek, etc. 
Most of the way it was laid out on the line of the " Old 
State Road," which had been laid out years before, but not 
opened. The viewers who laid out this road were Joseph 
Slocum, George Cahoon, Samuel Thomas, Joseph Tuttle 
and John Bennett. This road was a very important im- 
provement, and to open it cost many years of hard work 
and large expenditures of money on the part of the citizens 
of Dallas township. It is interesting to show the scarcity 

I ' 


of other roads then existing to intersect it, as well as the 
paucity of buildings and improvements along its line. 

Hardly had the organization of the new township been 
completed before dissatisfaction appeared in the southwest- 
ern corner, and at August sessions, 1820, a petition was filed 
in behalf of inhabitants of Huntington, Union and Dallas 
townships, setting forth that whereas the line between the 
counties of Luzerne and Lycoming appears never to have 
been run, and in consequence of that circumstance and other 
causes, the lines of the townships of Huntington, Union and 
Dallas have been incorrectly laid out and run, and marked 
erroneously upon the ground, and asking for viewers to be so 
appointed to view and correct these errors. 

Whereupon the court appoint Jacob I. Bogardus, Esq. 
(of Dallas), Shadrack Austin (of Union), and John Coons 
(of Huntington) to view said townships proposed to be 
altered, who, or any two them agreeing, shall make a draft 
or plot of said townships proposed to be made and desig- 
nating the same by natural boundaries if the same can be 
so designated, and make report thereof to the next Court 
of Quarter Sessions, etc., etc. 

At November sessions, 1820, the said viewers made re- 
port as follows, to wit : "We, the undersigned, appointed by 
the above court to run and make the lines therein mentioned, 
do report that in pursuance of said order, we, the subscri- 
bers, being two of the above named persons (having first been 
duly sworn) went upon the ground and run and marked the 
following described lines between the townships of Union 
and Dallas, for the northeasterly boundary of the township 
of Union, to wit : Beginning at the mouth of Hunlock's 
Creek; thence north, 11 degrees west, 2 miles and 280 
perches to the southeast" (?) (west) "corner of the certified 
township of Bedford, and being the southeast" (?) (west) 
"corner of Dallas township ; thence on the Bedford line and 
a continuation of the same north, 34 degrees west, 1 5 miles 


and lOO perches to a hemlock marked for a corner on the 
county line. Also run the following described lines between 
the townships of Huntington and Union, for the westerly- 
boundary of Union, in the following manner, to wit : Be- 
ginning at the mouth of Shickshinny Creek ; thence north, 
^3% degrees west, one mile and 280 perches to the north- 
easterly corner of Huntington; thence on the Huntington 
line and a continuance of the same north, 21 degrees west, 
14 miles and 150 perches to a maple marked for a corner 
on the county line." 

This report was filed and confirmed fiisi November 8th, 

1820, and was confirmed absolutely on January 3d, 1821. 
Bogardus did not sign this report with the other viewers, 

I probably because, as will be seen by comparing the maps, 

that this view took a considerable slice from the new town- 
ship of Dallas, and gave it to Union township, without any 
compensation or exchange. 

The year 1S20 may be noted also as the year when, under 
the new laws, the assessors of each township were required 
to return the number of children between the ages of five and 
twelve years, whose parents were unable to pay for their 
schooling. No report was made under this law for Dallas 
township in 1820, but the next year (1S21) Joseph L. Worth- 
ington was assessor, and under that law he reported the 
children of Nicholas Keiser, John Mann, David Wynkoop 
and David Davidson, eleven in all. 

There were one hundred and six taxables on the hst for 

1 82 1. It was also the year in which Judge Baldwin died — 
date June 9th ; age forty-six years eleven months and 
twenty-five days. 

1821-1822. During this year Aaron Burket conveys his 
land to WiUiam Brigg and removes. John Eaton, farmer, 
Russell T. Green, shoemaker, and Joseph Hoover became 
residents of Dallas township. Asa Fox sells to Oliver Pet- 
tebone and removes. Roswell Holcomb and John M. Lit- 


tie remove from township. John Orr buys eight acres of 
land and one log house of Jonah McLellon. Deming Spen- 
cer (the first white child born in the territory of Dallas town- 
ship) attained his majority and appears first time as "single 
freeman" in assessment books. Also buys his fithcr's farm. 
Cornelius Sites, a wheelright, moves into the township and 
buys land of William Newman. William Sites also moves 
in and buys of David Wynkoop. Nicholas Keizer's chil- 
dren are the only ones reported whose parents are too poor 
to pay for their schooling. Total taxablcs, 118. 

1822-1823. Joseph Ryman's name appears for first time 
in the assessment books^ — is assessed with two acres of land. 
Warren Davidson becomes a "cooper" and Thomas Tuttle 
a "wheelmaker." Total taxables 129. 

1 823-1824. Very hard times. The children of Joseph 
Wright, John Thorn, Peter Gary, Aaron Duffy, Nicholas 
Keiser and Nathan Worden were returned to be educated 
by the county, because the parents were too poor. Among 
the persons last named John Thorn was a character de- 
serving of a moment's special notice. He was always poor, 
shiftless and lazy. He early became a charge on the town- 
ship, and remained a town pauper the balance of his days. 
In the midst of his greatest poverty he was given to boast- 
ing and high-sounding talk. The poormasters of Dallas 
township were in the habit of giving him an occasional "poor 
order" on some farmer or dealer for a few dollars, which 
he could "trade out" and get something to eat. Backed 
with one of these "poor orders," John was for the time 
wealthy and assumed the importance of a capitalist. With 
it he would start for some store or farm house where he 
intended to trade it out. He usually began by asking the 
proprietor if this man's order (producing the poor order and 
pointing to the name of the poormaster at the bottom) was 
good and would be accepted^ While the order was being 
read John would explain that the giver or the maker of the 


order was owing him a considerable sum of money, and 
being short of ready cash, had asked him (John) to take 
this order ; that being always willing to accommodate his 
neighbors, he had consented to accept this order provided 
it could be used the same as cash. On being assured that 
the order w^as good, John's next inquiry was usually for 
pickled side pork of the cheapest grade. Feeling that some 
apology or explanation might be due, he would generally 
add that he had plenty of '^gaynmons'" at home, but that 
they were still in the process of smoking or some other por- 
tion of the curing treatment. All this and much more like 
it would occur, yet always with greatest seriousness on 
John's part. He died only a few years ago. In one of his 
later illnesses a physician had been called, and had left 
certain medicines to be given at certain specified hours. 
John had no clock or other time keeper in the house, and 
at night had no way of telling the hour except by the crow- 
ing of the rooster, which he believed occurred every hour 
with regularity. One night John grew very much worse, 
and, thinking that the hour for taking his medicine had 
arrived, and that the cock had gone to sleep or forgotten to 
crow, sent his son John, Jr., out to waken him and remind 
him of his duty. After a good deal of squeezing and shak- 
ing up, John, Jr., succeeded in making the rooster crow. 
The medicine was of course given at once, and the natural 
relief followed. 

In the same house where John spent his later years lived 
later, one Ira Gordon, a carpenter and farmer. Mr. Gor- 
don's notions of family duties and farm economy were most 
tersely expressed in the remark credited to him, that "a 
woman, a yoke of oxen and a wood-shod sled are three 
things that never ought to be allowed to go off the farm." 

1 824-1 825. In this year there were many transfers of 
real estate, and the number oS. taxables in Dallas township 
is increased to 164. 



1 825-1 826. The Triennial Assessment was made this 
year showing a shght reduction in the number of taxables 
as compared with the previous year. 

1 826-1 827. Joseph Shonk, this year, purchases one- 
fourth interest in the Christian Rice saw-mill and log house 
at McLellonsville. Number of taxables 170. 

At August sessions, 1827, an attempt was made to form 
a new township from Union and Dallas townships, but the 
opposition was so strong that the viewers appointed to view 
and lay it out reported adversely to it. 

1 827-1 828. The first mention is made this year of a post 
office in Dallas township, and Jacob Hoff is assessed as 
post-master at a valuation of fifty dollars for the office. 
Thomas Irwine begins his long career as justice of the peace. 

1 828-1 829. Levi Hunt died of small pox, caught while 
on a rafting trip down to Baltimore, Md. This is said to 
have been the first death in Dallas township from that dread 

The leading event of this year was the division of Dallas 
township by cutting off Lehman township from it. 


"To the Honorable, the Judges of the Court of Common 
Pleas of the county of Luzerne, now composing a Court of 
Quarter Sessions of the Peace in and for said county : 

"The petition of the subscribers, inhabitants of the town- 
ship of Dallas, in said county, humbly showeth : That your 
petitioners labor under great inconvenience from present 
size and shape of the said township of Dallas, many of them 
being distant from the place of holding elections and doing 
public business, they believe it would be much for the con- 
venience of the public generally, as well as for themselves, 
if a Neiv Toiufiship should be formed out of the now town- 
ship of Dallas, and that this can be done without injury to 
the part which should remain. Your petitioners therefore 


pray your honors to appoint three impartial men to inquire 
into the propriety of dividing the said township of Dallas, 
and setting off a new township lying west of line commenc- 
ing at the point where the line between lots Nos. 7 and 8 
of the certified township of Bedford meets the line of Ply- 
mouth township, and running the course of said line between 
said lots until it shall meet the line of the township of North- 
moreland. And your petitioners will ever pray, etc. 
(Signed) : 

"VVilHam Sites. '^Elijah Ide. 

C. King. Joseph Worthington. 
William Ide. Daniel J. Whiteman. 
Stephen Ide. Elijah Worthington. 
Nathaniel Ide. J. B. Worthington. 

I Oliver McKeel. Oliver Ide. 

I John O. Mosely. William Harris. 

I John Ide. John Whiteman. 

Simon P. Sites. Nehemiah Ide. 

Julius D. Pratt. Jeremiah Fuller. 

Ezra Ide. Amisa B, Baldwin. 

William Fuller. Clinton Brown. 

Cornelius Sites. Thomas Major, Jr. 

Robert Major. Thomas Major, Sr. 

James Mott. Simeon F. Rogers. 

D. Banister. Asaph W. Pratt. 

"Petition filed January 7th, 1829. 

"January Sessions, 1829. Viewers, Benjamin Dorrance, 
Ziba Hoyt, James Barnes." 

Luzerne County, ss : 

"At a Court of General Sessions held at Wilkes- 
[seal]. Barre, in and for the county of Luzerne, the 
first Monday of January, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty-nine, before 
the Honorable David Scott, president, and Matthias Hol- 
lenback and Jesse Fell, esquires, justices of said court. The 
petition of Elijah Ide and others was read praying for 
viewers to be appointed to view township and to inquire 


into the propriety of dividing- the township of Dallas, and 
setting off a new township lying west of line commencing 
at the point where the line between lots Nos. 7 and 8 of the 
certified township of Bedford meets the line of Plymouth 
township and running the course of said line between said 
lots until it shall meet the line of the township of North- 
moreland. Whereupon the court appoint Benjamin Dor- 
rance, Ziba Hoyt and James Barnes, viewers, who are to 
view, and any two of them agreeing, are to make a plot or 
draft of the township proposed to be, and of the division 
line proposed to be made therein, designating the same by 
natural lines and boundaries, if the same can be so desig- 
nated, and make report thereof to the next Court of Quar- 
ter Sessions. 

"In testim.ony, that the foregoing is a true copy from the 
records, I have hereunto set my hand and the seal of the 
said court and certify the same accordingly. 

"For C. D. Shoemaker, Clerk. 
"Harris Colt." 

"To the honorable judges within named : In pursuance 
of within order we do report that due examination has been 
made, and we are decidedly of opinion, for many reasons, 
that the request of petitioners ought to be granted. The 
annexed draft represents the situation of the townships and 
several adjoining. (Signed), 

Viewers, two days each, "James Barnes. 

we have been sworn and "Benjamin Dorrance." 

affirmed. "James Barnes. 

"Benjamin Dorrance." 

"Return filed April 7, 1829. 

"Remonstrance filed April 7, 1829. 

"November Sessions, 1829. Confirmed by the name of 
Lehman from respect to memory of Dr. William Lehman, 
of Philadelphia, a distinguished friend and advocate of in- 
ternal improvements." 





"To the Honorable, the Judges of the Court of Quarter 
Sessions of the Peace, in and for the county of Luzerne: 

"The petition of the undersigned inhabitants of the town- 
ship of Dallas would most respectfully show : That they 
have witnessed, with much regret, an attempt made by some 
individuals to divide the township aforesaid. The object, 
we verily believe, is not the advancement of the publick 
interest, but the gratification of private ends. By the pro- 
posed division the interest of the township generally will be 
contravened. The extent of the inhabited part of said town- 
ship, and that which is inhabitable within the compass of 
many years is not too large for the convenient transaction 
of the township business, and the number of inhabitants, as 
may be seen from the lists of taxables, is not too great for 
the convenient accommodation of the people at elections. 
With these views we would respectfully remonstrate against 
the proposed or any division of the townsnip of Dallas at 
this time, deeming it inexpedient, uncalled for hy publick 
convenience. March 7th, 1829. 


"Abram S. Honeywell. 



Smith Tuttle. 
William Shaver, 
Thomas Irwin. 
Jacob Honeywell. 
William Honeywell. 
Bur Baldwin. 
Marvin Wheeler. 
Alexander Ferguson. 
Henry H. King. 
Elam Spencer. 
Peter B. Roushey. 
Samuel Hunnywell. 
Simeon Spencer. 
John Simpson, Jr. 
Nathaniel Warden. 

'Ephraim Moss. 
Peter Ryman. 
Fayette Allen. 
David Beam, 
Sylvanus Fuller. 
VVatson Baldwin. 
Nathan Wheeler. 
Jonathan Williams. 
Henry Kizer, Jr. 
Almon Church. 
Thomas Hoover. 
Edwin McCarty. 
Stephen Brace. 
Joseph Hoover. 
Thomas Swayze. 
James L. Williamson. 





Deming Spencer. 
Peter Seaman. 
Joseph Hunneywell. 
Peter Shaver, 2d. 
Nathaniel Hunneywell. 
Isaac Hunneywell. 
Richard Hunneywell, Jr. 
C. C. Hunnwell. 
Philip Kunkel. 
John Simpson. 
David Donley. 
Adam Hoover. 
J. W. Darling. 
John Wilson. 
Simon Anderson. 
Elijah Ayrs. 

William Hunneywell, 2d. 
C. B. Shaver. 

James Shaver. 
George Shaver. 
Asa W. Shaver. 
John Miller. 
James Ross. 
Lawrence Ross. 
Jacob Wilcocks. 
Morris Baldwin. 
Anthony Foss. 
James Steward. 
Garat Durland. 
Miles Spencer. 
Edwin Church. 
John Wort, Jr. 
James Symers. 
Daniel Wodward. 
R. Hunnewell (sic). 
Thomas Hunneywell. 
William Hunt." 

Joseph G. Ryman. 
"Filed April 6, 1829." 

This division left the following named taxables in Dallas 
township, viz : Fayette Allen, Elijah Ayres, Eleanor Bald- 
win, Burr Baldwin, Watson Baldwin, William Briggs, Wil- 
liam Bradford, Nathaniel Wheeler, Stephen Brace, Edwin 
Church, Benjamin Chandler, Almon Church, Peter Conner, 
Aaron Duffee, David Donley, Garret Derling, Alexander 
Ferguson, Sylvanus Fuller, Anthony Foss, Jacob Gould, 
Richard Honeywell, William Honeywell, Sr., William 
Honeywell, 2d, Thomas Honeyw^ell, Abram S. Honeywell, 
Joseph Honeywell, Jacob Honeywell, Nathan S. Honeywell, 
Charles C. Honeywell, Richard Honeywell, Jr., Isaac Honey- 
well, Samuel Honeywell, William Hunt, * Matthias Hollen- 
back, Jonathan Husted, Adam Hoover, Thomas Irwin, 
Philip Kunkle, Henry H. King, Henry Keizer, Jr., Griffin 
Lew^is, Ira Manviil, Jonah McLellon, Jacob Maxwell, Jared 
R. Baldwin, John Simpson, Sr., Edward McCarty, John 
Miller, Peggy Montanye (widow), Ephraim Moss, Jacob 

* Non-resident. 



Nulton, *James Nesbitt, 2d, Michael Nceley, John Orr, 
Oliver Pettibone, Andrew Puterbaugh, Peter B. Roushey, 
Mary Robbins, James Ross, Lawrence Ross, Christian Rice, 
Jacob Rice, Peter Ryman, Joseph S. Ryman, Deming Spen- 
cer, Simeon Spencer, Miles Spencer, Thomas Swayze, James 
Shaver, John P. Shaver, heirs of Philip Shaver, Sarah See- 
ley, William Shaver, Simon P. Sites, James Stewart, Chris- 
topher Shaver, Peter Seaman, James Somers, Peter Shaver, 
2d, George Shaver, Frances Southworth, heirs of Joseph 
Shonk, John Simpson, Sr., John Simpson, Jr., heirs of Jo- 
seph Shotwell, David Stewart, Thomas Tuttle, Abram Van- 
scoy, Ebenezer Winters, Daniel Woodward, Jacob Wilcox, 
John Worden, Samuel Worden, Abram Worden, *Calvin 
Wadhams, Marvin Wheeler, Daniel Higgins, John Wort, 
Jr., John Wilson, James Williamson, Jonathan Williams, 
Simon Anderson, Lawrence Beam. Total, 104. 

The following named taxables were transferred to Leh- 
man township, viz : Abed Baldwin, Amza B. Baldwin, Amos 
Baldwin, David Bannister, David Beam, Jeremiah Brown, 
Clinton Brown, Joshua Derling, Stephen Fuller, Annis Ful- 
ler, Jeremiah Fuller, Isaac Fuller, William Fuller, Joseph 
E. Ha.f{, postmasUr, WiW'mm Harris, Joseph Hoover, Thomas 
Hoover, Daniel Higgins, Lewis Higgins, Elijah Ide, Ezra 
Ide, Stephen Ide, William Ide, Ephraim King, Jonathan O. 
Moseley, *Garrick ]\Iallery (purchaser of J. I. Borgardus 
interest), P^gbert B. Mott, James Mott, Barton Mott, Thomas 
Major, Sr., Thomas Major, Jr., *John Major, Oliver McKeel, 
Asaph A, Pratt, Jonathan Rogers, Simeon F. Rogers, Wil- 
liam Sites, Cornelius Sites, John Vanlone, Joseph L. Worth- 
ington, Jonathan Worthington, Elijah Worthington, Squire 
Wedge, John Whiteman, Daniel Whiteman, Benjamin F. 
Westley. Total 51. 

1 829-1 830. This year William Hunt's land is transfer- 
red to William Thomas of Wilkes-Barre, and Hunt moves 

* Non-resident. 


away. John Orr conveys thirty acres of unimproved land 
to WilHam A. Kirkendall, and fifty acres to Henry Keizer. 
Christian Rice buys back, from the estate of Joseph Shonk, 
deceased, the one-fourth interest in saw-mill and log house 
which he conveyed to Shonk a few years prior. Joseph S. 
Ryman buys three acres from heirs of Joseph Shonk in vil- 
lage of McLellonsville ; also three acres from Jonah McLel- 
lon in same place. James Shaver, William Shaver, Peter 
Shaver, George Shaver and Asa W. Shaver, buy their farms 
from estate of Philip Shaver, deceased. 

1830-183 1. Simon Anderson acquires sixty-eight acres 
of land from James Nesbitt, Jr., being part of certified lot 
No. — in Bedford township. Anthony Foss buys three 
acres of Jonah McLellon near village. McLellon also sells 
one acre near village to Richard Honeywell. Real estate 
very active and many transfers made. 

At January Sessions, 1 83 1 , the petition of Josiah W. New- 
bery and others was filed praying for viewers to be appointed 
to view and inquire into the propriety of making a new town- 
ship laid off from the back part of Northmorelandand Dallas, 
and out of others of the certified townships. Court appoint 
Ellas Hoyt, Doctor John Smith and Harris Jenkins, viewers. 

At August Sessions, 1831, the viewers reported in favor 
of the township, as follows: "Beginning at southwest cor- 
ner of certified township of Northmoreland, and running 
thence on line of John Nicholson, north 10 degrees west, to 
corner of Robert Morris ; thence on the line of Robert Mor- 
ris north, 18 degrees west, 234 perches to a white oak; 
thence southeast corner of tract in the warrantee name of 
Thomas Poulton ; thence north on line of said Poulton and 
others to the line of Eaton township ; thence on line of 
Eaton township west to Marsh creek ; thence down Marsh 
creek to its intersection with Bowman's creek ; thence on 
line running nearly west to the northeast corner of a tract 
of land surveyed to John Pennington ; thence on the line of 



John Pennington and others west until it intersects the line 
of Windham township; thence on the Windham line until 
it intersects the line of Lehman township ; thence south to 
the main branch of Bowman's creek; thence east on the 
line between the tracts in the name of Aaron Bailey and 
Uriah Bailey to the southeast corner of a tract of land sur- 
veyed to Daniel Mount; thence to northeast corner of John 
Merrideth ; thence on line of John Merrideth and Jesse 
Fell south, 75 degrees east, 314 perches to a chestnut on 
Harvey's Lake, near the west corner thereof at the mouth 
of a little run ; thence in a northeasterly direction to a beach 
the northwest corner of a tract of land surveyed to William 
Wyllis and on the line of Dallas township ; thence on the 
line of Dallas south, 70 degrees east, 372 perches to the 

At January Sessions, 1832, this report was confirmed ab- 
solutely by the name of i\Ionroe township. 

1 831-1832. Warren A. Barney buys 200 acres of tract 
in warrantee name of John Olden. John Snyder buys 118 
acres of Eleanor and Lewis Baldwin. Christopher Snyder 
buys fourteen acres of land, one house and two outhouses 
of Sylvanus Fuller, who sells other of his lands soon after 
to WiUiam Snyder and moves West. On this land Christo- 
pher Snyder built and started a distillery a few years later. 
Under the new assessment law the assessors of Dallas town- 
ship made following report for year 1832, viz: 

"A true list of notes and bonds made taxable for use of 
Commonwealth : 
"Enos Frisky & Co., two hundred and sixty-one 

dollars in notes, $261.00 

"Charles C. Honeywell, sixty dollars in notes, . . 60.00 
"Adam Shaver, eighty-five dollars in notes, . . . 85.00 
"William Honeywell, Sr., forty-five dollars in notes, 45.00 
"Samuel and Isaac Honeywell, fifty dollars in notes, 50.00 
"Bank and Turnpike Stock, none. 
"Taverns, none. 
"Poor Children, none." 


1 832-1 833. Sanford Moore buys all the real estate of 
John Wort, Sr., within township of Dallas, seventy-two 
acres. Many other transfers of real estate. Joseph Ryman 
is assessed as postmaster. This post-office was at his house, 
which stood where the old Orr tavern stood, now where 
the Odd Fellows hall stands. This was the first post-office 
within the hmits oi^ the present territory of Dallas township. 

1 833-1 834. Joseph Anderson buys 194 acres of land, part 
of tract in warrantee name of Amos Wickersham. William 
Algerson buys sixty-five acres ; Joseph Hoover buys thirty- 
seven acres ; Felix Hoover buys fifty acres, all of same tract. 
Thomas Irwin buys eighty-two acres from the Joseph San- 
som tract. Charles Moore buys 130 acres, and Jacob Nul- 
ton buys eighty-six acres of same tract. The latter also 
buys forty acres, part of tract in warrantee name of John 
Olden. Francis Southworth buys seventeen acres from 
Sansom tract, and fifty acres from the John Olden tract. 
Jacob Wilcox buys twenty-nine acres from the John Olden 
tract. Jacob Ryman appears, for the first time, as a single 
freeman, and seats 100 acres of tract in warrantee name of 
Josiah Lusby. Ransom Demund seats eighty acres of tract 
in warrantee name of Alexander Emsbry. Francis P. South- 
worth buys sixty-eight acres of Alexander Emsbry tract. 

1 834-1 835. William C. Roushey appears, for first time, 
as a taxable. Philip Kunkle and James Shaver elected 
school directors, they being the first to be elected under the 
new school law providing for the establishment of common 
or public schools, which have continued to this day. 

Dallas township continues to fill up very rapidly, and the 
unseated lands are taken up and seated so rapidly that in 
the year 1835, the long list embracing hundreds of tracts of 
unseated land at time of organizing the new township in 
1817, was reduced to the following, viz: 



No. of Assessed 

I Acres. Name of Warrantee. Value. 


400 Simon Dunn, ^400.00 

430 Jacob Dunn, 430.00 

438 Aaron Dunn, 438.00 

400 Anthony Dunn, .... 400.00 

354 James Dunn 354-00 

100 Jacob Downing, .... 100.00 

258 Alex. Emsbry, 258.00 

340 John Eley 340.00 

50 Lawrence Erb, 50.00 

442 George Fell, • 442.00 

440 Simon Harman, .... 440.00 

338 Josiah Lusby, 338.00 

316 Josiah Lusby, 316.00 

85 Patrick Moore, 85.00 

200 John Olden, 200.00 

58 Joseph Sansom, .... 58.00 

41 Amos Wickersham, . . . 41.00 

417 Jos. Wyllis, 417.00 

421 Wm. Wyllis, 421.00 

200 Wm. Sansom, 200.00 

60 Abiel Abbott, 60.00 

186 Jos. Shotwell heirs, . . . 1 86.00 

65 acres and 6 perches, Charles F. Wyllis, . . . 65.50 

1 50 acres and 5 perches, John App (owner), . . . 150.75 

240 Joseph Mears, 240.00 

1835-1836. John Anderson buys fifty acres of land from 
Joseph Anderson. W^iiliam C. Roushey assessed as car- 
penter, and buys three acres and one house of Joseph Ry- 
man. Joseph Ross, carpenter, buys thirteen acres of Thomas 
Irwin, Jonas Randall settles in the township and buys fifty- 
one acres and a house of John Wilson, also 175 acres of 
Leclere.(?) William Randall appears, for first time, as a 
"single freeman." Charles Smith and William A. Barnes 
buy seventy-five acres of Sylvanus Fuller. Henry Ander- 
son appears as a "single freeman" for first time. Daniel 
Spencer, Jr., buys fifty acres of land of Joseph Anderson. 

lS^6-iS^^. Joseph S. Allen buys 130 acres of land with 


house and barn from Charles Moore. John Anderson buys 
fifty and Henry Anderson ninety-four acres of land from 
Joseph Anderson. Joseph Castleline buys ninety-five acres 
from Alfred D. Woodward. William Honeywell, 2d, buys 
thirty acres of Simon Anderson. Richard Honeywell bu3^s 
one acre of Joseph Ryman. C. Butler buys 264 acres from 
G. M. Hollenback and Joseph Ryman (part of lots i and 2 
certified Bedford). A. Thomas buys 100 acres at sheriff's 
sale of H. P. Hopkins and George Shaver (part of lot 5) (?). 
Thomas Sweazy buys fifty-one acres of Joseph Hoover. 
Joseph Hoover buys twenty-nine acres of Philip Hoover. 
Joseph Reiley buys five acres of Jonathan Husted. C. 
Kunkle buys twenty-five acres of Felix Hoover. Henry 
King buys thirteen acres and one house of Ephraim Moss, 
also twenty-two acres of Jacob Rice (part of present Rob- 
ert Norton farm, now John Reynolds plot of lots). Jacob 
Gould buys 165 acres of Nicholas Keizer. Rev. Griffin 
Lewis dies. 

Christopher Snyder buys 118 acres, house and barn of 
J. Fisher. J. Fisher buys twelve acres, house and barn of 
William Snyder. A. S. Honeywell buys lot of land of T. 
Tuttle and Peter Seaman. Daniel Spencer buys fifty acres 
of Joseph Anderson. 

1 837-1 838. Solomon Frantz is assessed as cabinetmaker. 
Jacob Miers takes out a tavern license and starts a hotel on 
southeast corner at cross-roads near the "Goss" or "Corner 
School House," about one-half mile north of McLellons- 
ville on road to Kunkle post-office. Excepting the license 
granted to Peter B. Roushey in 1823, before referred to, 
this was the first hotel or tavern license within present ter- 
ritory of Dallas township. Jacob Miers kept this tavern 
for about two years, when he died of smallpox, which he 
caught while on a rafting trip down the Susquehanna River 
in the same manner as in the case of Levi Hunt before re- 
ferred to. Miers was buried alone a few miles back of the 


spot where his tavern stood. The well in the corner of the 
field south of tlie Corner School House now nearly marks 
the spot where tlie Miers hotel stood. The level ground at 
that point made it a favorite spot for the Dallas millitary 
company to meet and drill on training days. The last train- 
ing there was the day when the first of what proved in a 
few days to be Miers' fatal illness began to appear. Miers 
was up and about that day, but was feeling very ill. A 
week later he was dead. On that day, as on previous oc- 
casions, there was a great deal of drinking and fighting after 
the training was over. These fights grew more from an ex- 
huberance of masculine strength and physical good feeling, 
accompanied by a desire to see who was the "best man," 
than from any anger or bad blood, though what was begun 
in sport often ended in angry and brutal affrays. 

Among the trades which appeared this year on the as- 
sessment books are Abram Huey, cooper; Nathan Mon- 
tanye, blacksmith; Joseph Orr, carpenter (moved in this 
year); Edward O'Mealey, cooper; William Shaver, carpen- 
ter; Peter Shaver, 2d, carpenter; Peter Seaman, shoemaker; 
Joseph Castiline, blacksmith; Abram Huey, Jr., cooper. 

1838-1839. Jacob Frantz buys sixty acres of land from 
Thomas Irwin. David Fulmer buys 100 acres from Griffith 
Lewis heirs (Eypher farm) (?). P. N. Foster buys sixty 
acres, house and barn from Almon Church ; Thomas Irwin 
buys fifty-seven acres of William Hoover, William Hoover 
buys fifty acres of the William Sansom tract. Jacob Rice, 2d, 
appears for the first time as a taxable, and buys thirty-seven 
acres from Abram King. William A. Kirkendall buys sixty 
acres of Abram Thomas. Philip Kunkle sells 112 acres to 
Conrad Kunkle. Peter Ryman dies. Abram Ryman attains 
his majority, and buys twenty-five acres from Abram Thom- 
as. Jacob Ryman conveys his land to Nathaniel S. Honey- 
well and moves west. Thomas Sweazy sells out to W^illiam 
Coolbaugh and moves to Wilkes-Barre. 


1 839-1 840. Wesley Kunkle appears for first time as- 
sessed as single freeman. 

1 840-1 841. 

1 84 1. Thomas Irwin becomes one of the county com- 
missioners. John Fisher appears this year first time as 
"single freeman." Samuel Honeywell buys twenty-five 
acres of Simon Anderson. Nathaniell Honeywell buys 
twenty-four acres of Abram Ryman. Elijah Harris buys 
nine-four acres of the James Wyllis tract. Henry H. King 
dies. Philip Kunkle is made postmaster. Wesley Kunkle 
buys eighty-three acres of Chester Butler. William W. Kir- 
kendall buys same amount of same. 

Miles Orr opens his tavern, first time (1840), in village of 
McLellonsville, though still assessed, 1841, as carpenter. 
Abram and Richard Ryman buy 100 acres of heirs of Oliver 
Pettebone. Concerning this purchase I will quote from a 
letter received from John R. Bartron, an old resident of Dal- 
las, but now hving in Madison, Indiana. 

•'I often think of the time when the Ryman boys bought 
the Pettebone farm (part of lot where present Ryman and 
Shaver steam saw-mill stands) of 100 acres for ;^iooo before 
dayhght. Other parties were after it, but their mother pre- 
pared breakfast soon after midnight for the boys, who walked 
down to the valley (Kingston) and closed the sale. On 
their way back they met the other parties going to buy it. 
All wanted it because it had on it a mill seat and lots of pine, 
oak and hemlock timber. This was in 1841, and the be- 
ginning of their lumber trade. Some folks said the boys 
were 'daring and would 'break,' but all worked well to suc- 

John R. Bartron also writes me some interesting remi- 
niscences of the early days of the nineteenth century in Dal- 
las. He says : 

"I can count many families living in log houses with a 
ladder only for a stairway to the loft, where one or more 



beds and sometimes house plunder and grain were kept; 
|. while the room below — kitchen, dining-room and parlor — 

J where the wool was carded into rolls, spun and sometimes 

g' woven into cloth, prepared for the puller, to be made into 

1 good warm winter goods. Here, too, flax goods for sum- 

f mer wear, sheets, towels, etc., were made. It was a busy 

place ; and then, sometimes grandmother, in her younger 
days, had carried to Wilkes-Barre butter and eggs. I heard 
her say she sold her butter readily to a tavern-keeper 
whose name was Steel for three cents more on the pound 
I than the common price. I have been told that she cleared 

■; off the ground where the old Ferguson house stood on the 

, J day before a son was born. That son was a leader in de- 

fj bates at the old log school-house debating club, involving 

I questions of history and science. Conrad Kunkle told me 

I that he debated with the young man. This boy's father 

{ kept books in his house, took a weekly paper, and was a 

f, kind of Socrates in the home circles and neighborhood. 

J, Pine knots were plentiful and they made a good light." 

I William Shaver is made justice of peace in absence of 

f Thomas Irwin. John King and Christian Rice are assessed 

I as owners of watches, and the latter is also assessed as the 

I owner of a carriage. This is the first instance of anyone 

I being found in Dallas township who indulged in either of 

I those luxuries. I am told, by those who remember the 

I carriage, that it created a great sensation. Young and old 

I went miles to see it, and Jacob Rice, for whose use it was 

1 purchased, was the envy of all who saw it. This carriage, I 

* am informed, was an open buggy, and was taken from Wyo- 

ming to Qallas by Miles Orr, when he moved over there, 
and was by him traded to Christian Rice in exchange for a 
lot of land in the village of McLellonsville, which is now 
owned by Chester White, Dr. Spencer, and estate of William 
Randall, deceased. 

Peter Stots appears and is assessed as "silversmith." He 


was a traveling clock-tinker, and followed this till time of 
his death, which occurred within a few years past. He was 
afflicted with a very large wen in the neck just below his 
chin. His voice was very heavy, and he spoke with dis- 
tinctness and deliberation that was quite marked. He trav- 
eled all over the country on foot, and always carried his 
clock tinkering tools with him in a little bag. He was lia- 
ble to drop in at any time to see if anything needed atten- 
tion about the clock. His charges were httle or nothing, 
but he expected to be invited to the table wherever he 
might be at meal time, and usually was so invited. Thus 
he made a living. 

1 841-1842. In 1842 William C. Roushey was assessor, 
and makes one or two characteristic records. Joseph Orr 
he returns as ^^carpenter, Sjo, and wants to keep taveryi!^ 
Henry Overton, constable, 550. Abram and Richard Ry- 
man build mill on land lately purchased of Pettebone heirs 
(where present steam mill below Dallas village now stands). 
This was the beginning of the lumbering business with both. 
Jacob Rice also begins lumbering on his father's mill in the 
village of McLellonsviile. 

The new county of Wyoming is set off from Luzerne by 
Act of Assembly passed April 4th, 1842, but not to take 
effect until May ist, 1843, except so far as to enable the 
county commissioners to erect new buildings and to com- 
plete the survey by the courses and distances named in the 

1 842-1 843. Thomas Irwin resumes the office of Justice 
of the Peace, which he held continuously thereafter for many 
years. No better evidence of his fitness for the position can 
be asked than this fact that, like Captain Jacob I. Bogardus, 
before spoken of, he was so long and so continuously re- 
tained in it. Miles Orr continues to be inn-keeper at Mc- 
Lellonsviile. Ebenezer Parrish and A. C. Cowles assessed 
as **mill rights," Isaac Hughey, "shingle-maker." Mr. 





Hughey afterwards became quite famous as a shingle-maker. 
Whenever any extra nice or extra good shingles were 
wanted in Wilkes-Barre during his day, Isaac's shingles 
were quite sure to be sought; and, if found, were equally 
sure to be satisfactory. He was proud of the reputation he 
had made in this respect, but he was poor and never could 
pay an old debt, either at a store or for rent. He moved 
annually or oftener, and lived wherever he could find an 
empty hovel that would hold him. For his last wife he 
married a Miss i\Ioss, and the favorite joke with him was 
that he was a living refutation of the old adage, "A rolling 
stone will gather 7io mossT 

Franklin township is this year (1843) set off from parts 
of Kingston, Exeter and Dallas townships. 

This was the last pruning, except small corner from west- 
erly end of Lake township, that Dallas township, as origin- 
ally laid out and formed, was obliged to suffer. This leaves 
Dallas township with the same shape and size that it now has, 
and I give the list of taxables in Dallas township for the 
year 1844, the first complete list after Wyoming county and 
Franklin township had been cut off of, viz : Fayette Al- 
len, farmer; James Anderson, shoemaker; Henry Ander- 
son, farmer; Joseph Anderson, farmer; Elijah Ayres, farmer, 
and has money at interest ; Alexander Albron, laborer ; 
Harris Brown, laborer, single; Joseph Blasier, farmer; Miles 
Burbeck, farmer, "money at use"; Abed Baldwin, farmer; 
Daniel Brown, farmer ; Lawrence Beam ; Jacob W. Bishop, 
sawyer, single; Henry Boon, laborer; William C. Brace, 
farmer; Stephen Brace, farmer; William Croop, farmer; 
Charles Cairl, laborer; George Cairl, sawyer; Palmer Carey, 
wheelwright; Garret Durland, farmer; Henry S. Low, 
farmer; James Durland, carpenter; Martin Davis, laborer; 
Ransom Demond, farmer ; David Donley, weaver ; Charles 
Deremer, laborer, single; Samuel Elston, farmer ; Solomon 
Frantz, farmer; Jacob Frantz, farmer, half sav/-mill ; David 



Weston, half saw-mill (this was the Weston saw-mill before 
referred to); David Frantz, farmer; David Fulmer, farmer ; 
Charles Ferguson, laborer, single ; Anthony Foss, farmer ; 
Alexander Ferguson, farmer; Jacob Fisher, farmer, John 
Fisher, laborer ; Joseph Fleet, laborer ; Almon Goss, farmer, 
"money at use"; Samuel Gould, farmer; David Gibbs, 
farmer; William H. Goble, carpenter; Samuel Honeywell, 
farmer; Abram Hughey, cooper; N. S. Honeywell, farmer, 
"money at use"; Thomas Honeywell, laborer; Daniel D. 
Honeywell, farmer, single; Elijah Harris, laborer, saw-mill 
(first time for saw-mill) ; David Holcomb, farmer ; Joseph 
Hoover, shoemaker; William Honeywell, farmer; A. S. 
Honeywell, 2d, shoemaker, single; Joseph Honeywell, farm- 
er; Thomas -Hoover, laborer; Philip Hoover, laborer; C. C. 
Honeywell, farmer; James Huston, farmer; Charles tluston, 
farmer, single ; William C. Hagerman, tailor ; Richard Hon- 
eywell, farmer ; Isaac Honeywell, farmer; Levi Hoyt, farmer, 
saw-mill; Isaac Hervey, laborer, shingle maker; Abram Hoo- 
ver, laborer; A. S. Honeywell, farmer; Jonathan Husted, 
farmer ; John J. King, farmer ; Wesley Kunkle and William 
Salmon, saw-mill; John H, Low, laborer; Peter Lewis, 
laborer; James M. Lord, carpenter; George C. Lord, farm- 
er; Michael Lee, farmer ; William Alontanye, farmer ; Owen 
Martin, mason ; Isaac Montanye, farmer, single ; Margaret 
Montanye, widow ; Charles Montanye, farmer, single ; San- 
ford Moore, farmer; Joseph Matthews, laborer; Ruben 
Mullison, farmer; William Mullison, farmer; Isaac Nulton, 
farmer ; Stephen Northrup, shoemaker ; Zachariah Neeley, 
farmer, tanner; Thomas Henry Nutt, doctor (first doctor); 
Henry Overton, farmer ; Leonard Oakley, laborer ; William 
Perrigo, laborer ; George Puterbaugh, laborer ; Andrew 
Puterbaugh, laborer; Peter B. Roushey, tailor; Jonathan 
Rogers, laborer; Abram Ryman, farmer; Jacob Rice, 2d, 
farmer, saw mill ; Christian Rice, farmer ; Enoch Reiley, 
laborer ; Stephen Reiley, laborer, single ; Richard Ryman, 



I sawyer, saw mill, single; William Reiley, laborer; William 

C. RoLishey, farmer ; Deming Spencer, farmer, "money at 
use" ; Erastus Shaver, laborer, single ; Israel Stewart, labor- 
er; John Sigler, farmer; Nathaniel Schooley, laborer; Daniel 
Spencer, farmer; William Shaver, justice of the peace, 
"money at use"; William Shniven, laborer; John P. Shaver, 
laborer ; Joseph Shaver, farmer ; Peter Shaver, carpenter ; 
Charles Shaver, carpenter, single ; Asa W. Shaver, farmer ; 
James Simmers, laborer; Peter Stetler, farmer; Simeon 
Spencer, farmer; Miles Spencer, farmer ; William Sn}-der, 
farmer ; Manning Snyder, farmer, carpenter ; John Snyder, 
farmer, saw mill; Christopher Snyder, farmer; William 
Smith, blacksmith ; John Smith, laborer ; Simon P. Sites, 
laborer ; Thomas Tuttle, farmer ; Chance Terry, laborer ; 
John Thorn, Jr., laborer, single man ; George Thorn, labor- 
er ; John Urtz, mason ; Jesse Vausteemburgh, carpenter ; 
Elisha H. Venning, farmer; Charles Vanwinkle, shoemaker; 
John Waldon, shoemaker ; Heirs of John Wilson, deceased; 
William Wilson, farmer; Peter Wilson, laborer ; John Wea- 
ver, mason ; David Westover, laborer ; Levi Wheeler, la- 
borer; Joseph Wright, laborer; John Wright, laborer, sin- 
gle: George Wright, laborer, single; Edward Williams, 
cooper : Joseph Wordon, farmer, single ; John Wordon, 
farmer; Samuel Worden, farmer; Abram Worden, farmer ; 
David Weaver, laborer, single; Henry Weaver, mason ; Jo- 
seph Orr, tavern keeper ; Miles C. Orr, ex-tavern keeper ; 
Philip Kunkle, farmer; Phineas N. Foster, farmer; Abram 
Vanscoy, farmer; Orlando T. Hunt, laborer, single; Sam- 
uel Myers, laborer, single ; Brasson Willis, shoemaker ; 
William B. Taylor, Jesse Fosbinder, Hitchcock and Church, 
Joseph Boon. Total 173. 

1844-1845.^ Isaac Whipple appears as doctor (second 
one), and Jonathan Husted gets a pleasure caniage (second 
one in township). 

1845-1846. William W. Kirkendall dies. Jesse Kreid- 


ler starts blacksmith shop near Goss or Corner School 
House, afterwards continued by his son, Abe Kreidler, who 
was accidentally shot by William C. Smith about 1856, and 

Joseph Orr justice of the peace this year. Elijah Harris 
starts the first lath mill in Dallas township (near present 
"Ryman's Pond"), Abram Ryman gets a pleasure carriage 
(the third one in the township). John Rainow moves on 
John Honeywell farm (lot four in certified Bedford, where 
John Welch now lives). Christopher Eypher, wheelwright, 
moves into township. 

1 846-1 847. George Cairl starts a tannery at Green woods 
near Kunkle. Anthony Peche, laborer, moves into town- 

1 847-1 848. John Bulford starts his blacksmith shop in 
village of McClellonsville. Miner Fuller builds saw mill on 
Toby's Creek one-half mile above Jude Baldwin's mill, near 
Lehman township line. Almon Goss made postmaster. 
Henry Hancock and Joseph Shaver, as Hancock & Co., go 
into lumber business at Jude Baldwin mill. 

1 848- 1 849. A. L. Warring starts a hotel or tavern, 
which continues but a short time. 

1 849-1 850. Jacob Rice appears first time as merchant. 
Albert L. Warring, tavern keeper. John Thorn makes ap- 
plication for hotel license. 

No. of acres. Warrantee name of owners. 

66 Abiel Abbott. 

100 ...... Nancy Diley. 

719 Simon, Jacob, Aaron and James Dunn. 

250 Anthony Dunn. 

85 Patrick Moore. 

125 John Opp, owner. 

186 Heirs of Joseph Shotwell. 

90 ...... . Heirs of T. B. Worthington. 

50 Chester Butler. 

50 Lawrence Erb. 




„ -r^f 



\ ^' 



After the abandonment and removal of the rolHng mill 
from South Wilkes-Barre, about the year 1844, the firm of 
Stetler & Slyker, which had been keeping a general mer- 
chandise store there, stopped business and removed their 
remaining stock of goods out to McLellonsville. Stephen 
Slyker, one of the partners, who is still living (18S6), at 
South Wilkes-Barre, went out with the goods to close them 
out. There was then a wagonmaker's shop owned by one 
Jerome B. Blakeslee, standing on the southeastern bank of 
Toby's Creek, where the present store of Ira D. Shaver, in 
Dallas borough, now stands. Slyker secured this shop, put 
in shelves and a counter, and otherwise fitted it for use as a 
store, and moved in with his stock of goods. This was the 
first store started within the present territory of Dallas 
township. Before this time, about the year, 1840, Almon 
Goss kept a few goods at his house near the Goss or Corner 
School House, just north of McLellonsville, from which he 
supplied his men and others who wanted to buy ; but the 
Slyker store was the first real store in a separate building 
devoted exclusively to the business. 

My father, Abram Ryman, also for many years kept a 
few goods in his house at the homestead farm, between 
Dallas and Huntsville, to accommodate his employees and 
others who wished to buy. He also began along in the 
forties. He w^ent once or twice a year to Philadelphia, and 
bought a few staple articles. Some dry goods of the com- 
monest and most substantial kind were kept in the "spare 
room" laid out on a board, which rested on two or three 
chairs. Molasses, pork and damp goods of that class were 
kept in the cellar. Sugar, tea, coffee and that class of grocer- 
ies were kept up stairs over the kitchen in a large room next 
to the roof where we boys and sometimes the hired men 
slept. Many times were we wakened after going to -bed by 


my father coming up stairs with some late customer to weigh 
out some coffee or sugar or the hke. His counter in that 
room was a hirge table. Just over the table, suspended 
from a rafter, was a pair of balancing scales. Weights were 
put in either side, and the article to be weighed was put in 
the other side. My father kept store in this way until 
about the year 1856, when he erected a separate building 
for it near the road. After ten or eleven years he erected 
another store down in the village of Dallas, which is still 
in use by the firm of A. Ryman & Sons. 

The Slyker store did not remain long in McLellonsville. 
About 1846 Samuel Lynch, Esq., now of Wilkes-Barre, Pa., 
leased the Slyker building, and started a branch to his 
Wilkes-Barre store, and thus conducted business there for 
about two years. 

About the same time that Lynch's store was started (Mr. 
Lynch thinks a little before) Henry Hancock came up from 
Kingston and opened a store in the front part of the house 
where J. J. Bulford now lives (ground since occupied by 
Lehigh Valley Railroad and station). Bulford lived in the 
back part of the house at the same time. Lynch abandoned 
his Dallas store soon afterwards, and Hancock moved his 
store to Himtsville, where he continued in business until 
just prior to the war. When the war broke out his sympa- 
thies were with the South, and, not wishing to shirk any 
duty toward the Southern cause, he went South and joined 
the Confederate army. He was afterwards taken prisoner, 
and died during his confinement in one of the Western 

About the year 1848 Jacob Rice, 2d, of Dallas, and Dr. 
James A. Lewis, of Trucksville, formed a copartnership un- 
der the firm name of Rice & Lewis, and continued business 
in the Slyker building (which Mr. Rice had in the mean- 
time purchased) as successors to Mr. Lynch. Dr. Lewis 
left the firm in 1 841, and the firm of Rice & Kirkendall 



soon followed, with George W. Kirkendall, deceased, late 
of Wilkes-Barre, as the junior partner. The successions in 
that store since then have been Rice & Sons, John J. Whit- 
ney, Whitney & Shaver, Brown & Henry, Smith & Garre- 
han, Garrehan & Son, and now Ira D. Shaver. The old store 
building burned down about 1 86 1 , while occupied by Brown 
& Henr}-, but was immediately rebuilt by Whitney & Shaver. 

Another store was started at McLellonsville quite early 
in the fifties by Charles Smith, now of Trucksville, in a 
store building which until quite recently stood on the ground 
now occupied by Dr. C. A. Spencer's residence. Still an- 
other store was started there about the same time as the 
Smith store, on the corner where now stands the residence 
of Chester White. It was more of a ''fluid" grocery store 
where oysters, cider and even stronger drinks could be had. 
The Smith store building was used for like purposes after 
Smith went away. 

The best of these first stores in Dallas would hardly be 
dignified by that name now. Only a few necessaries were 
kept in any of them, and "necessaries" then had a much 
scantier meaning than now. A few of the commonest and 
cheapest cotton cloths were kept in stock ; the woolen goods 
used for winter wear, for both men and women, were all 
homespun. It took many years for the storekeepers to con- 
vince the farmers that they could buy heavy clothes of part 
wool and part cotton that would be as durable and cheaper 
than the all wool homespun. The time spent on the latter 
was counted as nothing, and the argument failed. A few 
other goods of kinds in daily use, such as coffee, tea, sugar, 
molasses, tobacco, powder, shot and flints and rum were of 
course necessary to any complete store. Hunting materials 
and supplies were in great demand. A hunter's outfit at 
that time was proverbially *'a quarter of powder, a pound of 
shot, a pint of rum and a flint." Tobacco was always in 
demand. The flint was the box of matches of that day. 


Before the invention of the lucifer match, the matter of keep- 
ing fire in a house, especially in winter time, was one of ex- 
treme importance, in that sparsely settled country. Every 
one burned wood then, about there, and fire was kept over 
night by covering a few "live coals" with ashes in the fire- 
place. Sometimes this failed, and then, if no flint and punk 
were at hand, some member of the family had to go to the 
nearest neighbor, probably a mile or more away, and bring 
fire. It is not difficult to imagine their sufferings during 
the winters in this respect. Had food, clothing and other 
things been plenty and good, this hardship could have been 
better endured ; but they were not, and worst of all, there 
were almost no means of procuring them. There was an 
abundance of game and fish for a time, but they did not 
satisfy a civilized people. Buckwheat was early introduced 
in Dallas, and was afterwards so extensively raised there 
that the expression ** Buckwheat-Dallas" was frequently 
used by way of marking this fact in connection with the 
name. It is a summer grain and quick to mature. In 
ninety days from the day when the crop is sowed it can be 
grown, matured, gathered, ground and served on the table 
as food, or, as has been often remarked, just in time to meet 
a three months' note in bank. Another practical benefit 
from raising this grain was that, in gathering it, a large 
quantity of it shook off and was scattered over the fields. 
This afforded a most attractive pigeon food, and during the 
fall and spring seasons, and often during much of the win- 
ter, pigeons would flock in countless numbers all over that 
country. They came in such quantities that it would be 
difficult to exaggerate their numbers. When a boy I used 
to see flocks that extended as far as the eye could reach, 
from end to end, and these long strings or waves of 
birds would pass over so closely following each other that 
sometimes two or three flocks could be seen at once, and 
some days they were almost constantly flying over, and the 



noise of their wings was not unlike the sound of a high wind 
blowing through a pine woods. They cast a shadow as they 
passed over almost like a heavy cloud. Often they flew 
so low as to be easily reached with an ordinary shot gun. 
The skilled way of capturing them in large quantities, how- 
ever, was with a net. William, or Daddy Emmons was a 
famous pigeon trapper as well as fisherman. He used de- 
coy pigeons. They were blind pigeons tied to the ground 
at some desired spot, and when they heard the noise of 
large flocks flying overhead, they would flap their wings as 
if to fly away. Attracted by this the flock would come 
down and settle near the decoys, where plenty of buck- 
wheat was always to be found. When a sufficient number 
had settled and collected on the right spot, Mr. Emmons, 
who was concealed in a bush or bough house near by, 
would spring his net over them quickly and fasten them 
within. After properly securing the net, the work of killing 
[ them began. It was done in an instant by crushing their 

heads between the thumb and fingers. Hundreds were 
often caught and killed in this way at one spring of the net. 
Pigeons were so plenty that some hunters cut ofl* and saved 
the breast only, and threw the balance away. Pigeon trap- 
ping in Dallas twenty-five and thirty years ago was almost 
if not quite a parallel with the great shad fishing days in 
the Susquehanna. 

On the morning of September 5th, 1887, while walking 
along the roadside in Dallas borough, "Daddy Emmons" 
was knocked down by a wagon loaded with hay, through 
some carelessness of the driver coming from behind. Daddy 
Emmons was pushed off the lower bank of the roadside, a 
broken thigh was the result, and he died from the shock at 
the house of his daughter, Mrs. Davis, in Dallas village, 
within a few days, at the age of ninety-two years. I quote 
the following tribute to his memory, written soon after his 
death,by Hon. Caleb E. Wright, formerly of the Luzerne bar : 


Daddy Emmons. 

"I never seethe name of this harmless and gentle spirited man, or 
hear it pronounced, but with reverential emotion. Many years have 
passed since it was first my pleasure to become associated with him in 
the mystic art of capturing fish — an occupation that everybody knows 
is, and always has been, with all men, one of the characteristics of 

"The first time I met this ancient fisherman was at Harvey's Lake. 
There he had his summer cabin, invited to it by the genial warmth that 
lured also the osprey and the kingfisher, and like them devoting him- 
self to the one occupation. He had his boat, his bait net, and all his 
tools of trade at hand; and with the morning dawn was up and 
abroad upon the waters. 

"At our first interview I thought I discovered his merit; and then 
and there we grew into bonds of afiinity. On the little inland sea I 
was constrained to acknowledge his superior sleight of hand, and often 
wondered where such matchless skill in capturing pickerel and catfish 
could have found growth. But when on the bold stream issuing 
from the density of the Sullivan county woods, armed with the coach- 
man or yellow-sally, my companion laid down his arms at my feet. 
The most cautious and alert of untamed things, the trout, challenges 
a prowess not thrust promiscuously upon the sons of men. It is a 
special gift. 

"Witheveryyard square of that noble sheet of water, largest of Penn- 
sylvania lakes. Daddy Emmons was familiar. The places where, at 
different times of the day, bait shiners could be scooped up with his 
net, and at what spots, at different hours, lay the largest of the fish he 

"A man may be good on water without much knowledge of wood- 
craft. This was once demonstrated when the old fisherman under- 
took to guide George Lear, of the Bucks county bar, and myself from 
the north shore of the lake to Beaver Run. We wished to reach the 
run at the foot of the great meadow. It was once a meadow, but of 
late years an inextricable confusion of alders, through which the stream 
found its way, a mile or so in extent. Instead of reaching it below 
the jungle, our conductor brought us in above. Our Bucks county 
friend started in first. A short distance brought him to the alders. 
We found his track, where he had penetrated the tangled under- 
growth, but that was all. The future Attorney General of the Com- 
monwealth was lost. In hunting for him, having wound up our lines, 
we got lost too. I don't know how many hours we wandered in the 



dismal slough, chiefly in circles, but Squire Kocher, hunting his cat- 
tle, found and rescued us. Mr. Lear, getting out upon a log road, 
followed it to the lake, and a lad of Judge Barnum's rowed him across 
to the hotel. 

"There was a pleasing simplicity and honest candor in this old nav- 
igator of the lake that commended him to the regard of men far above 
him in social rank. Judge Paxson of our Supreme Bench, for many 
years a summer resident of the celebrated resort, spent his days in 
company of Daddy Emmons. Their communion was a pleasant thing 
to behold, and the distinguished jurist, in common with many others, 
will ever bear a kindly remembrance of this old piscatorial veteran, 
deploring the sad catastrophe that hastened his descent to the tomb." 

Death of Daddy Emmons. 


"At half-past eight o'clock Wednesday morning the celebrated Har- 
vey's Lake fisherman, William, better known as "Daddy," Emmons, 
passed to his eternal rest. Two weeks ago, as then stated in this pa- 
per, he was knocked down and badly injured by a hay wagon, near 
Dallas, his thigh being broken. From this shock he never rallied. 
His death occurred at the home of his daughter, Mrs. Davis, in Dallas, 
who during his last days administered to his every want, and did 
everything that a loving heart and willing hands could suggest and do 
to make him comfortable. 

"Daddy Emmons went to Harvey's Lake from New Jersey about 
thirty-five years ago, and ever since has been a prominent character 
at that favorite resort. Up to about two years ago he lived in a hut 
in a copse of woods on the banks of the lake, and was looked upon as 
the ideal fisherman of the neighborhood. He knew just where the 
finny tribe was most numerous, and seldom failed to make a catch 
when a proper effort was put forth. He taught many of the promi- 
nent men of his day the art of angHng, among his pupils being the 
late Judge Paxson, of Philadelphia. Since leaving the lake he has 
resided with his daughter, Mrs. Davis, from whose home the funeral 
will occur to-morrow." — Leader, Sept. /j, iSSj . 

As the forests were cleared away and the country became 
more thickly settled the pigeons grew timid and gradually 
ceased to return in such large flocks. In later years Daddy 
Emmons turned his attention more to fishing, at which he 



was as successful as in trapping pigeons. His home was at 
Dallas, but early in each reluriiing spring he went to Har- 
vey's Lake and took possession of his cabin, which stood 
at the edge of a little grove near the eastern end of the old 
bridge at the southeastern inlet, and there lived alone, 
spending his whole time at fishing. He made a business of 
it, and for many years, until his strength failed on account 
of his age, he succeeded in getting a living out of it. His 
honest old face was for many years associated with the 
memory of Harvey's Lake, and with many of us it will 
never be forgotten. Harvey's Lake at one time abounded 
in speckled trout, but the artificial introduction of other fish 
has exterminated the trout. Game of every kind was also 
very abundant about there. It was a famous hunting and 
fishing ground. Ephraim King once imformed me that he 
had killed over a hundred deer in and about Harvey's Lake. 
Hunting dogs were seldom needed in his best hunting days, 
fifty to seventy years ago. The deer were oftenest killed by 
rowing quietly up to them with a light in the boat while they 
were feeding in the shore grass or drinking just at the edge 
of the water. The torch dazed them, and its reflection in 
their bright eyes made a sure mark for the hunter. Bears 
and wolves ceased to be a terror before the first half of this 
century was ended, but they were seen occasionally in and 
about Dallas and Lake township at a later date. Watch 
dogs were employed at one time to protect the sheep from 
attacks by wolves, but the dogs had to be of such a fero- 
cious kind that it sometimes became a question as to which 
were the more destructive in the sheepfold, and many good 
watch dogs had to be killed for this reason. The need of 
watch dogs for that purpose ended in Dallas years ago — 
about 1855. 

Fox hunting was rare sport at one time in Dallas, and 
during the winter season was extensively indulged in. For 
this hunting fox hounds were used. The hunters were 



stationed about on the hills where the "runaways" were 
supposed to be, and each had liis shot at the fox as it was 
driven by in front of the hounds. The fox skin brought a 
httle money in at the furriers, and the county paid a small 
bounty, so that there was a slight remuneration from this 
sport. Catamounts and wildcats were often seen and killed 
by the earHer inhabitants of Dallas. There were also a few 
rattlesnakes and other poisonous reptiles found there by 
the earlier settlers, but all of these are gone now from Dai- 
las township. 


The village or post-office of Kunkle was settled about 
1836 and was named in honor of Wesley and Conrad Kun- 
kle, Wesley Kunkle settled and erected a saw-mill near there 
about 1840; Conrad did not go there until about twelve 
years later. The country round about Kunkle was and 
still is generally known as the "Green Woods," and I find 
record that it was so called as far back as 1820. The rea- 
son for it is apparent when we recall the fact that all that 
region was originally almost entirely covered with hemlock 
and other evergreen trees. The hemlock was abundant and 
of most excellent quality. On account of its superiority 
the hemlock grown on the west side of the Susquehanna 
River in this vicinity commands a considerably larger price 
than that grown the opposite side. This is a fact well known 
to dealers in lumber, but not, it is believed, by the unini- 
tiated. About the year 1840 George Cairl (?), in order to 
utilize the hemlock bark in that vicinty, established a tan- 
nery on the hill just east of present Kunkle village. This 
was the second tannery established in Dallas township, the 
first being that established two or three years earlier by 
Zachariah Neely in West Dallas near the Lehmon township 
line, on the road leading from McLellonsville to Harvey's 
Lake. The Cairl tannery was superseded by a large steam 



tannery erected about 1855 by Edward Marsh, an enter- 
prising young New Yorker. This steam tannery was burned 
several years ago, and the present one was erected after the 
model and upon the same ground of the former one. 

Conrad and Wesley Kunkle were men of considerable 
prominence in the community where they lived. Each had 
a power of making and retaining extensive acquaintances 
and friendships. Conrad was for many years Justice of the 
Peace in Dallas township, and was also one of the two first 
school directors appointed by the court for Dallas township 
in the year 1834 under the provisions of the new school 
law, then for the first time put in force. Wesley was elected 
to the office of Recorder of Deeds in Luzerne county in the 
fall of i860, and served one term. Intimately connected 
with the early settlement of the Green Woods country at 
Kunkle was also William Wheeler Kirkendall, father of 
George W., Ira M. and William P. Kirkendall, now of the 
city of Wilkes-Barre. Wheeler Kirkendall, as he was fa- 
miliarly called, came from New Jersey, and was a carpenter, 
also a carder, fuller and clothes dresser by trade, and it was 
largely through his aid that the first carding and fulling 
mill was undertaken and built by Jacob Rice, ist, in the 
village of Trucksville. He was a man of kindly nature and 
abounded in good cheer. A harmless joke was never any less 
enjoyable to him because it happened to be at his expense. 
He used to tell of and heartly laugh at an incident which oc- 
curred while he was engaged at the work of constructing 
the carding and fulling mill at Trucksville, above referred 
to. A neighbor of his from Dallas, somewhat noted for his 
large stories as well as his fondness for practical fun, ap- 
peared coming down the road towards Kingston one morn- 
ing in great haste. "Hold on, Uncle Abe," called Kirken- 
dall as he passed, "what's your hurry ? Can't you stop and 
tell us a good big lie this morning?" Quick as thought, 
and without halting or turning about. Uncle Abe shouted 



back that he had no time, that Philip Kunkle had just fallen 
from an apple tree and broken a leg, and he was going to 
Wilkes-Barre for a doctor. Philip Kunkle was the father 
of Wesley and Conrad Kunkle, as w^ell as the step-father of 
Wheeler Kirkendall, and was also a most highly esteemed 
citizen of Dallas, to whom, on account of his advanced 
years, such an accident was likely to bring most painful if 
not fatal consequences. Under these circumstances such an 
announcement was serious to Wheeler Kirkendall. Before 
he had time to revive after the first shock and recover his 
wits, Uncle Abe was out of sight and hearing. The sus- 
pense was unbearable, and no time w^as lost in starting for 
the scene of the accident, which was at least four miles 
away by the nearest route. There being no horses or con- 
veyances at hand, the journey had to be made on foot. This 
was done in all possible haste, and after two hours of hard 
walking, up hill and down, over the roughest of roads, Mr. 
Kirkendall arrived, much fatigued, at his journey's end, only 
to find Mr. Kunkle enjoying his usual health, and to dis- 
cover that Uncle Abe had literally complied with his re- 
quest and told a good big lie. 

Levi Hoyt, formerly of Kingston, was also one of the 
first to locate at Kunkle. He lived there and operated with 
the saw-mill previously mentioned as early as 1838, but I 
am unable to get very positive data in relation to his trans- 
actions. An extensive business was at one time carried on 
at Kunkle in the manufacture of long oars for small whale 
boats. The superior quality of white ash which grew there 
was specially adapted to this use. For many years after 
the first settlements in Kunkle village the nearest school- 
house was by the roadside on the divide known as "Chest- 
nut Hill," or "Brace Hill," about one and a half miles south- 
east of the present village. About the year 1858 a new red 
school-house was erected within the village limits. Soon 
after this improvement was made, it was proposed one day 


to start a Sunday-school also in the same building. There 
being no church in the place, this proposition grew in favor 
and soon ripened into a fact. On the day fixed for the open- 
ing a large crowd was assembled, so that there was hardly 
room to accommodated the parents and children who had 
come from every direction to join the Sunday-school. Great 
pains had been taken to have everything in readiness for 
the opening day, but in spite of all, one serious omission 
was at the last moment discovered. No provision had been 
made for the opening prayer. There were two or three 
residents of the village who had experienced religion in the 
Methodist way, and were to a limited degree pious, but they 
did not feel competent to undertake such an important 
prayer as this one. The upshot of it all was that everything 
had to be suspended and the people kept waiting while some 
one went three miles across country through the woods and 
brought a man who knew how to make such a prayer. 
From that beginning a large and prosperous Sunday-school 
has grown up and become permanently established. 

The same enterprising citizen who organized and started 
the first Sunday-school, famed for his abounding good na- 
ture, generosity and forwardness in starting and promoting 
new and useful operations for the interest and welfare of the 
community, is also noted for the variety of his trades and 
accomplishments. He was born to handle skillfully tools 
of all trades. He practiced a little in law and medicine, and in 
music he was at home with almost any instrument. After the 
late war, when the 30th of May was first set apart and made a 
holiday for the decoration of the graves of the soldier dead, 
he was the first to improvise a band of drums and fifes to take 
part in the ceremony of visiting and decorating the various 
graves in the graveyards in and about Dallas. The pro- 
gram of this first decoration day at Dallas was to visit each 
soldier's grave and lay upon it a wreath of flowers ; and as 
the procession marched from one grave to another, music 



of the funereal kind was furnished by this band. There 
were several graveyards and a considerable number of 
graves in each to be visited, while the number of tunes suit- 
able for such an occasion in the repertory of this newly or- 
ganized band was very limited, and in visiting so many 
graves there was of course much repetition, so that by night, 
the services having lasted most of the day, this band, and 
especially its organizer and leader, were very tired of those 
particular pieces. Finally the last grave had been decorated 
and the procession was headed for home. The programme 
called for more music, but to repeat again any of those 
psalm tunes seemed unbearable to all. With a look almost 
of despair, one of the members ventured to ask of the leader, 

"What shall we play now?" "O it, anything — the 

*Girl I left behind me,* " was the reply. The relief was so 
great that all marched away heartily enjoying the change, 
while the bluntness and profanity of the reply and the amus- 
ing yet literal inappropriateness of the music were for the 
moment unnoticed ; though the afterthought of the situation 
has since furnished much amusement to many who were 
present on that occasion. 

In the practice of medicine our own Sunday-school and 
band organizer has also won some laurels. It is told 
of him that on one occasion a distinguished and skillful 
practitioner of the same profession, being overcome with 
heat or from some other cause, was suddenly prostrated and 
became unconscious in the road near the house of our hero. 
With quick presence of mind, our hero had the patient re- 
moved to his house near by and ordered the two men whom 
he had called as assistants to apply cold water bandages to 
the head, while he took down his herb doctor book, adjusted 
his spectacles, and began licking his thumb and with it turn- 
ing the leaves one by one and carefully scanning each page, 
while his thumb was resting against or near his protruding 
tongue so that it might be properly dampened on the instant 


that the next leaf was to be thumbed over. After nearly an 
hour thus doubled over this volume of medical lore, a cry 

broke out : ** , boys, I've found it ; we've got to sweat 

him ! One of you go for a pound of ground mustard while I 
steam some hemlock boughs." Quicker than I can write it, 
one of the attendants darted out to the store near by, but 
in his haste he asked for and procured a pound package of 
of ginger instead of mustard. In the excitement and hurry, 
however, no one discovered the mistake, and soon the pa- 
tient was nicely encased in a covering of ginger plasters, 
steaming hot hemlock boughs, etc. The effect was all that 
was desired — it woke up the patient. He was quite restored 
and still lives to tell the tale — if he would. 


One of the first schools — probably the first — taught in 
Dallas, was in an old barn near the residence of Philip 
Kunkle, on lot 53 of certified Bedford, near central line. 
The date of opening this school I cannot obtain with any 
degree of certainty, nor can I learn the name of the teacher, 
though there are two or three people still living who at- 
tended and well remember the school. The date was prob- 
ably about 1813 or 1814, and the teacher was either Mr. 

Bell or Joseph Sweazy. My informants do not agree 

on this point. It seems to be undisputed, however, that 
both of these taught private schools in barns and private 
houses of that neighborhood before the log school-house 
was erected in 18 16. What became of Bell I cannot learn. 
Joseph Sweazy remained in Dallas until about the year 1 843, 
when he sold his farm and moved down to Wilkes-Barre. 
He bought, and for several years owned a considerable tract 
of land between Ross and South streets through which 
Franklin street has since been opened. The three old 
houses still standing (1886) on northeasterly side of Ross 
street and next South, east of Wright street, now owned by 



estate of Isaac S. Osterhout, were erected by him. Joseph 
Sweazy was a devout Methodist, and an educated man. He 
was of too fine a grain to enjoy the rough Hfe and experi- 
ences of that time in Dallas. His last years were pitiable 
in the extreme. The death of his wife and a stroke of par- 
alysis coming nearly together in his advanced years caused 
sorrows more than he could stand. His religious medita- 
tions became nearly or quite an insanity. At last he lost 
the power of speech and began to write down his religious 
thoughts. In the year 1848, just prior to his death, he sent 
out a written appeal to the public as follows : "By reason 
of palsy I am rendered speechless and my right hand and 
all my right side weak and almost helpless, so much so that 
I cannot labor. Besides I have lost my dear companion 
with a lingering consumption, which, for nursing, medicine 
and necessaries (for she ate well most of the time) involved 
me in debt to the amount of four hundred and six dollars, 
and, as I have no means to pay this honest debt, and cannot 
work, I have written a book which I want to get printed and 
bound and sold in order to pay what I can of this honest 
debt. The book is a religious book and will contain per- 
haps two hundred octavo pages, and be worth perhaps fifty 
cents. It is my earnest desire that it may be a blessing to 
my fellow men in whose hands it may fall, and, if it is, I 
would lie at the feet of Jehovah and give Him the praise, 
for it is His due. I hope each gentleman and kind hearted 
lady will give what money he can spare to help to get the 
books printed and bound, and the Lord will bless them. 
Any sum will be received with a low bow, which is my 
sincere thanks. He that giveth to the poor lendeth to the 
Lord, and He will repay it again. O, give relief and heaven 
will bless your store. Your unworthy dust and needy pe- 
titioner. — Thomas Sweazy." 

Mr. Sweazy died soon after, and the book, I am told, was 
never printed, though many names were signed and money 


paid for the book. Among the subscribers for this book 
were the names of nearly all tlie active and leading business 
men of Wilkes-Barre and vicinity of that time ( i S48). 

Soon after the passage of the law (1834) providing for the 
establishment of free schools, the second school-house in 
Dallas township was built upon lands of Richard Honeywell 
about three-fourths of a mile north of McLellonsville, v/here 
the present school-house now stands, near the residence of 
William K. Goss. Another school-house was erected in 
Dallas about the same date near the Frantz saw-mill, before 
mentioned, which is still known as the Frantz school-house. 
Still another school-house was erected about the same time 
on the divide known as Chestnut Hill or Brace Hill, and 
near the road leading from Dallas borough to Kunkle. 
That was known as the Chestnut Hill or Brace Hill school 
house, but was abandoned twenty odd years ago. 

These buildings supplied the needs of Dallas township 
for many years. The West Dallas school-house, near the 
residence of William C. Roushey,the Demond school- house, 
near late residence of Ransom Demond, near headwaters of 
northernmost fork of Toby's Creek, the Shaver school-house 
in "Shaverton," on the lower end of lot five of certified Bed- 
ford next to Kingston township line, and the Hunter school- 
house, erected on western land of lot six of certified Bed- 
ford, near late residence of Edward Hunter, and the Kunkle 
school-house at the village of Kunkle, were erected later, 
in about the order named, as there seemed to be demand 
for them. They were all small, one-room buildings, and the 
schools kept in them were of the crudest kind. Classes in 
"A, B, C's," two or three classes in spelling, as many classes 
in reading, one or two classes in arithmetic, possibly a class 
in grammar, and another in geography, were all called to 
the centre of the room to recite, usually twice a day. When 
all had recited once and a little time had been given to exer- 
cise in writing, school was let out for noon. The afternoon was 



nearly or quite a repetition of the forenoon. No one could 
well study during school hours, and few, if any, would study 
out of school hours. Pupils went to school in that way 
from month to month and year to year, and a few of them 
from necessity rubbed off a little information, and were 
turned away finished to the satisfaction of many of the pa- 
rents. No thoughts of a higher education than these rudi- 
ments, thus worn off and ground in, were entertained ex- 
cept by a very few, and with fewer still was there any desire 
for it. In time teaching of this kind began to be looked 
upon as mere physical labor which one person could per- 
form with about the same skill as another. A lady teacher 
was all that was desired for the summer terms, because then 
the big boys were working on the farms, and she was capa- 
ble of managing the girls and small boys ; but for the win- 
ter terms, when the farmer boys were allowed to go again, 
a man teacher was required, and a good, able-bodied one 
too, in order to do the flogging which was indispensible. 
With such ideas prevailing, it is not strange that in hiring a 
teacher the only question was how cheap it could be done. 
Skilled teachers, who were worth and could command 
good salaries where good schools were appreciated, many of 
them refused to compete in this low bidding and disap- 
peared. There were, of course, notable exceptions to this 
rule. Dallas had some excellent teachers, and passed 
through several periods that in a small way might be termed 
periods of the Revival of Learning. With what pleasure 
many of us now recall the school days in Dallas under the 
teaching of John Whitney — a gentle, kind, brave and good 
man, beloved by all, but most by those who knew him best. 
He came to Dallas about 1856-7, and opened a general 
merchandise store upon the spot where the store of Ira D. 
Shaver now stands. He continued in the mercantile busi- 
ness but a short time, however, when he leased his store 
building and entered into the business of teaching, which 


seemed more congenial to his tastes. He followed teachinfr 
until the breaking out of the great Civil War of 1 861. At 
the first sound of the alarm he dropped everything, and was 
among the earliest volunteers in the three months' service. 
When that term was ended he renewed his enlistment, and 
remained actively in the service wherever duty called. 

We who remember him so affectionately as our teacher, 
read with fearful solicitude the death roll after each great 
battle in which he was likely to be engaged. The dreaded 
messenger came at last; Whitney had been shot and killed, 
and in a few days his body was brought home to be buried. 

His school teaching at Dallas was all at the little red 
school-house which stood on the same grounds where the 
first log school-house of Dallas township, before mentioned, 
had stood. Whitney began with a night school, and had a 
few subscription pupils who were asked to come in and 
learn geography by singing it. He had a fine set of maps 
of the world on a large scale, such as had never before been 
seen there. To these was added a familiar knowledge and un- 
bounded zeal on the part of the instructor. The result was 
marvelous. His class soon sang through the geography of 
the whole world to the tune of Yankee Doodle, after which 
the multiplication table was taken up and learned by many 
of us to the same music. This success was to Whitney but 
the sharpening of desire to do more. His class had learned 
more in the few short weeks of close application under his 
drilling than ever before in many times the same period, 
and they were all willing supporters of any plan Whitney 
had to offer. He at once proposed to the school directors 
to remodel the interior and seating arrangement of the 
school-house at his own expense and take charge of the 
school under certain conditions. His offer was at once ac- 
cepted. At this Whitney threw off his coat, turned from 
teacher to carpenter, and in an incredibly short time, with 
his own hands, tore out the old long backless benches and 



clumsy desks, which were but little better than racks of 
torture, and made them over into a set of new and graceful 
and easy seats with backs, and so arranged that each pupil, 
large or small, was provided with a comfortable seat and a 
desk in front of him on which he could rest a book. The 
effect of this change was magical. It was now possible to 
have comfort and do a little work during school hours. 
The opening was auspicious. New and improved school 
furniture, a large attendance, affectionate respect for the 
teacher, and a reciprocal love on his part for the pupils, 
were indeed ominous of success, and success certainly fol- 
lowed in the few months that John Whitney remained. His 
teaching and influence gave an impetus to educational de- 
sire that has never been lost. To it more than to anything 
else I attribute the establishment so soon after of the splen- 
did graded school of v/hich Dallas borough now so proudly 
and justly boasts. John Whitney was a frank and genial 
man, of tall, slender and delicate build, scrupulously neat but 
never foppish, gentle as a woman, but every inch of him was 
manly and brave. When duty called he knew no fear. He 
will long be held in affectionate remembrance in Dallas by 
all who knew him. The John Whitney Post of the Grand 
Army of the Republic at Dallas is named in his honor. 

It is difficult to preserve chronological order in a paper 
of this kind without destroying the continuity of many sub- 
jects like the one now in hand. I prefer, therefore, to follow 
the subject of schools to a little later date, because it leads 
to the questions out of which grew organization and setting 
apart of the borough of Dallas from the township. 

As the village of McLellonsville grew and the wealth of 
its inhabitants increased, new ideas began to creep in, and 
some of the parents began to grow dissatisfied with the idea 
that their children should live and grow up without some 
of the advantages of modern civilization. '* 'Tis wonderful," 
says Emerson, '*how soon a piano gets into a log hut on the 


frontier. You would think they found it under a pine stump. 
With it comes a Latin grammar." A piano and one or two 
organs, a Latin grammar and one or two of the "ologies" 
had found their way out to Dallas early in the sixties, about 
the winter of 1862-3, but there was no one then in the town- 
ship who could teach such branches, and only by sending 
the children away to Kingston and elsewhere, and paying 
their tuition in addition to regular school tax, could such 
instruction be had. A few were able to do this and did do it, 
while the common schools of the township did not get much 
above the curriculum of the famous "three R's." 

Great efforts were made, mostly by a few who lived in 
and near McLellonsville, to improve this state of things and 
establish a graded school, but a jealousy of the village folks 
grew up among those who lived in the remoter portions of 
the township, and with it a combined effort to oppose all 
such schemes. Schools which had been good enough for 
their fathers and grandfathers were good enough for them. 
This was unanswerable argument to many of them, and 
swept away every opposition in the outside districts. Those 
village folks, thought they, must not be indulged in any 
such extravagant and visionary notions. A reformer who 
ventured to offer himself as candidate for school director 
was looked upon as a common enemy by this class, who 
honestly believed that debt and financial ruin were the nat- 
ural and certain sequences of his election, so that such candi- 
dates were almost invariably defeated, or, if by chance elect- 
ed, were left in such minority as to be powerless for good. 
The typical school director v/as often a man who could nei- 
ther read nor write. Teachers were oftener chosen because of 
the meagerness of the salary which they could be induced or 
forced to accept than for any other merit or qualification. 
A lady school teacher was one time discharged from one 
of the schools there. The real and well known reason was 
because she had the temerity to flog a son of one of the 

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John T. P'uller 


school directors. Not wishing to give the true cause for 
removing her, this school director put it on the broader 
ground of alleged unfitness. He defended his action as fol- 
lows : "I don't profess to know much about school teaching 
myself," said he, **but I can sometimes spell a simple word 

like b-o-k book, which is a more than she can do, if I 

do say it myself. Haint that so, Jim ?" 

Bad seemed to grow worse until this state of thing be- 
came unbearable to the villagers in and about McLellons- 
ville. All other efforts having failed, separation began to 
be thought of and discussed. At first it was thought that a 
separate school district might be cut off from the township. 
That plan did not seem to be best just at that time, because 
of the long fight and delay that might ensue if the matter 
was contested, as it v/as most likely to be. They wanted 
immediate relief in the matter of better school accommoda- 
tions and were determined to have it. The result was the 
organization forthwith of the Dallas High School Associa- 
tion, incorporated February i6, 1878. Within a few weeks 
of its inception this association was fully organized and in- 
corporated. The purchase of grounds and commencement 
of the building, adjoining the site of the first log school in 
Dallas, where was still standing the old "red school-house," 
successor to the log school-house, soon followed, and the 
result was the handsome and commodious school building 
now standing on the hill just south of the village. This 
building was completed in the fall of 1S78, and in October of 
that year the first school was opened there with John Ful- 
ler, Esq., late of Wilkes-Barre, Pa., now deceased, as prin- 
cipal. Few men could have satisfied the needs of that place 
at that time so well as did that genial and ever kind hearted 
John Fuller. Fresh from college, where he had graduated 
with distinction, filled with the ambition and zeal of youth, he 
accepted this position as a stepping-stone to the many higher 
things which he had a just right to beheve were before him. 


The excellent school which he established, and the many 
recollections of his genial companionship and splendid man- 
hood will long live as silent tribute to his esteemed memory. 

The following are the names of the original stockholders 
and incorporators of the Dallas High School Association : 
Leonard Machell, James Garrahan, Ira D. Shaver, William 
J. Honeywell, Theodore F. Ryman, John J. Ryman, Ches- 
ter White, Joseph Atherholt, William Snyder, Joseph Sha- 
ver, Jacob Rice, James I. Laing, C. A. Spencer, A. Raub, 
George W. Kirkendall, William P. Kirkendall. 

After the formation of the borough of Dallas, the High 
School Association, by deed of November lO, 1887, con- 
veyed all its property and franchises to the Borough School 
District. The school has since that date been in charge of 
the Borough School District, supported by the public school 

From the first opening day this school was very success- 
ful. With two or three exceptions all the children of school 
age in the district attended the new school, and the tax- 
payers asked that the taxes belonging to that district be 
used in support of the new school. This was flatly re- 
fused, and for a long time the public money was practically 
thrown away in keeping open the public school within five 
rods of the new school, where more than ninety per cent, 
of the pupils were paying tuition in addition to the regu- 
lar school tax, for the sake of getting the advantages of the 
best school. This wasteful spite work on the part of the 
township school directors could not long be tolerated, and 
steps were soon taken to revive the old question of a sepa- 
rate organization, either of a school district or of a borough. 
The latter plan was finally adopted. The petition, map and 
other necessary papers were quietly prepared on the 4th day 
of January, A. D. 1879. They were laid before the grand 
inquest of the county. The application was vigorously 
fought on the dog in the manger principle by the outside 


residents of the township, especially by the school directors 
and supervisors, but the opposition was too late. The 
movement had gone too far, and had too much strength and 
had too good a cause to suffer defeat then. The application 
was approved, and the incorporation of the borough was 
completed on the 21st day of April, A. D. 1879. 

The ill feeling aroused by this struggle and final separa- 
tion of the borough was carried to extreme lengths, and by 
some will be carried to their graves. With many it took 
the form of "boycotting." Some of the people who were 
left out in the township vowed never again to patronize a 
store or business within the hmits of the borough. Coop- 
eration stores were established in the township, in which a 
company would form, build a storehouse and stock it with 
the fund raised by contributions from each member. Each 
contributor then had the right to buy his goods at cost from 
this stock. Others vowed never to enter or pass through 
the borough limits again, and would go miles around and 
suffer great inconveniences for the sake of keeping good the 
pledge. Such was the bitterness of the animosity that grew 
from so simple a course. As the years roll by, and we get 
far enough away to see correctly and with an accurate focus, 
the conviction must gradually come to all that it is best as 
it is. There will be more high schools in a few years. "Let 
those who have the laurels now take heed." Those boys 
cannot be held back much longer. 

Before leaving the subject of schools, a line upon the old 
custom of "boarding around," which is now fast disappear- 
ing, may be of interest. This custom was universal at one 
time in Dallas, as in most country districts. Each family 
that sent children to school was expected to board and 
lodge the teacher a proper portion of each term. Word 
was usually sent by one of the children a few days in ad- 
vance notifying the parents when they might expect the 
teacher to board with them. The practice grew from a 


necessity in the earlier days wlien every one was money 
poor, and it was easier to furnish food and lodging than 
the money to pay for them. There were some advantages 
and civihzing effects also in the practice, which should not 
be lost sight of. While the teacher was in the house there 
was usually a Httle extra cleaning up and putting on of bet- 
ter clothes and manners. The spare room was opened, the 
table was improved, and a general air of trying to be as re- 
spectable as possible pervaded the home. The severity of 
the school room manners was dropped, and teacher, pupil 
and parents seemed to come together with a better under- 
standing of each other. Just how or why it was it is not so 
easy to explain, but the children usually felt that there was 
a certain general reformation and comfort about home, dur- 
ing the period of the teacher's visit, which was pleasing, 
and made them glad to have the occasion come often. 
There were, no doubt, many parents who had a similar feel- 


As before stated, the earlier settlers about Dallas, after 
McCoy, Leonard, Worthington, Wort, and probably half a 
dozen other families of Connecticut Yankees, were nearly 
all Jerseymen. They brought with them many of the cus- 
toms and beliefs of the Jerseymen, which gave as distinct 
an individuality to the Dallas settlement as the Connecticut 
Yankees, the Germans and Scotch-Irish have given to other 
settlements in Pennsylvania. In religion they were Meth- 
odists, and in pohtics Democrats. Methodism for many 
years had no rival. The first services were held at private 
houses and in barns. The houses of Philip Kunkle, Rich- 
ard Honeywell and Christian Rice were among the places 
for holding prayer meetings and Sunday meetings until the 
old log school-house was built in 1816. This became then 
the regular place of worship and so continued for many 

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years, until the Goss school-house, the Frantz school-house 
and others were from time to time erected. The First Meth- 
odist Church — still standing, 1886 — near Dallas village 
(since converted into a broom factory), was erected in 1 85 1. 
No other religious denomination has yet succeeded in 
getting sufficient followers in Dallas to erect a church, 
though there are now numerous representatives of other 

The new Methodist Episcopal Church in Dallas borough, 
designed by Messrs. Kipp and Podmore, architects, at 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa. (of which a cut is elsewhere given), was 
begun in September, 1888, and finished in the spring of 
1889. The ground for this church was obtained from 
George W. Kirkendall, a former resident of Dallas, but then 
of Wilkes-Barre. The work of erecting the new church 
was begun with some ceremony in the presence of about 
fifty interested persons. Mr. G. W. Kirkendall threw out 
the first shovel full of dirt. This church was erected at a 
cost of about 59,000. I am told that the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church of 185 1 was erected by Almond Goss at a 
cost of ^960, his bid being below cost, and ^40 lower than 
any other bid. 

Politically, the Jerseymen in Dallas have not all been so 
steadfast in the faith of their fathers. This assertion may 
be questioned by some, for Dallas township has long been 
famous as a stronghold of Democracy. At one time it was 
unanimously Democratic, but as early as 1836, three men, 
Fayette Allen, Christian Rice and Alexander Ferguson, 
parted company with the old line Democrats, and united 
- themselves with the Whigs. For three or four years after- 
wards they stood alone there in this faith. In 1840 their 
number was increased to eleven by the accession of John 
Williams, Abram Ryman, Jacob Rice, Charles Ferguson, 
Joseph Shaver, Henry Simons, Samuel Wordcn and Joseph 
Richards. From this eleven Whigs has grown the Repub- 


lican element which has a slight majority in the borough 
and a threatening minority in the township. 

The influence of politics was, however, quite insignificant 
in and about Dallas during the earlier days compared with 
religion. Only on rare occasions, when there was a great 
national agitation, did politicians visit that back country. 
Religion took a deeper hold, and was almost constantly 
kept before the people by local exhorters and revivalists. 
So great was the need of, and haste to make use of, the 
present Methodist Church edifice, that it was pressed into 
active service as soon as it was enclosed, and before any 
floor was put down. The congregation sat on logs. After 
its completion, this church, like the old log school-house, 
was put to a great variety of uses. Lectures on temperance, 
hygiene, travels in holy land, magic lantern panoramas, day 
school and Sunday-school exhibitions. Fourth of July cel- 
ebrations, funerals, revivals and "protracted meetings" were 
all held there. Until quite recently the funerals were always 
held at the church, and they were matters of such general 
public concern that they usually attracted as large an assem- 
blage of the general public as any of the other meetings or 
"goings on" at the church. Even a funeral was diversion 
in that rough and lonely country. "Uncle Oliver Lewis," 
as every one called him, was at one time famous in that 
country for his funeral sermons. He was very sympathetic 
and wept copiously, as did the mourners and most of the 
audience, during his sermon. His discourse was usually an 
hour or more in length, and was devoted largely to pane- 
gyric and the narration of touching incidents in the life of 
the deceased, interwoven with minute and torturing details 
of the special sorrow that this and that member of the family 
would, for particular reasons, feel. The first two or three 
seats directly in front of the pulpit were always reserved for 
mourners. The open coffin was placed directly under and 
in front of the pulpit about midway between the preacher 


and mourners. At all meetings and services in this meeting 
house it was the invariable rule for the men and women to 
occupy separate sides of the house. After the funeral the 
men were invited to pass around and view the corpse, pass 
down the aisle on the women's side, out doors and re-enter 
and take seats again on their own side. 

A reverse operation was then performed by the women. 
After all strangers had thus finished viewing the remains, 
the mourners were invited to take a last lingering and ago- 
nizing look. This public exhibition of mourning was often 
carried to ridiculous and unnatural extremes. Sometimes, 
possibly, from love of display; and again, perhaps, through 
fear that any lack of sufficient demonstration on the part of 
a near relative or friend might be, as it sometimes was, the 
subject of unfavorable comment in the community. 

Of all the occasions in that church, however, none ever ap- 
proached such intensity of feeling and excitement as the 
"revival" or "protracted meeting" season. 

These meetings usually began late in the fall, about the 
time or just after the farmers had finished their fall work. 
The first symptom usually appeared in the slightly extra 
fervor which the minister put in his sermons and prayers 
on Sunday. Then a special prayer meeting would be set 
for some evening during the week. Other special meetings 
soon followed, so that, if all things were favorable, the re- 
vival or "protracted meeting" would be at a white heat 
within two or three weeks. In the meantime the fact would 
become known far and near, and the "protracted meeting" 
would be the leading event of the neighborhood. If the 
* sleighing became good, parties would be formed miles away 
to go sleigh riding with this protracted meeting as their 
objective visiting point, often from idle curiosity or for 
want of something more instructive or entertaining to 
do. Others went equally far, through storm and mud, in 
wagons or on foot, from a higher sense of personal respon- 


sibility and duty. With many it was a most grave and se- 
rious business. The house was usually packed to repletion. 
Professional ambulatory revivalists, often from remoter parts 
of the state or county, would stop there on their religious 
crusades through the land, to attend and help at these 
meetings. Many of these were specially gifted in the kind 
of praying and speaking that was usually most successful 
at such times. It is not overdrawing to say that many times 
on a still night the noise of those meetings was heard a mile 
away from the church. On one occasion I saw a leading 
exhorter at one of those meetings enter the pulpit, take off 
his coat, hurl it into a corner, and standing in his shirt sleeves 
begin a wild and excited harangue. After possibly half an 
hour of most violent imprecations and raving he came down 
from the pulpit, jumped up on top of the rail which extend- 
ed down the centre of the room and divided the seats on 
the two sides of the house, and from there finished, and ex- 
hausted himself, begging and pleading with sinners to come 
forward and be converted, and invoking ''hell fire" and all 
the torments supposed to accompany this kind of caloric, 
upon those who dared to smile or exhibit a sentiment or 
action not in accord with his. 

The principal argument at those meetings was something 
to excite fear through most terrible picturings of hell, and 
the length of an eternal damnation and death. Scores would 
be converted, and many would backsHde before the proba- 
tionary season had ended. Some were annually reconverted, 
and as often returned again to their natural state. Many 
remained true to the new life, and became useful and prom- 
inent members of the church and community. It cannot be 
successfully denied that many are reached and reformed at 
those meetings whose consciences never could have been 
touched by any milder form of preaching. They had to be 
gathered in a whirlwind or not at all. 

A famous revivahst and assistant at those meetings was 


Elisha Harris, personally well known to many now living 
in Luzerne county, and also extensively known in larger 
fields, through what Rev. Dr. Peck and others have written 
of him. His home was near the Dallas Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, and he was a frequent visitor there, and a most 
zealous worker at those "protracted meetings." His familiar 
and tremendous shout, *'Amen ! Glory be to God," was 
heard always at such times clear and distinct above all 
other noises. Its effect was often most startling and ludic- 
rous. It was his expression of approval of anything that 
was said b}* any one either in prayer or in speaking. It 
was a short thundering punctuation mark which he could 
not refrain from putting in whenever he listened to a prayer 
or sermon. On one occasion, at Lehman Center Church, 
he came in late at an experience meeting, when some pro- 
bationers were giving their "experiences," etc., since con- 
version. As he entered the church he observed some one 
standing up apparently to speak. Not wishing to disturb 
any one, he quietly seated himself unobserved in a seat be- 
hind everybody in the room jnear the door. The person 
speaking talked so low and indistinct, only a faint sound of 
the voice could be heard by Elisha. As the speaker sat 
down Elisha heard apparent mutterings of approval from 
the good brethren who sat nearer, and felt sure that some- 
thing good must have been said. The old shouting instinct 
at once irrestibly came over him, and in that silent moment 
*'A7neji, at a vetitiirej' came thundering up from his power- 
ful throat. The shock to many was quite severe. He had 
so managed that not half a dozen in the house knew of his 
presence. He enjoyed such surprises, and rather took pride 
in the distinction they gave him. 

John Lindski]l,a brawny Yorkshire Englishman by birth, 
a man of good sense and sterling honesty, of whom more is 
said elsewhere, was also heard often with good and telling 
effort at those meetings. 


Infant baptism was but little known to and indeed rarely 
practiced by the people of Dallas in those days, so that after 
these great revivals there were numerous baptisms of adults. 
With many, and I might say almost with the majority, bap- 
tism, by immersion, was the only true and satisfactory 
method. This rite was frequently performed at Christian 
Rice's mill pond, and sometimes, too, in coldest winter 
weather. Large crowds, drawn by curiosity, were usually 
present at these public baptisms. The deeper sentiment 
and solemnity of the ceremony was but little apprehended 
by the onlookers. I am told that on one of these occasions 
along "early in the forties," Jacob Beam, a famous fighter 
and bully at that time, stood intently and silently watching 
the minister as he led the candidates one by one from the 
shore down into the deep water, and by a sudden move- 
ment threw them over and dipped them under the water. 
Jacob had witnessed several repetitions of this operation, 
which, in his mind, awakened but one thought, and that 
evidently in the line of his ruling passion. After a few mo- 
ments of silent contemplation, Jacob turned to some people 
who were standing near him, and remarked in his broken 
English : "Golly, but I'd like to see any tree men trow me 
so." Jacob had long been a champion wrestler, and claimed 
no man could whip him or make him cry enough. "An' 
yit," he used to add, with boastful family pride, "I ain't as 
good a man as my brudder John, 'cause John can lick his 
daddy, an' dad't more'nd I could ever do." 

The brother John referred to was frequently known as, 
and called John De Beam, or John De La Beam, because 
of his very peculiar habit of interjecting the words "de" or 
"de la" into almost every sentence he spoke, especially into 
the more excited and profane portion of his conversation. 
He was another odd character. Like most of his family he 
was a man of great physical strength and of iron constitu- 
tion. Though more than half a score of years beyond the 


age which would have subjected him to the Hability of being 
drafted, he voluntarily entered the United States Army 
during the late Civil War in the 143d Regiment Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers, and serve through to its end, with 
probably as little complaint or suffering as any member of 
his regiment. Every year, about the month of August, or 
just after the oats were harvested, he used to announce, in his 

characteristic dialect : " By de la , I've got to go and 

give de old chimney a good burnin' out agin." By this he 
meant going to Harvey's Lake for three or four days and 
often a week or ten days continuous drunk, interspersed 
with going in swimming three or four times a day. On 
these occasions he was usually provided with a large bottle 
or jug well filled with the cheapest and rankest whiskey he 
could purchase. During these "burning out" seasons he 
was usually entirely alone and cared for no other food or 
drink, and at night slept in the woods or by the roadside, 
in a barn or any place where he might happen to be when 
darkness came on. John had occasional other sprees dur- 
ing the year, but he seemed to regard this annual "burnin* 
out of de old chimney" as almost a hygenic necessity. Ann 
Beam was a sister of John. She is still remembered by many 
about Wilkes-Barre and the remoter parts of the county. She 
was an incessant wanderer and lived and slept out of doors 
almost like an Indian. It was, in fact, claimed by some that 
there was a considerable mixture of Indian blood in all the 
members of this family. Another family similarly famous 
in Dallas during the early half of this century was the Lee 
family. They also were reputed to be partly of Indian blood. 
I believe both of these families are now extinct. They pos- 
sessed many good traits, and many very bad ones. They 
were at one time a constant menace to the peace and good 
order of society, and figured often and conspicuously in 
the criminal courts, as the records of Luzerne county, too, 
will attest. 



Resuming again the subject of this chapter, it cannot well 
be closed without some reference to *'Millerism" and the 
preaching of Millerite doctrines in the winter of i842-'43. 
It is doubtful if any other religious movement of modern 
times, and certainly few in all historic time, have ever, in so 
short a period, awakened so vast a religious excitement and 
terror as the announcement and promulgation of these doc- 
trines. Ten years before Rev. William ]Miller, of Pittsfield, 
Mass., began preaching upon the subject of the second 
coming of Christ, and claimed to have discovered some key 
to the prophecies by which the near approach of the end of 
the world and of the judgment day was clearly shown. His 
earnest manner and elaborate arguments, apparently forti- 
fied with abundant historic proof, had attracted great atten- 
tion and started many follovvcrs to adopt and preach the 
doctrines, so that, at the period named, the excitement at- 
tending it throughout Christendom was at its highest point 
The time for this holocaust had been definitely fixed by 
these modern interpreters. The year was 1843 and Febru- 
ary was the month when all things were to collapse and 
end. Even the day was fixed by some. On that, however, 
all did not agree. Some fixed the 14th and others the i6th 
of February, and others still other days in that month for 
the happening of this terrible event. When we recall that 
the doctrine found millions of believers in the most civilized 
centres of the world, and for a time seriously paralyzed 
business in London, New York and Philadelphia, we will not 
wonder that with the people then living in the dreary soli- 
tudes of Dallas, such a doctrine found ready listeners and 
willing believers almost everywhere. The old log school- 
house was not large enough to hold the meetings, and others 
were started in different places. A very large one was con- 
ducted at the "Goss" or "Corner" school-house. The time 
was getting short, and with the ncaring of the fatal day ex- 
citement increased. Half the people of the community were 


in some degree insane. Many people refused to do any 
business, but devoted themselves entirely to relifjious work 
and meditation. These meetings were started early in the fall, 
and were kept up continuously through the winter. The plan 
and intention of the leaders was to convert every one in 
Dallas township, and with a few exceptions the plan suc- 
ceeded. Of course there were different degrees of faith. 
Some were so sure of the dissolution of all things on the 
appointed day that they refused to make any provisions for 
a longer existence. One man, Christian Snyder, refused to 
sell corn or grain, but was willing to give it away to the 
needy, and only desired to keep enough for the needs of 
himself and family until the fixed final day. Many of the 
people spent that dreadful winter reading the bible, praying 
and pondering over that horrible interpretation. The me- 
morable meteoric shower which extended almost over the 
whole world on the night of the 12th and 13th of Novem- 
ber, 1833, was still fresh in the memory of almost every 
adult, and was well calculated to prepare their minds to be- 
lieve the proofs and prophecies of such a catastrophe. That 
never-to-be forgotten rain of fire must have been frightfully 
impressive even to the most scientific man who could best 
understand the causes which produced it. It has no paral- 
lel in recorded history, and one can quite readily understand 
how such an interpretation of the holy prophecies, following 
immediately such a fiery manifestation in the heavens, 
should find easy believers. 

Converts were frequently baptized that winter by immer- 
sion through holes cut in the ice, and in one instance, I am 
credibly informed, when a parent only succeeded in convert- 
ing a doubting daughter on the night before the supposed 
fatal day, he took her himself on that bitter cold night to the 
nearest mill-pond, cut a hole in the ice and baptized her by 
immersion. That man was personally well known to me, 
and to the day of his death, which occurred only within the 


last decade, he remained firm in his faith in similar inter- 
pretations of the prophecies, and continued calculating and 
fixing new dates in the future for the coming of the end of 
all things. He was never disconcerted by any failures, but 
seriously accounted for it by saying that he had made a lit- 
tle error in his calculation, and gave you a new and cor- 
rected date farther on. This man was Christopher Snyder. 

An anecdote is told of Harris in connection with the nie- 
teoric shower above referred to, illustrating the common 
belief that the stars had actually fallen from the heavens. 
On the evening following the shower, Mr. Harris said he 
could see a great diminution of the number of stars in the 
heavens, and ventured the belief that a few more showers 
like the one of the evening before would use up the balance 
of them. So common was this belief that the stars had 
actually fallen, so great and memorable was the event, that 
to this day, among the older men about Dallas, you will 
occasionally hear men trying to fix the date or year of some 
long past occurrence, and not infrequently one will remark 
something like this : ''Well, I know it happened then be- 
cause the stars fell in thirty-three, and this happened just 
so many years after" (or before, just as the case may be). 
"Now figure it up yourself." 

Sunday-schools, those now inseparable adjuncts of almost 
every religious society, were established in Dallas at quite 
an early day — soon after the erection of the old log school- 
house — probably not long after 1820. On account of the 
distance children had to go, and of the bad roads during 
winter time in the country, these Sunday-schools were at 
first only kept up during the summer months. About 1870 
the first effort was made in Dallas to have the Sunday- 
schools continue the year round at the church. 

With difficulty it was kept alive through the first few 
years, but, by the efforts of a few untiring ones, the school 
became perennial and prosperous. The old plan was to 


organize the Sunday-school as soon as the roads became 
settled in spring, and to close with the coming of the muddy 
roads of autumn. The fourth of July celebration of earlier 
times was usually under the auspices of the Sunday-school, 
and was the great event of the Sunday-school year. A 
neighboring grove was usually cleared of underbrush, some 
logs were laid down and slabs or boards laid across them 
for seats. A speaker's stand or large platform was erected 
in front. If not more than a mile or so away the children 
usually formed in line at the church and marched to the 
grove. The drum and fife were the only music. We knew 
nothing about any better music, and wished for nothing 
better. In fact, when old Uncle Alex Lord of Poverty 
Hollow, near Pincherville, a drummer of the war of 1812, 
used to play his famous '* Double Drag Yankee Doodle," 
with Mr. Hazeltine from Trucksville accompanying him on 
the fife, we boys thought it about the best music that there 
was. We always expected to see Mr. Hazletine at Dallas on 
the fourth of July, and he seldom disappointed us. His fife, 
when not in use on those occasions, was always carefully 
wrapped in a red handkerchief and seldom allowed to leave 
his immediate possession. Sometimes a bass drum was 
added to the band of that day, but requiring less skill to 
manipulate it had a great variety of performers. These 
celebrations usually brought together a large number of 
people from miles around, and were conducted much as an 
ordinary Sunday-school picnic is now, except that there was 
generally a reading of the Declaration of Independence, fol- 
lowed by a fourth of July oration with plenty of eagle in it, 
then possibly a story about the Wyoming Massacre or the 
sufferings of early settlers by old Uncle Charles Harris, or 
some other venerable person. Once I remember also some 
funny songs by Robert Holly, then a recent arrival from 
the old country. Of course there were plenty of good things 
to eat, and usually the appetite to enjoy them. For the 


children it was one of the rare occasions when each could 
have a stick of candy, and possibly a little thin lemonade. 
Simple as these treats seem now, they were of greatest con- 
sideration to the children of Dallas in those days. They 
have better times now, and there are but (q\v of the luxuries 
which they cannot now enjoy with the rest of the children 
of the world. For the work of keeping up Sunday-schools, 
fourth of July celebrations, military displays, and other kin- 
dred diversions in Dallas during the past fifty years, more 
credit is due to Jacob Rice, Esq., than to any other man, 
and for it, as well as his many other good deeds, he deserves 
lasting remembrance. Mr. Rice died in the year 189-, and 
was buried in the new cemetery at Dallas. He will long 
retain a warm place in the memory of those who knew him. 


The social festivities and amusements of those early 
times were, as has been previously stated, very limited. 
What there was of them, however, was usually on the dh/ce 
cum utile principle — a certain amount of work, seasoned to 
suit the taste, with some kind of innocent play. Apple cuts, 
spinning bees, quilting bees, logging bees, stone bees and 
huckleberry parties were of this character, and constituted 
the bulk of all amusements. Balls and parties were looked 
upon by many as worldly and frivolous. Occasional public 
balls were given at the hotel, but were not extensively pa- 
tronized because of the brutal fighting which for many years 
kept them in bad odor. Roughs and bullies assembled 
from all parts of the county on those occasions. For a gang 
from Monroe, now Wyoming county, or from Shawnee 
(Plymouth) to meet at Dallas, and force their way into the 
ball room and break up a dancing party, or for one faction 
of the Dallas roughs to perpetrate the same outrage on any 
party whoever they might see, was at one time considered 
the smart and funny thing to do. Even in the memory of 


many who are yet on the morning side of forty, a public 
I ball or party could not be held at Dallas without having 

[ strong men engaged to act as doorkeepers and bartenders 

[ to prevent the invasion of the roughs on the ball room and 

I the bar. So rough and so frequent were those fighting 

f. scenes at Dallas, not only at balls, but at political meetings, 

I barn raisings, logging bees, stone bees and almost all occa- 

j sions for the assembling of men, that Dallas got credit or 

I discredit for almost every fight or outrageous act occurring 

I in the county and not otherwise accurately accounted for. 

[ According to general belief no good could come out of this 

I Nazareth. Not only Dallas, but everything connected with 

r it, was the subject of jeer and by-word for all the rest of the 

\: country around, and respectable citizens were almost put 

f to shame by letting the place of their abode be known in 

some of the neighboring towns. "He is from Dallas," was 
the usual and every day observation, whenever a drunken 
I brute or extraordinarily awkward and uncouth person ap- 

[ peared on the street "of Wilkes-Barre." No one would 

!; question the truth of such a remark, and with probably a 

. majority of the citizens it was the first thought. The repu- 

l tation of Dallas was so bad that everything disreputable was 

I laid at its doors. Prior to the great Civil War of 1861-65, 

[' I will not attempt to say that it did not merit a portion of 

I its unsavory reputation, but since then I claim that no com- 

I munlty could have done more to redeem itself At the 

j; breaking out of that war the rough fighting element of Dal- 

i- las was among the first to join the many true and brave 

I men who went from there in defence of the Union. Many 

I of those who were commonly known as the fighters in Dal- 

[■ las were only so when drunk. When sober, they were 

peaceable and law abiding citizens. When drunk, they 
were eager to "fight their weight in wildcats." 

The war cured all that. A few of them lived to come 
back with the remnant, but they were sober, serious, earnest 


men now. They had seen enough of fighting and wanted 
to get back to the plow. From then until now Dallas has 
been as peaceful and law abiding as could be desired by the 
most exacting. 

Of "apple cuts" I can speak in lighter vein. They were 
never sanguinary or brutal, as far as I can learn. On the 
contrary, they were generally occasions of great merriment. 

It has been truly said that a country is poor indeed when 
it is so poor that dried apples become a luxur}\ Before the 
days of cheap sugar and canned fruits, dried apples and 
cider apple sauce, the latter made of apples boiled to a pulp 
in cider, were luxuries and necessities both in many places 
besides Dallas. Apples were always abundant and cheap 
in Dallas. In fact, when the forests are cleared away, apple 
trees are found to spring up spontaneously in some places, 
and only need a little trimming and protection to become 
good orchards. This fact was accounted for to the writer 
by the owner of one such orchard as follows : He said a 
good many people had marveled at the natural growth of 
his orchard, and had asked him how he could account for 
it. "Of course you know," said he, "that it has always been 
my habit to give such things a good deal of thought. I 
could never be satisfied, like most folks, to just sit down 
and take things as they come without tr^'ing to understand 
them, and I always keep at them until I cipher them out. 
Now, you see it's just like this about these apple trees. 
Some day or nuther, probably millions of years ago, this 
hull country was overflowed by the ocean. That's plain 
enough to any man who takes the trouble to think about 
these things. Well, right about over here somewhere there 
has been a shipwreck some day, and a ship load of apples has 
sunk right here, and these apple trees have sprung from the 
seeds. You know a seed will keep a great while and then 

The work of paring the apples and removing the cores for 


an ordinary family's winter supply of dried apples and apple 
butter, before the days of machines for that purpose, was a 
task of no little magnitude. All had to be done by hand. 
Well, as sometimes happened, many bushels had to be so 
treated. It was a task that would have occupied the work- 
ing portion of an ordinary family several days, and thus 
much of the fruit would, from long keeping, have lost 
p^ its value for cider appliance by becoming stale and partly 

I dried. For this reason there seemed almost a necessity for 

calling in help sufficient to do the required amount of work 
in a very short period of time. The apple cut solved this 
difficulty successfully. When a family had once determined 
on having an apple cut, it was given out to the nearest neigh- 
bors, and from them it spread of its own accord for miles 
around. Those who heard of it could go if they chose to. No 
special invitations were required. The apple cut was an even- 
ing festivity, and was most prevalent just after buckwheat 
thrashing, when the nights were cool and the roads not very 
muddy. I am told that in later years it began to be con- 
sidered "bad form" to go to an apple cut without special 
invitation ; but apple cuts were degenerating then, and they 
died soon after when the apple parer in its present improved 
form was introduced. 

The old fashioned apple cut was a very informal affair. 
Each guest upon arrival was expected to take a plate and 
knife, select a seat and some apples, and begin work with- 
out disturbing anyone else. The "cut" usually lasted for 
an hour or two. Twenty or thirty people could, and did 
usually, accomplish a good deal in that time in the way of 
work as well as say and do a great many of the common- 
place things that country people ordinarily indulge in when 
thus congenially thrown together. 

After the work was finished and the debris cleared away, 
a surreptitious fiddle was sometimes pulled from an old 
grain bag and started up. " Fisher's Hornpipe," " Money 


Musk" and "The Arkansaw Traveler" composed the reper- 
toire of the average fiddler thereabouts in those days, and 
either air was enough to set all heels, with the slightest pro- 
clivities in that way, to kicking in the French Four or Vir- 
ginia Reel or Cotillon. At some houses dancing was looked 
upon as improper, and in its stead some simple games were 
played. The festivities usually broke off early, as all had 
long distances to go. Dissipation in the matter of late hours 
could not be indulged in very much, because of the very 
general country habit of early rising. 

The gentlemen did not often forget or fail to be gallant 
in the matter of escorting the ladies home. Usually the de- 
mands of etiquette were satisfied with the gentlemen "going 
only as far as the chips," as it was commonly expressed, 
meaning, of course, the place where the wood was hauled 
in front of the house and chopped up for firewood. 

"Going as far as the chips" was an expression as common 
and as generally understood in that day as going to the 
front gate would be now. The front gate then was gener- 
erally a few improvised steps to assist in climbing over the 
rail fence at some point near the "chips" or wood pile. 

"Spinning Bees" and " Quilting Bees" were exclusively 
feminine industries. With each invitation to a "spinning 
bee" was sent a bunch of tow sufficient for two or three 
days' spinning, which the recipient was expected to convert 
into thread or yarn by or before the date fixed for the party. 
The acceptance of the tow was equivalent to a formal ac- 
ceptance of the invitation. On the appointed day each lady 
took her bunch of spun tow and proceeded early in the af- 
ternoon to the house of the hostess. The afternoon was 
usually spent in the usually easy and unconventional man- 
ner that might be expected when a dozen or fifteen able 
bodied women of the neighborhood, who had not seen each 
other lately, are assembled. This was, of course, long be- 
fore the newspaper or magazine had reached their present 


perfection, and before the daily paper "brought the universe 
to our breakfast table" 

The surest way for a lady to avoid being the subject of 
comment was to be at the meeting. The gentlemen always 
came in time for tea and to see the ladies home. 

"Quilting Bees" define themselves in their name. They 
were very similar to spinning bees, except that the work was 
done after the guests had assembled. 

Huckleberry parties occurred usually just after corn hoe- 
ing, early in July, and consisted of two or three wagon 
loads, probably a dozen boys and girls, provisioning them- 
selves with about three days' rations, and starting near the 
smallest hours of the night for some one of the famous 
huckleberry mountains Hke Mehoopany Mountain or Allen 
Mountain. The mountain top was usually reached about 
nine or ten o'clock next day. One night at least was usu- 
ally spent in camping out on the open mountain top. Of 
course there would always be a good harvest of berries. 
II The return was usually planned so that home would be 

reached about the same hour in the night that marked the 
departure. Sometimes the more industrious would prolong 
the trip one or two days more, but usually the festivity had 
worn many out at the end of the second day and all would 
be glad to return. 

Of "Stoning Bees," "Logging Bees" and "Raising Bees," 
mention has been made before. The names are almost 
self-explaining, though just v/hy they were called "Bees'" 
I cannot learn, unless it is because those who came were 
expected to, and usually did, imitate the industrial virtues 
of that insect. They were also sometimes called "frolics," 
possibly for the reason that the frolicking was often as hard 
and as general as the work. Strong and hearty men were 
much inclined to indulge in playful trials of strength and 
other frivolities when they met at such times. This ten- 


dency was much enhanced in the earHer days by the cus- 
tomary presence of intoxicants. 

These amusements were varied and extended far beyond 
those above mentioned. They exhibit and illustrate much 
of the character, surroundings and habits of those early 
people. They wanted no better amusement. It was, in 
their esteem, a wicked waste of time and in conflict with 
their necessary economies to have parties or gatherings of 
any kind exclusively for amusement, and unaccompanied 
with some economic or industrial purpose like those indi- 
cated above. 

The dancing party or ball was a thing of later date, but 
even when it came, and for many years after, it was looked 
upon by the more serious people as not only wicked and 
degrading in a religious and moral point of view, but very 
wasteful in an economic sense. 

Their hard sense taught them that their industrio-social 
gatherings, together with the church meetings and Sunday- 
schools, furnished ample occasions for the young to meet 
and become acquainted, while the elements of bad that crept 
into modern society elsewhere were there reduced to a min- 


As before stated in this paper, there was a very great 
scarcity of money in those early times in Dallas, nor was 
there much improvement in this respect until after the 
breaking out of the War of 1861, which flooded the country 
with "greenbacks," 

The many expedients employed in those early days to 
get a little money, as well as to get along without it, seem 
almost incredible in these days of plenty. All the dealing 
at stores was done through a system of exchanges. Instead 
of "shopping" at the stores they called it "trading," which 
was the exact word to use. The storekeeper was by neces- 
sity compelled to take anything that was offered in exchange 


If for goods. Among the articles known by the writer to have 

Ij been so exchanged or traded are grain of all kinds, butter, 

eggs, cows, calves, hogs, sows and pigs, game of all kinds, 
fresh fish, poultry, furs and skins, lumber, shingles, township 
orders, horses, yoke of oxen, beef, cattle, etc. There were 
many more, but these are fair samples. To some extent the 
practice is still kept up. Sometimes the store bill would be 
allowed to run for a while, and when it came to settlement 
i a cow or some other of the more valuable articles enumer- 

I ated would be brought in to balance account. I have a 

% personal recollection of every item in the articles above 

"I enumerated having been exchanged or traded for goods at 

I my father's store. 

Farmers often hired extra help by agreeing to work an 
equal number of days in exchange. This was called "chang- 
ing work," and of course made things equal without the use 
of money. A large portion of the products of the farms 
and mills at that time gradually drifted into the hands of 
the local merchants, who sent them to the larger cities, 
where they were sometimes sold for money, but oftener 
again exchanged or ''traded" for goods for the country 

Some money, however — a very little sufficed — had to be 
raised to pay taxes and for a few other purposes, such as 
church collections. The minister was usually paid with 
"donations," but some cash was necessary at times, and the 
getting of this cash was a most difficult thing to do. One 
of the methods was for the men to go down to the Wyo- 
ming Valley during the wheat harvesting season, and help 
gather the crop. Scores used to go from Dallas and vicinity 
for this purpose every year, and, as Colonel Charles Dor- 
rance once said to the writer, they did a day's work too. 
The farmers in the valley had begun to accumulate, and 
many of them were already quite well off. They were glad 
to get such good help, and the "young men from the back 



of the mountains" were veiy glad of the opportunity to get 
work that would bring them a little money. I am told that 
the wages paid were either a bushel of wheat or a dollar in 
cash for a day's work. Wheat was a cash item in those 
days ; so much so, that it was a common saying when one 
wished to emphasize the value or sufficiency of an article or 
a security of any kind to call it "good as wheat." 

In the winter time, those of the Dallas farmers who had 
teams, and some who had not, were, for many years, in the 
habit of going each year to White Haven, or to "The 
Swamp," as it was called, to work in the lumber woods. 
This was another method to get a little real money, and 
was of later origin than by working in the harvest fields in 
the valley. The workers at "The Swamp" usually went out 
there in the early winter and stayed till spring. Just prior 
to the War of 1861, it was not an unusual thing for twenty 
or thirty men from Dallas to thus spend the winter at or 
near White Haven. 

The experiences of my father back about the 30's, when 
the big dam at White Haven was in course of erection, have 
been often told to me, and illustrate well how hard it was to 
get work that would bring money pay. He was then a lad 
of only about fifteen years, but was large and strong for his 
age. Hearing that the fabulous sum of eleven dollars per 
month was being paid for laborers to work on that dam, he 
walked all the way from Dallas and offered himself as a labor- 
er. His apparent youth was against him, but after much urg- 
ing he was allowed to begin on a week's trial. He spent that 
week with a wheelbarrow and at quarrying stones on the 
easterly bank of the river. Never in his life, as he often 
said afterwards, did he work harder or try to keep a job 
than he did during that week, which meant a good deal 
with him ; and never was he more broken-hearted when at 
the end of that time he was told that he was too young, and 
would have to give way to older and stronger men. To 


get a little money ahead so as to start some kind of business 
was his ambition, and to have this great opportunity wiped 
out in such a manner was to him a severe blow. The experi- 
ence was not lost, however, for he saw that at this point 
money was circulating, and that farm products were needed 
and could be sold for cash there. He therefore returned to 
Dallas, secured a team of oxen and a sled, loaded the latter 
with beef, took it to the camps near White Haven where 
the men were living, and sold it all to eager buyers and with 
some profit. He repeated the trip several times with differ- 
ent kinds of farm produce. The last time, late in the fall, 
with apples, which froze and were spoiled on the way. 

On one of those trips, while at White Haven, one of the 
laborers died. He was a Catholic, and there being no con- 
secrated ground nearer than Carbondale, my father let his 
ox team and sled for one dollar to haul the body to Car- 
bondale for burial. 

Ox teams were much more numerous than all others com- 
bined in those days. They were less expensive to keep 
and had another advantage of being converted into beef 
when no longer useful for work. There were still other 
advantages in favor of oxen for that time and place ; they 
were more easily managed than horses ; they needed no 
harness ; their slowness and gentleness better fitted them for 
the work in the woods and on the stumpy new land. 

Among the few bad traits of the ox was sometimes the 
habit of wanting to pasture in some other field than the one 
into which he had been put, commonly known as being 
"breachy." It is said that on one occasion some one called 
on Samuel H., a well to do farmer of Dallas, to buy a "yoke 
of oxen." Mr. H. was much afflicted with stammering. 
His oxen were beautiful to look at, and quite filled the 
stranger's eyes, and the price asked for them was satisfac- 
tory. The stranger began to question Mr. H. as to their 
qualities. "Are they sound ?" asked the stranger. '* Y-y- 


y-y-ye-yes," responded Mr. H. "Are they gentle?" re- 
sumed the stranger. " Ye-ye-ye-yes," stammered Mr. H. 
"Are they breachy ?" continued the stranger. "Th-th-th-th- 
they n-n-n-never bother me any," answered Mr. H. again 
after an unusual paroxysm of stammering. Seeing the 
apparent innocence of Mr. H., and the pitiable effort it 
caused him to continue the conversation, the stranger closed 
the bargain at this and took the oxen. He was not long in 
finding out the real character of the animals, and returned 
demanding satisfaction of Mr. H. He began by accusing 
Mr. H. of all kinds of deception and lying. "You sold me 
those oxen," said he, "and told me that they were not 
breachy, and they are the worst I ever saw. I can't keep 
them in the township." "Ne-ne-ne-never told you any 
such th-th-th-thing," replied Mr. H.. "Y-y-y-y-you asked 
me if the oxen were breachy, and I-i-i-i told you they 
n-n-n-never bothered me any, and they n-n-n-never did, 
'cause I wouldn't let such a thing b-b-b-bother me." This 
fact came forcibly to the stranger's recollection, and he de- 
parted filled, no doubt, with the conviction that greatest de- 
ception can sometimes be practiced with a literal truth. 

This stammering was, however, genuine with the farmer, 
and he had great difficulty in uttering certain words. One 
of the unpronounceable words with him, I remember, was 
"shilling." He used to struggle and chaw at that word for 
a long time, and was never able to pronounce it. The only 
way he could express what he was trying to say was by 
switching off suddenly and substituting " 'leven penny bit," 
which he could say quite readily. 

Another ox story is told of him in trying to sell a pair of 
oxen, one of which (the near one) was good and the other 
one of small value. He would say, "That n-n-n-n-near ox 
is the b-b b-best ox you ever s-s-saw, and the other one is 
his m- mm- mate." 


Mr. H. was withal a man of quick wit and much good 
nature, and had the esteem of his neighbors and those who 
knew him best. 


Abram Pike, the "Indian killer,"' was a wandering men- 
dicant for many years prior to his death. He was found 
dead one morning in a barn near the present residence of 
George Ide, in Lehman (then Dallas) township. He was 
buried by Dallas townsfolk as a pauper, under an apple tree 
near the Presbyterian Church in old "Ide burying ground," 
in the present township of Lehman. 

The followinii incident, connected with his later years. 


has been told me, which I do not remember to have heard 
of or seen in print before. The owners of an eel ware in 
the Susquehanna River, just above the gas house at Wilkes- 
Barre, had strong suspicions that some one was stealing 
their fish, and set a watch to catch him. In due course the 
thief was caught, and it proved to be poor Pike. He was 
taken down to old HoUenback's storehouse, which stood on 
the river bank a short distance below Market street, and 
locked up. Some wagish boys put up a card over the door, 
"The largest Pike ever caught in the Susquehanna River now 
on exhibition here — admission ten cents" ; and it is said they 
took a good many dimes from the curious people who 
flocked to see it. 

In 1 81 3 Steuben Butler proposed to publish a life of 
** Abraham Pike," but for lack of support the work was not 
published. The following is a copy of the original subscrip- 
tion paper now in hands of C. E. Butler {verbatim) : 


"For publishing by subscription a New Work, being the 
life of Abraham Pyke, containing his adventures in the 
brittish service and in America in the Wyoming war, etc., 
etc. The work is ready for the press as soon as sufficient 


subscribers will warrant the publication. It will be printed 
on good paper with an entire new tipe and stitcJied in blew^ 
price to subscribers 50 cents. 
"Wilkesbarre, August, 18 1 3. 

"Subscriber's name. Place of residence. 

"(no subscribers.)" 

While speaking of the wandering propensity of Pike, I 
am reminded of the other two characters who are still re- 
membered, no doubt, by many in widely separated parts of 
the State of Pennsylvania. I refer to John Shaw and James 
or "Jinnmy" Bradshaw. The latter was a soldier of the war 
of 1 81 2, and was very old and very deaf, at my earliest recol- 
lections, and was a peddler by occupation. He spent his win- 
ters usually at the charge of the town where he happened 
to be when the first snoAV came. He was out, however, 
again with the first warm spring days, and would find his 
way to some near storekeeper and secure a pack of goods 
to peddle. This pack consisted usually of a few needles, 
pins, buttons, some thread, and possibly half a dozen other 
small articles, costing probably five or ten dollars for the 
entire outfit. Of course his purchases had to be on credit, 
but none who knew him would refuse to trust him. He 
traveled over a vast extent of country. Almost everyone 
knew him along the line of his routes, and was always will- 
ing to trade with him or give him food and lodging. He 
was careful to return sooner or later, often not until he 
drifted around next year, and pay his bills for purchases. 
In mind and manners he was as simple as a child. He spoke 
with a low, genteel mumble, which made it very difficult to 
understand him. He never shaved, yet his face was almost 
as hairless and soft as a woman's. 

John Shaw came nearer to being a veritable wandering 
Jew than any other man of my knowledge. Not that he 


was ever supposed to be a bearer or precursor of pestilence, 
but simply because he was a persistent and constant wan- 
derer. About once a year he would be seen, always alone, 
slowly strolling across the country from the south towards 
the north, wearing a shabby-genteel black suit with broad- 
cloth frock coat and a much worn silk hat. He generally 
walked with his head bowed down and hands clasped be- 
hind him, as if in deep thought. Later in the year he would 
pass down across the country again, but in the opposite 
direction. I have seen him pass my father's house in this 
way many times, but do not remember to have ever seen 
him look up and speak to any one in passing. No one, so 
far as I could ever learn, knew where his home was or 
where he went to on his annual trips. 

A story is told of him that on one occasion he was taken 
sick while then tramping through one of the lower counties 
of Pennsylvania, and was obliged to take a room at a hotel. 
The appearances not being favorable to the theory of his 
having much wealth, there was a coldness and lack of atten- 
tion on the part of the landlord. Shaw's genteel, though 
much worn hat and apparel, together with his natural 
shrewdness, came to his relief. Assuming an importance 
and dignity equal to his purpose, he sent for the landlord, 
and hinting that he feared that his illness was something of 
a most serious nature, which might terminate fatally, he 
asked to have a doctor and a lawyer sent for at once. The 
former, of course, to cure his physical ills, and the latter to 
draw his v/ilL He hinted at large possessions in other parts 
of the state, and from this on the doctor, lawyer and land- 
lord were all attention to his wants. He dictated a will with 
great care and elaboration, disposing of large blocks of im- 
aginary landed estates, consisting mainly of farms and coal 
lands in and about Kingston and Wilkes Barre, making most 
liberal provisions for the doctor, law}-er and landlord. With 
the excellent attention and nursing that followed, he was soon 


convalescent, and through the kindness of the landlord was 
favored with many long and pleasant drives in the fresh air. 
When, later on, he was strong enough to walk, short strolls 
were indulged in from day to day, until one day, when re- 
covery was quite complete, Shaw continued one of his strolls 
so far that he failed to return, leaving the landlord and other 
attendants to grow wiser at their leisure. 


There was at one time, before the days of the organ and 
choir in the Dallas churches, a good deal of rivalry between 
Jacob Rice and his brother-in-law, William C. Roushey, 
both leading members, as to which could best start the 
tunes. During the reading of the hymn it was not an un- 
common occurrence to see each of them rise from his seat 
and remain standing. The boys generally understood from 
this there was fun ahead, and were seldom disappointed. 
Hardly would the last words of the reading be finished be- 
fore each of the tune starters would make a drive at the sing- 
ing. Sometimes the same tune, but often entirely different 
tunes with different meters. A long meter hymn to a short 
meter tune, or vice versa, made but little difference to them. 
The question with them was which would the congregation 
follow. One or the other usually got the following, though 
I have known instances when, to my untrained ear, it seemed 
that each had a following on a different tune. To say that 
the music was usually "executed" well, would, as I recall it 
now, seem to define the situation perfectly. 

As an example of how greatness is sometimes born in us 
and sometimes thrust upon us, it is said of Mr. Roushey 
that he once remarked that he did not understand how it 
it was that so many people knew him whom he did not 
know, unless it was because he always started the tunes in 
church. Mr. Roushey was a much respected citizen through 
a long hfe spent in Dallas, but, like most of us, he had pecu- 

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William C. Roushev 


liarities which it is difficult to disassociate from his memory. 
He was a privileged character in his church, and felt it his 
duty to interrupt the minister at any time, from his seat, if 
he thought any misstatement was being made ; and not in- 
frequently I have heard him call to the minister during the 
reading of a hymn and ask for its number, which probably 
he had not accurately heard at the first announcement. 
This probably grew out of his desire to be ready to start 
the tune. 

Another amusing story is told in which this same Mr. 
Roushey figures somewhat. He had recently been licensed 
as a local preacher or exhorter, and began by trying him- 
self on the Dallas congregation. Among those present was 
John Linskill, a large-brained, sharp-witted Yorkshire Eng- 
lishman, whose critical comprehension nothing uttered by 
the preacher was likely to escape. Of course the sermon 
and the text must be delivered without notes, lest some one 
might question the genuineness of the "call to preach," and 
as a result there were some "bad breaks." The text prob- 
ably intended to be used was *' The ways of the wicked are 
an abomination to the Lord," and to this text he stuck. 
Faithfully for a long hour he chased it up and down and 
ran it into all kinds of human experience, and pictured the 
horror and abomination of the Lord over the prayers of the 
wicked. How wicked it was for the wicked to pray. To 
those who happened to be awake during the long harangue, 
among them Mr. Linskill, of course it was all very ludicrous. 

At last, after a great deed of difficulty in making human 
affairs dovetail with this text, the preacher sat down. On 
the instant Mr. Linskill rose from his seat far back in the 
church and said with a deliberate, penetrating voice heard 
in every corner of the church, "If any man will show me 
that text in the bible, I will be a wiser man than I ever 
have been," and sat down. Of course this was a crushing 
humiliation to the preacher, but it seemed to be one of the 


cases of "least said soonest forgotten," and so I presume 
the incident has passed out of the memory of most of those 
who were present. 

A story is told of A. L. Warring, who for a short time 
about 1849 to 1 85 I, kept the hotel at Dallas. Among his 
most liberal patrons were Charles Bennett, a lawyer of 
Wilkes-Barre, and Henry Hancock, a merchant of Dallas, 
Huntsville and elsewhere, before mentioned in this book, 
who were in the habit of stopping here on their way up or 
down on numerous fishing and other excursions. They 
were both famed for the fun that they were usually able to 
extract at almost any time from the most trifling incident or 
fact that might arise. On one occasion they began to show 
a disposition to criticize Warring's way of running a hotel, 
and wound up by telling him that unless he secured a hotel 
sign with an American eagle on it they should decline to 
again stop at his hotel. The jest was so well hidden that 
Warring promised faithfully to procure that bird as soon as 
possible, rather than lose such valuable patrons. P. V. 
Wambold, a cabinetmaker and undertaker of note, then at 
Kingston, was commissioned by Warring to do the work, 
which he did in his usual finished style, putting in the bird's 
mouth a ribbon on which were painted the words ''E plu- 
ribus uninii'' in rather conspicuous gold letters. 

In due time the sign was erected and ready to greet the 
eyes of Bennett and Hancock when they came again, which 
was not long after. Supposing, of course, that they would 
be delighted with the new sign, Warring went out to greet 
them, and incidentally "pointed with pride" to the American 
eagle on the sign. Quick as thought signs of disgust and 
contempt began to darken the countenances of the guests. 
Of course Warring could not understand the cause and 
asked an explanation. "Explanation," exclaimed the guests, 
"Don't you see you have insulted us ? We are Americans 
and we asked you to erect an American eagle sign, instead 




of which you have had an ^^ E plnribiis 7niuni'' bird put up 
here, which is an insult to every American who comes to 
your house." It is said that Warring was so worried over 
the matter that he sent the sign back to Wambold to have 
it made right, as I presume it was, though tradition telleth 

The fact that no religious denomination except the Meth- 
odists has ever thrived in Dallas, has been mentioned before, 
but the density of the ignorance concerning other denonii- 
nations in that country was never brought to the writer's 
notice until one of the Wilkes-Barre evening papers of recent 
date published the following : 

"A distinguished Episcopalian clergyman from Philadel- 
phia was at Glen Summit recently. One day he came to 
the city, and in the company of friends drove over to Dallas. 
Being a great walker he started off by himself to view the 
beauty of the surrounding country. Becoming thirsty he 
went to a farm house and asked if he could purchase a httle 
milk. The lacteal was produced and other hospitalities ex- 
tended, for which remuneration was refused. 'Do you have 
any Episcopalians over here ?' he inquired of his hostess. 
"Well, really now, I don't know,' she answered ; 'our hired 
man shot some sort of a queer critter down back of the barn 
the other day, but he allowed it was a woodchuck.' " 

This story is a little moth-eaten, and I fear was never in- 
digenous to Dallas ; but whatever it may lack of truth, 
illustrates what I before observed about the tendency of the 
people of Wilkes-Barre and vicinity to attribute to Dallas 
any unseemly or uncivilized act or remark which was with- 
out other localization. 

A series of good yarns are told of and concerning one 
M L , an all around Yankee genius, already men- 
tions in these papers. On one occasion he and a party of 
neighbors came down to Dallas to enjoy one of Philip 
Raub's famous suppers of chicken and waffles, and after- 


wards to have a little dance. Mr. L. brought his fiddle 
along, and was orchestra, called off the dances, and was 
general manager of ceremonies as usual. As the sets were 

formed for the quadrille it happened that Mr. L 's son 

Charles and his partner took a position nearly in front of and 
close to the father. As the dance proceeded, the father no- 
ticed that Charles seemed to be a good deal more interested 
in talking to his partner than in promptly responding to his 
part in the quadrille as the calls were made. This indifference 
grew until Charles was practically standing still during many 
of the evolutions where he should have taken part. Presently 
"swing your partners" came ringing from Mr. L,, and the 
music for a swing proceeded, while Charles stood still talk- 
ing to his partner, oblivious of every one else in the room. 
Mr. L. could endure this no longer. Suddenly the music 
stopped and he called out, "Charley, swing that gal ; if you're 
a goin' to dance, I want you to dance ; if you're a goin' to 
spark, go down in the settin' room." 

Mr. L. at one time had a considerable reputation for his 
gift at swearing, and when it was learned that he was about 
to move to Dallas that reputation preceded him. At that time 
Dallas could boast of another citizen, Mr. J. F., also distin- 
guished, among other things, for his facility in the invention 
and use of oaths. About the time that Mr. L. was coming 
to Dallas, some one mentioned to Mr. F. that when Mr. L. 
arrived, he (F.) would have to retire, as Mr. L. could beat 
him all over at swearing. The curiosity of F. was so aroused 
by this that he determined to go down to the hotel at Dal- 
las on the day of the arrival to see the newcomer, and pos- 
sibly get some points in profanity. After waiting around 
some time, a stranger drove up to the hotel and stopped. 
Hardly had he done so when the flood gates were opened, 
and I am told by those who heard it that the way he 
swore was an inspiration. No name for the stranger had 
yet been given, and F. stood wondering if this could be his 



rival. After hearing a few choice specimens the doubt was 
enough removed for F. to approach and address him. "Ain't 
your name L ?" asked F. "Yes," barked the stranger; 

how the did you know me?" "Well, sir, by , 

they told me that you were comin', and that you were the 
only man in the world that could beat me a-swearin', and 

I know'd you by that." They were fast friends from 

then on — two of the best-hearted men in the township ; 
rough diamonds indeed they were. 

A good story is told of Joseph Hoover dating well back 
in the first half of the century. He went one day to the 

store of Mr. Jacob R , in a neighboring town, to get a 

gallon of molasses, taking with him the jug usually used for 
that purpose. As it happened that day, the son, Isaac, who 
usually waited on him, was otherwise engaged, and the 
father, Jacob, went down cellar to draw the molasses. After 
being gone some time, Jacob called up from the cellar to 
Joseph and said that the jug did not hold a gallon. "Call 
Isaac," replied Hoover, "and let him try; he has always 
been able to get a gallon in that jug." 

For a number of years prior to the year 1883, Francis 
Hoover, who Hved near the eastern extremity of the Wilkes- 
Barre Water Company's reservoir, where the road from 
Huntsville to Dallas passes around the same, claimed title 
to some land which also was claimed by a neighbor, Chris- 
topher Eypher. The dispute ended in an ejectment suit, 
which was finally decided in favor of Mr. Eypher by the 
poet-lawyer, David M. Jones, of Wilkes-Barre, to whom the 
case was referred. I quote from the newspaper account 
which was published at the time : 

"Eypher brought an action of ejectment against Hoover for some 
three acres of land in Dallas township, part of a larger tract of one 
hundred and three acres. The defendant filed the usual plea of "not 
guilty," thus disputing not only the plaintiff's alleged ownership of the 
title to the three acres, but also denying the usual primary averment 



of the plaintiff in such cases that the defendant was \x\ possessio7t, as 
unless he were he could not be sued even though he had no titU 

"A jury trial was waived and the case referred to Attorney D. M. 
Jones, our popular poet, who, after taking a large amount of testimony 
on both sides, and listening to the spirited arguments of counsel, filed 
a report in favor of the plaintiff. To this numerous exceptions were 
filed by defendant's counsel, and after lengthy argument on the excep- 
tions, the court. Judge Woodward, filed the following opinion : 

"Christopher Eypher | C. P. 

vs. > 200 January Term, 1883. 

Francis Hoover. j Report of Referee and exceptions. 

"This is an action of ejectment, and the 8th finding of fact by the 
Referee is as follows : 

" 'Eighth — That the title, legal and equitable, to said land is in Chris- 
topher Eypher, the plaintiff, and that he has been in possession and 
has occupied and improved said lot No. 6 since the 28th March, 1844, 
the disputed land being within the certified lines of said No. 6, and 
of lot No. 3 certified Bedford since the 6th of May, 1854 — that he has 
occupied and improved said lands under and by virtue of said con- 

"Again, in what is called the 'history of the case,* on page 5, the 
Referee states that 'the plaintiff has been in possession of these lands 
for a Httle over forty years,' &c. 

"Now, ejectment is a possessory action, and the writ avers that the 
defendant is in possession, while the right of possession remains in 
the plaintiff who brings the suit. Certainly this is not established by 
showing that the plaintiff is actually in possession, and has been for 
forty years last past. The referee concludes his report by finding in 
favor of the plaintiff for the land described in the writ. We are utterly 
at a loss to understand how a judgment in ejectment can be either 
entered or enforced in favor of a party shown by the evidence to have 
been in actual and peaceful possession, not only at the time of bring- 
ing the suit, but for forty years previous thereto. 

"Apprehending, however, that we may possibly not rightly under- 
stand the meaning of the referee, we refer the case back to him, with 
the remark, that if his statement of the facts is precisely what he in- 
tends, there would seem to be no cause of action. 

"Stanley Woodward, Judge." 


Later the referee filed a supplemental report on the re- 
reference, wherein he rebuts the inference of the plaintiff's 
possession from that part of his former report quoted in the 
opinion of the court, and again awards the disputed land to 
the plaintiff Accompanying his supplemental report the 
referee handed to Judge Woodward the following extra- 
judicial vindication of the true intent of the former finding: 

Luzevfie County ^ ss : 

Eypher ■) No. 200, January Term, 1883. 

vs, \ Ejectment, 

Hoover. 3 Supplemental "History of the Case." 

They made me a Referee 

In a land case uncommonly long-winded, 
An ill wind that blew a good fee, 

Because for 2. fee they contended. 

And I said to myself, my Report 

Is lucid, at least to my own mind; 
And when it goes up to the court, 

On the usual exceptions, tho' stone blind, 

Dame Justice will see what I mean ; 

But wit, too, is blinding by flashes, 
And a stroke of it might intervene, 

Should she lay the law down on my dashes. 

And behold, in a finding of fact. 

The Judge found — bad luck to my dashes — 

The plaintiff possessed of the tract. 

And then follows his wit, with its flashes : 

"Possessed of the piece in dispute, 

(What more could a plaintiff desire ?), 
At the time he started the suit, 

And upwards of forty years prior." 

Did it take me ten days to find out, 

With a cursory sort of digression. 
What the whole blasted case was about, 

And who was in peaceful possession ? 


There were acres one hundred and three — 
Perchance more — altogether, were aching 

To get a small slice of the fee, 

And the title to three, it was takmg. 

The plaintiff one hundred /^jj-^^j^rtf/ 

But his deeds called for three in addition ! 

He ought to be sorely distressed, 

But, dear Judge, I don't mean in perdition. 

I said what I meant, and I meant 

What I said, and I say, that I said it, 
It is not what I wrote I repent. 

But the cursory way that you read it. 

The defendant's attorney he took 

Two days my dull mind to enlighten. 
Oh ! the fists in my face that he shook, 

To inform me, you see, not to frighten. 

Now he claims that my report is sent back, 

That the case may again be g07ie over. 
How the sides of Old Laughter will crack, 
■"■ When that Bull gets again in the clover. 

But I think I can stand the attack. 

At ten dollars a day, till 'tis ended ; 
To go up again and come back 

On a teeter like that is just splendid. 

How fine to ascend and descend 

On that see-saw aforesaid a-straddle, 
With law points to boot at each end. 

And myself, as it were, in the saddle. 

Respectfully submitted, 

D. M. Jones. 
To the Honorable Stanley Woodward, Judge. 


Up to the time of the War of 1861-65 and for several 
years thereafter the only mail facilities at Dallas were via the 
route from Kingston to Bowman's Creek once a week. 
Within a few years after the war the mail was increased to 
twice a week, but it was not until the year 1873, under the 


administration of President Grant, that the mail receipts 
were increased to every day. Abram Ryman was post- 
master at that time. From this time on there was a strong 
and growing feehng with a few inhabitants of Dallas in favor 
of a telegraph or some more rapid means of communicating 
with the outside world. The telegraph was impractical on 
account of the expense of hiring skilled operators. The 
problem was not solved until 1878, when the telephone was 
put on the market first as a practical invention. A few ex- 
perimental telephones had been seen at Wilkes-Barre, at- 
tached to telegraph lines, early in that year. They seemed 
to so fit the needs of Dallas and vicinity that immediate steps 
were taken to organize a company and build a line. The 
Wilkes-Barre and Harvey's Lake Telegraph Company was 
the name of the corporation then formed. It was incorpo- 
rated as a telegraph company because no laws had yet been 
formed to provide for incorporating telephone companies, 
and this was considered substantially near enough a system 
of telegraphing to warrant calling it such. The charter was 
received July 4th, 1878. The incorporators were H. S. 
Rutter, E. P. Darling, H. A. Moore, G. M. Lewis, C. A. 
Spencer, W. J. Honeywell, Joseph Shaver, T. F. Ryman, 
J. J. Ryman and W. P. Ryman. The line was constructed 
from Wilkes-Barre to Harvey's Lake, with an office at the 
store of A. Ryman's Sons in Dallas village. The Harvey's 
Lake office was first at the cottage of H. S, Rutter, and the 
Wilkes-Barre office at the office of Ryman & Lewis, No. 
7 West Market street, where the present Anthracite Build- 
ing now stands [1886]. The line was completed and the 
instruments connected about 3 o'clock in the afternoon of 

the day of November, 1878. At about that time the 

writer rang the signal bell and got an answer from Dallas. 
The surprise and wonder were very great, and we could at 
first hardly realize that we were talking to each other nine 
miles away. This was the first regular telephone line con- 


structed in vicinity of Wilkes-Barre, and up to that time was 
the longest distance anyone in the vicinity of Wilkes-Barre 
had attempted to talk. The curiosity and incredulity of the 
people along the line about Dallas and Harvey's Lake, when 
told that machines were being put up by which one could 
talk at Harvey's Lake or Dallas and be heard at Wilkes- 
Barre, were very great. Some laughed at it as a joke and 
would not seriously consider the possibility of such a thing 
for a moment. Scores watched the work, however, with 
increasing attention and earnestness as it approached com- 
pletion. As the day and the hour of its completion drew 
near crowds began to assemble at the Harvey's Lake and 
Dallas offices until, I am told, they amounted to hundreds, 
who had assembled to have their predictions of failure be- 
lieved. When they were persuaded by hearing and recog- 
nizing the voice that the speaker was actually as far away as 
Wilkes-Barre, they began to try and explain the "how" and 
"why" of it. With most of them, as with the majority of 
mankind, it was incomprehensible ; but a few knowing ones 
at Dallas explained it easily enough, I am told, by an im- 
aginary discovery that the wire which had been strung 
upon the poles to Wilkes-Barre was hollow, and thus the 
voice was easily carried so far as through a tube. 


To Albert S. Orr, more than to any other one person, is 
due the credit of starting and pushing the enterprise of the 
Wilkes-Barre and Harvey's Lake Railroad until it had to 
and did become a reality. For many years a short line 
from Wyoming Valley via Dallas to the New York state 
line had been talked of. Once, about the year 1868, a sur- 
vey was made from Mehoopany down via Bowman's Creek, 
Kunkle, across ''Chestnut Ridge" and through Dallas vil- 
lage, but this survey did not find a practical route on ac- 
count of steep grades and deep cuts. In the midsummer 


of 1885 Mr. Orr called one warm afternoon at the law office 
of George W. Shonk, Esq., on Franklin street, in Wilkes- 
Barre, and began to talk about some valuable timber land 
and lumber interests belonging to John Shonk, the father 
of George, situate at Ruggles post-office, beyond Harvey's 
Lake. In the course of the conversation Orr asserted that 
he knew a feasible route for a railroad from Wyoming Val- 
ley to Harvey's Lake which could be built and equipped 
for a very small sum comparatively, say ;^ 100,000 to ^150,- 
000, which, when built, would not only enhance Mr. Shonk's 
lands, but all others along the line. This idea at first struck 
Mr. Shonk favorably, but when he began to think of its 
cost, compared with his bank account at that particular day, 
the notion became ridiculous to him, and he remarked to 
Mr. Orr that he could not talk about building a railroad, 
calling attention to his then small balance in bank. "That 
makes no difference," said Mr. Orr ; " I have no more cash 
on hand than you have, but I will take ^5,000 in the road 
and will find some way to raise it. I want you to see your 
father to-night when you go home and talk it over with 
him." Mr. Shonk did as requested. Much to his surprise, 
his father was not only much interested, but agreed to take 
;^25,ooo of the stock and to get others to take some. Mr. 
Orr in the meantime called on Mr. Troxell, owner of a large 
body of land at Harvey's Lake, and Messrs. Ryman and 
Brothers and Joseph Shaver and others owning land at Dal- 
las, and from each got not only encouragement but agree- 
ment to take some of the stock. With this assurance Mr. Orr 
began at once to secure right of way, to have surveys made 
and to make application for the charter. Mr. Orr spent 
most of the balance of the year 1885 in getting the right of 
way, in which he was very successful, having secured a 
large portion without cost. Early in the spring of 1886, 
everything being in readiness, and the organization com- 
plete, the directors met and let the contract for grading to 


Mr. Orr. Hardly was the ink dry on his contract before 
one bright morning, May 30, 1886, Mr. Orr was at work 
with about one hundred Hungarians grading this road as 
it now h'es, beginning at a point near the old White mill- 
dam in Luzerne borough. Mr. Orr continued his work 
with unabated zeal for nearly a month, when the Lehigh 
Valley Railroad, through Mr. Albert Lewis, seeing the ad- 
vantage of this road and its importance to a larger system, 
began negotiations, and within a few days purchased the 
franchise and all rights of the new company and proceeded 
to finish it. In this way the road was built much better and 
more substantially than it probably would otherwise have 
been. The work was not pushed rapidly, but was done 
well, and on Thursday, December 9th, 1886, the first loco- 
motive passed through the village of Dallas. The road was 
not open for general business and travel, however, for sev- 
eral months later. Under the management of the Lehigh 
Valley this railroad prospered far beyond expectation. The 
lumber and passenger traffic grew rapidly and soon attracted 

Within ten years from the beginning of the first railroad 
there began to be talk of a second, this time an electric 
road, intended more especially to catch the passenger busi- 
ness between Wilkes-Barre, Dallas and Harvey's Lake. As 
early as the year 1893 John B. Reynolds of Kingston, the 
leading spirit of the new enterprise, began discussing the 
subject with his friends. Nor did he stop with mere dis- 
cussion. One after another of his plans were perfected, his 
company organized and work was begun. 

In the year 1896 he had partly graded his line through 
the mountain gorge between Luzerne and Trucksville, when 
he came upon a landowner who refused to give or sell the 
right to cross his land at any price. This suspended the 
work for a short time only. Mr. Reynolds soon took 
out a new charter under the general railroad law of Penn- 


sylvania for a new steam railroad under the name of the 
Wilkes-Barre and Northern Raih'oad, which gave him also 
the right of eminent domain, and thus broke down all ob- 
stacles put in the way by landowners. From this time for- 
ward the new road progressed rapidly, so that almost ex- 
actly within ten years from the entry of the first locomotive 
into the village o{ Dallas in December, 1886, the first loco- 
motive on the new road made its first entry into the village 
of Dallas. The road is at this writing being extended to 
Harvey's Lake, and it is expected before long to be con- 
nected with the electric trolley system at Wilkes-Barre, so 
that one can ride in the electric cars from Public Square in 
Wilkes-Barre to Harvey's Lake without change. 

While ever mindful of the needs and comforts of the liv- 
ing, Dallas was not forgetful of the dead. About the year 
1883 the subject of a new and better arranged cemetery was 
brought before the people, which soon culminated, Novem- 
ber 1 2th, 1883, in the incorporation of the Dallas Cemetery 
Association, which immediately secured and laid out the 
cemetery ground as it now is in the village of Dallas. To 
this cemetery many remains were removed from different 
burying-grounds in the vicinity. The incorporators of this 
association were as follows : Chester White, Perry Frantz, 
William A. Garringer, William C. Roushy, O. L. Fisher, 
Dr. C. A. Spencer, and John J. Ryman, all of Dallas. 

The lumbering industry in Dallas as early as 1885 was 
practically at an end except with two or three owners of 
mills who still bought a few scattering logs in winter and 
sawed them up as needed, and almost everyone else turned 
his attention to farming and stock raising. A very decided 
improvement in the appearance of the farms and of the stock 
of all kinds appeared about this time. With this pride in 
improved farms and farm products grew a desire to exhibit 


and compare notes. The outcome of this desire was the 
incorporation. J::ly 9, 1885, of the Dallas Union Agricul- 
tural Associatron, which now owns a valuable property, 
where it holds annual fairs, and continues to prosper. The 
original orgfar-izers of this association were as follows : Wil- 
liam J. Honeyvrell, Philip T. Raub, James Monaghan, C. A. 
Spencer, Chester White, C. D. Honeywell, Ira D. Shaver, 
A. D. Hay, Leonard Machell and Jacob Rice. 

On the 3Gth of July, 1889, the Dallas Broom Company 
was incorporated. It purchased the old Methodist Episco- 
pal Church and grounds, raised the building high enough 
to build another stor}^ under it, and divided the old main 
room into t^.vo stories, so as to make a new three-story 
building, into which was placed new and improved machin- 
er)^, and the first brooms were made there about October ist, 
1889. The business was conducted under the same man- 
agement until the year 1895, when it was consolidated with 
several other companies in the Eastern and Middle States 
under the name of The American Broom and Brush Com- 
pany. The original stockholders were as follows : William 
K. Goss, Isaac X. Shaver, John J. Ryman, P. T. Raub, 
Charles H. Cook, F. W. Tyrrell, Jacob Rice, Ira D. Sha- 
ver, Hay & Honeywell, John F. Garrahan, Dwight Wol- 
cott, Dan Perr\', E. H. Elston, James G. Laing, John T. 
Phillips, G. M. Metzgar, A. S. Orr, S. D. Goff, William P. 
Kirkendall, C. A. Spencer, Gregory & Hitzman, G. W. 
Brickell, Chester White, Kirkendall & Bros., A. L. Wall, 
Jesse Albertson, P. X. Warden, George Puterbaugh, Wil- 
liam J. Hone^-well and William P. Ryman. 

Dallas had now reached the period of its career when a 
newspaper necessary to chronicle its happenings. In 
the year 1SS9 Mr. A. A. Holbrook started T/ic Dallas Post, 
with the motto, "There is nothing too good for Dallas." 


ti^' I 







- .' ^-^ 




This paper has been published continuously cacli week 
since. In the year 1895 Mr. Holbrook was succeeded by 
Mr. W. H. Capwell as editor and proprietor. 

Nothing was "too good for Dallas." Good water it had 
in wells and springs ; but with modern ideas of household 
comforts, hot and cold running water, and the bath room, as 
well as the sanitary principles involved, demanded that wa- 
terworks be established and pure water be brought to the 
houses from some point far away from any contamination of 
drainage from houses and cesspools. The plan was soon put 
in effect by the incorporation of the Dallas Water Company, 
August 2ist, 1893, with the following stockholders: John 
T. Phillips, J. J. Ryman, A. A. Holbrook of Dallas, G. L. 
I Halsey of White Haven, Pa., Sheldon Reynolds of Wilkes- 

Barre, and John B. Reynolds of Kingston, Pa. 

This water company secured the water from some large 
springs on the old Edward McCarty farm, about two miles 
north of the village, and has a supply, sufficient for present 
needs, of most excellent water. This water was turned into 
the new pipes on Thanksgiving Day, 1893. The question 
of a water supply when Dallas has grown to five or six 
times its present size may not be easily solved. 

The following residents within the borough of Dallas 
were signers of the petition for the borough which was pre- 
sented to the court January 4th, 1879, ^^^ • 

Barney Stroud, J. J. Ryman, Theodore F. Ryman, Leon- 
ard Machell, Jacob Rice, Ira D. Shaver, J. B. Williamson, 
William Randall, George W. Shotwell, Lewis Starmer, Wil- 
liam H. Rice, W^illiam H. Law, Alexander Snyder, George 
Randall, B. W. Brickie, Joseph Atherholt, J. A. Folkerson, 
James G. Laing, Isaac N. Shaver, Elmer B. Shaver, Joseph 
Shaver, Fayette Allen, Fayette Shaver, John T. Fuller, John 

J. Bulford, O. F. Roushey, S. Rumage, Spencer Worden, S. 



B. Perrigo, William J. Honeywell, C. A. Spencer, Philip 
Raub, Thomas Garrahan, Thomas E. Oakley, Chester 
White, Peter Santee, William Snyder, Andrew Raub, L. M. 
Rice, Andrew J. Williamson, William P. Shaver, P. Perrigo, 
Charles H. Cooke, C. E. Raub, J. W. Johnson, C. D. Hen- 
derson, C. D. Fulkerson, G. W. Wilcox, J. S. Henderson, 
J. H. Gerhardt, Dwight Wolcott, William Randall, Frank- 
hn Bulford, S. H. Welsh, James Garrahan, E. Hunter, 
Christopher Snyder. 

This petition was also presented to the Grand Jury on the 
4th day of January, 1879. On the same day the Grand 
Jury reported favorably to granting the borough, Wesley 
Johnson, foreman. April 21st, 1879, after argument of the 
exceptions filed, the court confirmed the finding of the Grand 
Jury and decree that the town of Dallas be incorporated 
into a borough as prayed for, and that the corporate style 
and title thereof be ''The Borough of Dallas!' Borough 
bounded and described as follows : Beginning at a corner, 
a pile of stones and a corner to lands of Seth Rummage and 
Barney Stroud and in the division line of Dallas and Leh- 
man townships ; thence along the said division north, 30 
degrees west, along lands of Barney Stroud, Smith Perrigo 
and Thomas Parks, 500 perches to a stone corner on said 
Dallas and Lehman township line ; thence along lands of 
Thomas Parks and William Husted north, 58 degrees and 
55 minutes east, 100 perches to a hemlock stump on west 
side of the road leading from James Henderson's to Mrs. 
Oliver's; thence north, 30 degrees west, 13 perches to a 
post and corner to lands of William Snyder and Mrs. Oli- 
ver; thence north, 58 degrees and 55 minutes east, 13S 
perches along lands of Mrs. Oliver and William Snyder to 
a corner in Joseph Atherholt's line; thence along said Jo- 
seph Atherholt's land north, 30 degrees west, 75 perches to 
land of John Hay; thence along said John Hay north, 35 
degrees and 55 minutes east, 75 perches to a corner of Levi 


Reed's land ; thence along land of the said Levi Reed and 
Perry and George Wordcn, south, 30 degrees east, 264 
I perches to a corner on Centre Hill and in line of Leonard 

I Machell's land ; thence along land of said Leonard Machell 

1 and Wordens, north, 58 degrees 55 minutes east, i86y'^ 

:t perches to Maria Kirkendall's corner and in line of lands of 

I William K. and Mary Goss ; thence along the line of lands 

I of the said William K. and Mary Goss and Maria Kirken- 

I dall, south, 30 degrees east, 63 perches to a small maple ; 

I thence by land of the same south, 19 degrees west, I3y% 

I perches to a post ; thence by the same south, 30 degrees east, 

;| 12 perches to a locust tree; thence north, 42 degrees east, 

I 6 perches to a post and a corner in line of lands of William 

I K. Goss and John Bulford ; thence along their line north, 

I ^6 degrees east, 3 1 perches to another corner of said Goss 

f and Bulford's land ; thence south, 30 degrees east, along 

I land of said William K. Goss and John Bulford and Jacob 

I Rice, I27y^^ perches to a corner of lands of William K. and 

- Mar)^ Goss and James B. W' illiamson's lands ; thence north, 

60 degrees east, along lands of said Goss and Williamson, 
$4 perches to a corner in line of lands of Daniel Heft ; thence 
along line of lands of said Heft and Williamson, south, 30 
degrees east, 81-j^ perches to a corner of said Heft's land 
in the line of Ryman and Shaver's land ; thence north, 60 
degrees east, 10 rods to a stone; thence by Ryman and 
Shaver's lands, south, 30 degrees east, 57 perches to a 
hemlock tree by the same south, 60 degrees west, 10 
perches to a post ; thence by same south, 37 degrees east, 
37/^ perches to a rock ; thence by land of Asa B. Shaver, 
south, 60 degrees west, 54 perches to a post in line of lands 
belonging to Joseph M. Shaw ; thence along his land north, 
30 degrees west, 62 perches to a corner of land of Elmer B. 
Shaver in centre of the road (Dallas to Kingston) ; thence 
along the road north, 49^/2 degrees west, 25^ perches to a 
corner of Adison Church's land ; thence by same south, 3 1 ^ 


degrees west, 26 perches to a corner of land of Norton and 
Holly; thence south, 60 degrees west, by said Norton and 
Holly's land, 75 perches to a birch tree and corner of lands of 
Jacob Rice and John N. Welch ; thence along the land the 
same course 53 perches to a corner of Rice's land; thence 
north, 49 y^ degrees west, 53^ perches to Ryman's corner ; 
105 i^ perches to another corner of said Ryman's in line of 
William B. Steckels ; thence along said Steckel's land, south, 
30 degrees east, io}4 perches to a corner of lands of Chris- 
tian Eypher; thence along said Eypher's land, south, 60 
degrees west, ioSj^q- perches to another corner of said 
Eypher's land ; thence south, 30 degrees east, 45 perches 
to stones corner of Fanny Hoover's land; thence south, 60 
degrees east, 45 perches to corner of land of Seth Rum- 
mage ; thence along his land north, 30 degrees west, 39I/2 
perches to the centre of the road leading from Huntsville 
to Dallas Village ; thence a northeast course along said road 
to William B. Steckel's corner ; thence along said W^illiam 
B. Steckel's land, north, 30 degrees west, yS-f-^ perches to 
a post, another corner of said Seth Rummage ; thence by 
his land south, 60 degrees west, 34y^^ perches to the road 
and a corner of lands of Barney Stroud and said Rummage; 
thence along the road leading from said Stroud's to said 
Rummage's dwelling, south, 18 degrees east, 10 perches; 
south, 3 degrees east, 13 perches; south, 23 degrees east, 
21 perches to a chestnut ; thence along the same road south, 
30 degrees east, 40 perches to a corner of Stroud's land ; 
thence south, 60 degrees west, along line of lands of said 
Stroud and Rummage, 100 perches to a stone corner, the 
place of beginning. 

Report of Grand Jury January 4, 1879, Wesley Johnson, 

Same day court orders certificate to be entered of record. 
April 21, 1879, court confirms the judgment of the Grand 
Jury and decree that the town of Dallas be incorporated 


p into borough as prayed for, and "t/iat the corporate style and 

^ title thereof shall be The Borough of Dallas." 

Court also directs that the annual borough election shall 
be held at the hotel of Andrew Raub in said borough on 
the third Tuesday of February ; also declared and decreed 
that said borough should be a separate school district. 
Court also directed that the election of officers for said bor- 
ough for first year be held at said Raub's hotel, May 13, 
1879, between 7 a. m. and 7 p. m., and designated William 
J. Reiley to give due notice of said election. Barney Stroud 
also same day appointed to be judge, and William Snyder 
I and John Ferguson appointed to be the inspectors, and 

William H. Rice and D. Wolcott to be clerks of said elec- 

Map recorded Charter Book No i, page 364. 

High School Association of Dallas. — Petition and charter 
3 1868. Charter members: Leonard Machell, Dallas, 40 

shares; James Garrahan, Dallas, 10 shares; Ira D. Shaver, 
Dallas, 10 shares ; V/illiam J. Honeywell, Dallas, 20 shares ; 
Theodore F. and J, J. Ryman, Dallas, 20 shares ; Chester 
White, Dallas, lo shares ; Joseph Atherholt, Dallas, 5 
shares ; William Snyder, Dallas, 10 shares ; Joseph Shaver, 
Dallas, 20 shares ; Jacob Rice, Dallas, 20 shares ; James G. 
Laing, Dallas, 5 shares ; C. A. Spencer, Dallas, 5 shares ; 
I A. Raub, Dallas, 10 shares ; George W. Kirkendall, Wilkes- 

Barre, 10 shares; William P. Kirkendall, Wilkes-Barre, 5 
shares. Charter Book i, page 318. 

The Methodist Church of Dallas did not become an in- 
corporated body until its charter was granted by the courts 
November 26, 1866. It is recorded in Luzerne county Re- 
corder's office. Charter Book 2, page 474. 

This charter was revised and amended to conform to the 

new incorporation laws of Pennsylvania, by amendment 





dated March 23, 1889, and recorded in Charter Book 2, page 
500. The trustees named in the new charter were : WiUiam J. 
Honeywell, Dwight Wolcott, John T. Phillips, W. P. Kir- 
kendall, Jacob Rice, Frank W. Tyrrel, William C. Roushey, 
John J. Ryman. 

Dallas Unio7i AgriadUiral Association. — Charter July 6, 
1885. Charter members: William J. Honeywell, Dallas, 
10 shares ; Philip T. Raub, Dallas, 10 shares ; James Mon- 
igan, Trucksville, 10 shares; C. A. Spencer, Dallas, 10 
shares; Chester White, Dallas, 10 shares; C. D. Honey- 
well, Dallas, 10 shares; Ira D. Shaver, Dallas, 10 shares; 
A. D. Hay, Dallas, 10 shares; Leonard Machell, Dallas, 10 
shares; Jacob Rice, Dallas, 10 shares. 

Dallas Cemetery Association. — Charter Book No. 2, page 
26. Incorporated November 12, 1883. Chester White, 7 
shares ; Perry Frantz, 7 shares ; William A. Garringer, 7 
shares ; WiUiam C. Roushey, 7 shares ; O. L. Fisher, 7 
shares ; Dr. C. A. Spencer, 7 shares ; John J. Ryman, 8 
shares — all of Dallas. 





The following valuable document is in the possession of 
the Historical Society, presented by the estate of the late 
E. P. Darling, Esq. It is, as stated, "a Draft of two tracts 
of Land, situate in Wilkesbarre, one being a square in the 
Town plot thereof called the Centre Square and the other 
being the public common on the River bank." 

The extended controversy which has continued for sev- 
eral years as to the necessity for a new Court House in Lu- 
zerne county, the action of several Grand Juries, the decis- 
ions of the County Court, and the issue of injunction after 
injunction, pro and con, with the large expense already in- 
curred by the action of the County Commissioners in con- 
tracting for a palatial building so well known to the pub- 
lic, have invested the matter with an interest that makes this 
document of peculiar value to the tax-payers of the county. 

It will be noticed that the date of this draft is January 2, 
i8oi, while the date of recording it in the deed books of 
the county is June 13, 1842. There may be those now 
living who can explain the cause of this long delay of forty- 
two years. 

The draft shows the extent of the Public Square to be 
"Four acres and forty-one perches," and that of the River 
Common to be "Thirty- five acres." This Draft is a printed 
form excepting the portions in italics, which are written. 

In 1793 action was taken by the County Commissioners 
of Luzerne to place the public lands and the commons 
within the Hmits of Wilkes-Barre in the hands of a commit- 
tee for such uses as might be deemed proper. This action 
did not, however, meet with the approval of the citizens of 
the town. A town meeting was therefore called for the 


purpose of determining what action should be taken in the 
matter, but without definite result, except as to the Public 

The Minutes show that: 

"At a Town Meeting held agreeably to notice at the 
Court House Wilkesbarre on Saturday the 13th June A. D. 

"The County Commissioners informed this meeting that 
they were about to erect a new Court House on the Spot 
where the old one Stands on the Public Square in Wilkes- 
barre for the use of the County; but have some doubts 
about the propriety of so doing unless the use of the Ground 
is ceded by the Town for that use, Whereupon on Motion 
& Seconded, 

"Voted, that Matthias Hollenback Lord Butler & Arnold 
Colt esquires are appointed a Committee on behalf of the 
Proprietors and Inhabitants of this Township to lease to the 
County Commissioners and their Successors in Office so 
much of the South Quarter of the Public Square in this 
Town being the same square on which the Court House 
now stands as shall by them be thought sufficient for the 
Purpose aforesaid to the Use of them and their Successors 
in Office for so long a time as the same shall be occupied 
for a Court House." 

A much fuller account of this public property and also of 
the Commons will appear in the forthcoming " History of 
Wilkes-Barre" from documents extant but not in the pos- 
session of this Society. H. e. h. 


"Draft of two tracts of Land, situate in Wilkesbarrc one 
of the Seventeen Townships in Luzerne County One there- 
of being a square in the Toivn plot thereof a?id called the 
Ceiitre Square afid the other being the public Common on the 
River ba?ik, betzveeJi the River Siisquehamia and the Tozun, 
which two Lots or tracts of Land are ifi the second division of 
that Tozunship and contain thirty-nine Acres and Forty one 
Perches, with the usual Allowance of six per centum for 
Roads ; resurveyed the TJiird Day of Jnly in the year of 
our Lord one thousand eight hundred and One by order of 
the Commissioners appointed for putting into execution an 
Act of the General Assembly of the State of Pennsylvania, 
entitled, *An Act for offering Compensation to the Pennsyl- 
vania Claimants of certain Lands within the Seventeen 
Townships, in the County of Luzerne, and for other Pur- 
poses therein mentioned,' for Lord Butler, Matthias Hollen- 
back & Jesse Fell, The Township Coniniittce, 

^^Thos Savibourne 
"Surveyor to the said Commissioners, 
"2d January, 1804. 
"To Samuel Cochran Esq, 


""^ Centre Square Scale 12 Perches to the Inch. 
^^ River Bank, scale 60 ps to the inch!' 



AS. PS. 

35- — 
4. 41. 



Town Lots. 

S. 55. 20 W. 257.9 P's. 


Luzerne Cojmty LS. 

Recorded in the Office for Re cor dm g 
Deeds &c in and for said County in 
[seal.] Deed Book No jg, page 2yo &c Wit- 

ness my hand and seal of office at 
Wilkes Bar re this sixth day of July 
Anno Dovii7ii 18^2. 

Isaac Bowman 

per Saml Bowman^ Dep, 


We the undersigned Commissioners for putting in execu- 
tion an Act of the General Assembly of the State of Penn- 
sylvania, entitled ''An Act for offering compensation to the 
Pennsylvania Claimants of certain lands within the seven- 
teen Townships in the county of Luzerne, and for other 
purposes there in mentioned" passed the 4th day of April 
1799, and the supplement thereto passed the 15th day of 
March 1800, and the further Supplement thereto passed the 
6th day of April 1802. Do Certify, That Lord Butler, 
Matthias Hollenback & Jesse Fell Township Committee are 
the Owners as a Connecticut Claimant of Thirty-nine Acres 
and Forty-one perches of Land in the Township of Wilkes- 
I barre one of the before mentioned seventeen townships, Be- 

ing the Public square in the Town plot thereof and the p7iblic 
Common 07i the River Ba7ik betweeji the River Susquehanna 
and the Tow7i plot, which Square a7id Co7mnon\4^xQ, severally 
occupied and acquired by a Connecticut Claimant and actual 
Settler there before the time of the Decree oi Trenton, and 
was particularly assigned to such actual Settler, prior to 
the said Decree, agreeable to the regulations then in force 
among such Settlers. The said Land (a Draught of Sur- 


vey whereof is hereunto annexed) Is included in tlie appH- 
cation of Matthew Hollcnback, Jesse Fell & Lord Butler 
TowJi Committee under the provisions of the acts aforesaid; 
of which appHcation an official transcript has been transmit- 
ted to us from the Land Office of the Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania, number 77^ Of the said Tracts. The whole 
is of the First Class. Thomas Cooper 

January 21st 1804. J no. M. Taylor. 


No. Wilkesbarre The Ceiitre Square & public Com- 

mon on the River Ba7ik — Lord Butler, Matthias Hollenback 
& Jesse Fell, The Toivnship Co}nmittee, As jg, As, 41 P. 
Certificate. Filed Jtdy 6th 184.2. Tax . . . . ^0.50 
Recordi7ig & Draft . . . 1.50 

Brought by George M. Hollenback Esq & Recorded by 
his order. 




FROM 1803 TO 1829. 

The following List of Baptisms, Marriages and Deaths, 
entitled "Records of the Old Presbyterian Church of Wilkes- 
Barre," have been stored among the manuscripts of this 
Society for over fifteen years. It is in the clear, round hand- 
writing of our honored Secretary, the late Harrison Wright, 
M. A., Ph. D. It forms the earliest vital statistics of Wyo- 
ming Valley, from July 31, 1803, to 1829. Dr. Wright's 
well known carefulness in copying is a guarantee of its ac- 
curacy. It is matter of great value to some of the families 
of Wyoming. 

In the admirable sketch of the "First Presbyterian Church 
of Wilkes-Barre" by the late Sheldon Reynolds, Esq., Pres- 
ident of this Society, to be found in Vol. iv of the Proceed- 
ings of this Society, the author says : 

"The earliest records of the Church that have been pre- 
served bear date July i, 1803. On that date the congrega- 
tion of Wilkes-Barre, augmented by a number of residents 
of Kingston and other neighboring villages, took the name 
of the Church of Wilkes-Barre and Kingston. A Confes- 
sion of Faith and Covenant was adopted and signed by 
twenty-seven members of the Church. During the three 
years next following, there being no settled pastor, the pul- 
pit was supplied by missionaries of the Connecticut Society, 
Messrs. Jabez Chadwick and James Woodward. * * * 
In August, 1806, the Rev. Ard Ployt of Danbury was or- 
dained and installed pastor of the Church of Wilkes-Barre 
and Kingston, there being at that time thirty-four mem- 

It will be noticed that the first baptisms recorded in this 


list were performed July 31, 1803, by Rev. Jabez Chadwick, 
missionary, and the next by Rev. Ard Hoyt. 

I am positive, from my conversations with him on the 
subject, that had Mr. Reynolds lived to publish his History 
of the First Presbyterian Church, he would have incorpo- 
rated this "Record of Baptsims, &c.," in the work. When, 
after his lamented death, it became my sad but pleasant duty 
to publish this History in his "Memoir," I knew not where 
to look for this Record. It is with sincere pleasure that it is 
given here for permanent preservation. The original Record 
is in the possession of the proper officers of the First Pres- 
byterian Church. 

The Records of St. Stephen's Protestant Episcopal 
Church, organized 1817, begin some years later. No other 
Church records of that time are known. H. e. h. 





By Rev. Jabez Chadwick, Missionary. 

1803. July 31. Lemira, child of Jabez Fish. 

Caroline Anne, Ehza Irene, William Sterling, 

children of Wm. Ross. 
Phoebe Dalton, on account of Sarah Hollen- 

back, wife of Matthias HoUenback. 

By Rev. Ard Hoyt. 

1806. Sept. 14. Lois, Abel, Daniel, children of Danl. Hoyt. 
i 1807. Mch. 8. Miles, Sally, James, children of Mathew Co- 

vel, his two eldest, Edward and Simon, 
having been baptized by Mr. Johnson. 
Harriet, Washington, children of Silas Jack- 

1807. June 15. Eleanor, a child of Robert Lewis. 

p 1807. June 24. Betsey Sweet, an adopted child of Nehemiah 

\ Ide. 

1807. Aug. 21. Rebecca, child of Nathaniel C. Bates of Tunk- 

1807. Aug. 30. Cornelius Adams, son of A. Hoyt. 

1807. Oct. 27. Nancy, daughter of Robert Lewis. 

1807. Nov. 15. Harriet, daughter of W. H. Sanderson, his 
son Henry being baptised before he came 
to this place. 

1807. Dec. 13. Betsey, Caroline, George, children of John 

1807. Dec. 20. WiUiam, Hallet, James Divine, Caleb Hatha- 
way, children of Freelove Gallup, 
Hannah Sweet, an adopted daughter of s 



July 30. 


Sept. 6. 


Dec. 17. 


Feb. 10. 


1808. Jan. 27. Polly, daugliter of John Rumbaiigh of New- 
port (a professor in I German Church). 

1808. Mch. 10. Egbert, Welles, Howel, sons of Joseph Wood- 
bridge, Canaan. 

1808. April 12. Andre, son of Christian Sarver of Newport 

(Professor in the Dutch Reformed Church) 
Margaret Buyers, daughter of Silas Jackson. 
Catherine, James, Robert Beavers, Hannah 

Maria, children of John Little, Newport. 
Sally, daughter of Robert Lewis. 
Isabella, Asenath, WiUiston, Zipron, children 

of Darius Preston. 

1809. Aug. 17. John Armstrong, Mary Ann Stinson, William 

VanDesen, Robt. Beavers, children of 

James Reader, Newport. 
Jane, granddaughter and adopted child of 

widow Jane Colwell. 
Mary Ann, daughter of John Ogden. 
Ehzabeth Ann, daughter of John Little. 
George, Sally Ann, Jeremiah, children of John 

Thomas-Tillinghast, JuHus-Foster, children 

of Polly Mulford. 

18 10. June 10. Isaac Carpenter, son of John Stivers. 
1810. Aug. 5. Er\\'in, son of N. Bates. 

The children of Nathaniel are Castle, bap- 
tised by Mr. Chadwick, Rebecca, baptised 
by A. Hoyt, Edward Scovell, baptised by 
S. Williston, and Erwin as above. 

18 10. Sept. 10. William, George Washington, Charlotte, Ab- 
salom, children of Andrew McClure. 

1810. Oct. 28. Catharine, Mary, children of Catherine Kiech- 

1 8 10. Nov. 14. Thompson, son of Catherine Kiechline. 

181 1. Mar. 6. George Talcott, Fanny, children of Henry 
















811. July 9 

811. Aug. 13 

811. Sept. I 

811. Sept. 10 

811. Oct. 21 

811. Dec. I 

812. April 6 
812. June 21 

812. Sept. 30 

813. Feb. 9 
813. April 25 
813. June 8 
813. Aug. 10 
813. Aug. 22 
813. Sept. 29 
813. Oct. 10 

1813. Oct. II. 

1814. Feb. 9. 

1 814. April 10. 

18 14. April 23. 

18 1 4. Aug. 6. 

1814. Aug. 14. 

1814. Dec. II. 

Lois, daughter of Robert Lewis. 

Alexander Enis, son of John Stivers. 

Peggy, daughter of Solomon Fairchild. 

Ann, daughter of Catherine Kiechline. 

Sarah-EHzabeth, daughter of James Reeder. 

Mary-Ann, child of Joseph Woodbridge, 

Gordon, Juha Ann, children of Joseph Swet- 

Juhus, son of Henry Buckingham. 

Merit-Bradford, son of Benjamin Lewis. 

Jesse Fox, Morton, children of Charles 

Mary, daughter of John Little. 

Sarah, daughter of Andrew McClure. 

John McMillan, son of Robt. Lewis. 

John, son of Solomon Fairchild. 

Jane, daughter of Elijah Ide. 

Joseph, Lydia, children of Hannah Sill. 

George Espy, Josiah Lewis, Edwin Tracy, 
Ambrose, children of Anne (Tuttle ?). 

Jacob, Abraham, Christian, Peter, Mary, 
children of John and Mary Sleppy. Their 
eldest son George having been previously 
baptised in the Dutch Church. 

Silas, T^Iary, Perron Ross, children of Nath- 
aniel and Mercy Ide. 

James Simpson, son of James Reeder. 

Melinda, daughter of John Stivers. 

Archipus, son of Archipus Parrish. 

The children of John Sorber and Clara his 
wife (this day rec^. in the church) were 
baptised by a german minister previous to 
their uniting with us. Their names are : 
Catherine, Daniel, Elias, Henry. 

Eliza-Starr, daughter of Elias Hoyt. 



Washington Lee, son of John and Allie Ewing. 

Peter, son of John Sorber. 

Isaac, son of John Shleppy. 

Lucinda-Parker, daughter of Ehjah Ide. 

Thomas, son of Robt. Lewis. 

Mary Ann, daughter of Andrew McClure. 

Abraham Bradley, Nathan Phineas, William 
Lindsley, David Jewett, children of Phi- 
neas Waller. 

Samuel, son of Elias Hoyt. 

Robert r3undee, Frederick Murray, children 
of Widow Hepburne. 

Jacob Archibald, son of deacon James Reeder. 

Jane, daughter of Conrad Lines. 

Joseph, son of Robert Lewis. 

Sally, daughter of John Sorber. 

Elizabeth-Ann, daughter of John Shleppy. 

Lydia, daughter of Nathaniel Ide. 

Sarah, daughter of Charles Welles and Ellen 
J. his wife, was baptised by the Rev. Ard 
Hoyt the evening before he set out with 
his family on his Mission to the Indians 
in the State of Tennessee. 

Baptised by the Rev. H. Taylor. 

Zechariah B Peet, adult. 

Matilda, daughter of Elias Hoyt. 

Roswell Parker, adopted son of Horace Parker. 

Sarah Alithea, daughter of Archippus Parrish. 

Rachel, infant daughter of Conrad and Mary 

Lyon of Newport. 
1818. May 4. Maria, John, Sarah Ann, Harriet, children of 

Barnet and Sarah Ulp. 
Elizabeth, daughter of Grace Dickson. 
1818. May 5. Robt. Crook Smith, son of Mrs. Jerusha 













































Dec. 28. 


Jan. 18. 


Jan. 19. 


Jan. 29 


April 5, 



1818. May 10. John Hough, Esther Thompson, adults. 

181 8. May 17. Samuel Dorrance, adult. 

Samuel Smith, Martha Priscilla, Benjamin, 
children of Samuel Dorrance of Kingston. 

Charlotte Buckingham, Lydia Adelia, William 
James, Harriet Talcot, Isaac Nelson, chil- 
dren of Wm. Tickner. 

Mary Ann, Benj. Dorrance, Nancy, Char- 
lotte, children of Asa C, Whitney. 

Thomas Buckingham, son of Elijah Loveland. 

Baptised by other Ministers. 

18 1 9. May 16. Taylor Colton, son of James Warner, bap- 

tised by Rev. Calvin Colton. 
1 8 19. Oct. 3. Charles Phillips, son of Phineas and Elizabeth 
Waller, baptised by Rev. Mr. Judd. 
Eliza Ross, daughter of Edward and Sarah 

Covell, baptised by Rev. Mr. Judd. 
Martha, daughter of E. and S. Covell. 
George William, son of Archippus Parrish. 
George Grant, son of Phin. Waller. 
Maria Clarissa, daughter of James Warner. 
Robert, son of John Ewing and wife. 
Jane Ann, Frances Slocum, Rhoda Swoyer, 
children of Eleazer and Frances Carey. 
1822. April 7. Frances Newell, daughter of Rev. C. Gilder- 
sleeve and wife. 
Edward Matthew, son of Edward Covell. 
1822. June 25. Lydia, John R., children of C. and P. Lines. 

Priscilla, daughter of S. Fairchild. 
1822. July 6. Pierce Butler, Priscilla Lee, Charles Bronson, 
Edward Garrick, children of G. and L. 
1822. July 7. William, Wiley, Fibron, Isabella, Jacob, chil- 
dren of Jacob and Jerusha Rudolph. 
1822. Aug. 3. Georgiana, daughter of Hannah Barton. 


June — 


June 21. 


July I. 


Nov. 24. 


Jan. — 


March — 


1822. Aug. 5. Edward, son of Barnet Ulp. 

1822. Nov. 3. Gould, son of A. Parrish. 

1823. Jan. 29. Cromwell Pierce, son of Hannah Barton. 
1823. Feb. 23. Charles Patterson, Albert Gallatin Wright, 

Arabella, Harriet Amelia Ann, children 
of Job and Hannah Barton. 

1823. April 20. Ann Elizabeth, daughter of WiUiam C. Gilder- 

1823. Aug. 5. Jacob, Ann Maria, Thomas, children of Ma- 
tilda Kidney. 

1823. Aug. 16. Isaac Newton, son of Isaac and Abigail Hart. 

1823. Aug. 28. EHza, George, Catherine, children of Marga- 
ret Johnson. 

1823. Oct. 2. Samuel Mills, son of Job and Hannah Barton. 

Isaac, son of John and Sophia Tilghman. 
Edward, son of Henry C. Anheuser. 
George Phillips, son of James Warner. 
Anna, daughter of J. and C. Sorber. 
Silas, son of J. and S. Sleppy. 
Solomon, son of S. and E. Fairchild. 

1824. May 9. Ellen Covell, daughter of C. and F. C. Gilder- 

1824. July 3. Emeline, daughter of Mary Kite. 

1824. Nov. 7. Sidney Livingston, Baldwin, Abigail Worth, 

George, Mary Louisa, Gardiner, children 
of Anthony and Laura Brower. 

1825. Feb. 8. Mary Ann, George Lawrence, WilUam, chil- 

dren of Eve Decker. 

Phebe Ann, daughter of Phebe Vandeberg. 

Susan, daughter of John Sleppy. 

Jacob, Anthony, sons of Sam. Huntington. 

Christian, Hannah, Polly, Sarah, Ehzabeth, 
children of Adam Steele. 

Lucy Ann, daughter of Flenry F. Lamb. 

Mary Bowman, daughter of E. Covell. 

Asenath, Hepburn, children of Jacob Ru- 


Jan. I. 


Mar. 14. 


May 2. 















1825. July n. Charles Jewitt, son of O. Collins. 
1825. Sept. 24. John McCord, James McCord, Mary, chil- 
dren of Jerusha Otis. 

1825. Dec. 13. Isabella, daughter of Solomon Fairchild. 

1826. April 16. James, son of John Tilghman. 

1826. May 9. Benjamin McCoy, Mary McCoy, children of 
Catherine Fanstock. 
Mary Ehzabeth, daughter of Samuel Hunt- 

1826. May 14. CaroHneGildersleeve, daughter of Mary Babb. 

1826. July — Mary Caroline, daughter of AVilliam C. and 
Nancy Gildersleeve. 

1826. Aug. 15. Charles Henry, Joseph, sons of Joanna Shi- 

1826. Sept. 17. John, Abraham, George, Ehza, Hiram, chil- 
dren of Abraham Arnold. 
Mary, daughter of Polly Fairchild. 

1826. Dec. 10. Mary Louisa, daughter of H. C. Anheuser. 

1827. May 14. AVilUam Jackson, son of and Eliza- 

beth Thomas. 
1827. June 17. Lucinda, daughter of John and Sally Sleppy. 
1827. June 30. Laura Gardener, daughter of A. and L. 

Margaret, daughter of Caroline How. 
1827. Oct. 12. Francis Lord, son of John Butler. 

1827. Dec. II. John, son of Phebe Vanderberg. 

1828. Mar. 30. Mary Ann, daughter of Solomon Mills. 
1828. May 4. Laura Brower, daughter of John P. Babb. 
1828. July 6. Ursula, daughter of Eve Decker. 

1828. Aug. 13. Ehzabeth Ann, daughter of F. and Polly 

1828. Sept. 14. Jane, daughter of Edward and H. Jones. 

1828. Dec. 14. Maria EHza, daughter of Anderson Dana, Jr. 

1829. April 4. Ehzabeth, daughter of C. Fanstock. 
1829. May 10. Charlotte, daughter of Sarah Austin. 




































1826. July — 

1827. Jan. — 
1830. Oct. 30. 

Adult Baptisms, 

John Tilghman. 

Sylvina Mallery, Zebulon Butler. 

Frances Carey. 

Cynthia VanBuren, Merritt Slocum. 

Maria Worthington. 

Margaret Johnson. 

Abraham Overholtz. 

Jerusha Otis, Alpha Durham. 

Anderson Dana, Sr., Mary Dana. 

William Jackson, James Halft, Ehzabeth Styer, 

Phebe Butler. 
Jane Atherton, Sarah Atherton, Hannah 

Tripp, Maria Griffin, Jane Arnold, Hiram 

Louise Dana, Lewis Jones, John Atherton, 

Ehzabeth Steringer, Eleazer Atherton. 
Mira Giddings. 
Ezra, infant son of Eve Decker, baptised by 

Rev. C. Gildersleeve. 


1806. Sept. 14. Robert Tubbs to Clarissa Hoyt. 

1807. April — Isaac Hollister to 

1807. Aug. 25. Mr. Cist, of Washington, to Sally Hollenback. 

1808. Jan. 12. John Robinson to Nancy Butler. 
1808. April 17. Mr. Finch to Widow Edson. 

1808. June 5. James Mayberry to Azubah Jenkins. 

1808. Dec. 20. John Miller (Tioga) to Rachel Crissman 


1809. Feb. 20. Henry Welles (Athens) to Phebe Patrick. 
1809. Feb. 21. Seth C. Whitney to Betzy Dorrance. 
1809. May 29. Agur Hoyt to Sarah Grubb. 

1809. June 15. Nathaniel Ide to Mercy Allen (Bedford). 


Ethel B. Bacon to Anna Hoyt. 

Charles Chapman to Patience Bulkeley. 

Otis Allen to Lucy Ide (Bedford). 

Steuben Butler to Julia Bulkeley. 

Barney Ulp to Sally Treadaway. 

John Miller (Oxford, N. Y.), to Betsy Bald- 

Payne Pettibone to Sally Tuttle. 
Jacob John Dennis to Abi Fell. 
Garrick JNIallery to Sylvina Butler. 
David Scott to Catherine Hancock. 
Francis McShane to Frances Bulkeley. 
Elijah Ide to Betsey Parker. 
George Sively to Frances Stewart. 
James Barnum to Julia Treadaway. 
Joseph Wheeler to Betsey Miller. 
James Hughes to Hannah Swetland.-^'^' 
Isaac Fuller to Nancy Worthington. 
PhiHp Abbott to ]Mabel Marit. 
Elijah Loveland to Mary Buckingham. 
Samuel Morgan to Rebecca Stratton. 
Levi Hoyt to Sally Gunn. 
Erastus Parsons to Jennet Hepburn. 
Patrick Hepburn to Betsey Tracy. 
Ahirah Whitcomb, of Braintrim, to AmeHa 

1818. Mar. 12. William Wilson to Jerusha Smith, by Rev. 

H. Taylor. 







































































1806. Sept. 12. Died, a child of Isaac A. Whightman, as. 13 

1806. Sept. 18. Died, a child of Jehoida P. Johnson, ne. 20 

months ; John Colwell, son of William 

Colwell, cc. 20 years. 


The wife of Oliver Helm, ce. 28 years. 

Polly Butler, se. 52. 

Peter Grubb (of K.), 52. 

The wife of Peter Clark. 

William Gallup. 

Wd [widow] Slocum, of Wilkes-Barre, 71. 

A child of Charles Abbott (Plains), 5. 

The wife of Walker (Wilkes-Barre), 45. 

Jacob Johnson, ditto, about 40. 

The wife of Dr. Trott, ditto, about 28. 

Houten Butler, son of Lord Butler, 18. 

Benjamin Davis (Wilkes-Barre) about 60. 

The wife of Roswell Wells, 38. 

Capt. Avery, of Bedford, 50. 

At jNIr. Arndt's, a son of Mr. Dutter, of Han- 
over, 12. 

WiUiam Pace (K-n). 

A child of Henry Buckingham, 2 years. 

Betsey, daughter of John Gere, aged 9 years. 

Three deaths not mentioned in foregoing 
record, all in Kingston, within a few weeks 

Rebecca, wife of Abel Yarrington, 66. 

A child of Peter Gallagher, 3 months. 

A child of H. Buckingham, 2 months. 

A grandchild of Samuel Breese, drowned, 3 

Atkins (Wilkes-Barre). 

A daughter of Joseph Tuttle, about 13. 

A child of iMoses Shoemaker, se. 3 years. 

A child of Mrs. Haycock, about 7. 

Solomon Johnson and John Carey. 

The wife of Luke Swetland, 71. 

Mr. Jones, 77. 

Col. Dennison, 68 ; Daniel Hoyt, son of 
Dean Hoyt, aged 8. 

























































































1811. Aug. 13. 

812. Feb. 21 

812. Feb. 29 

812. April 7 

812. July 20 

813. Mar. 21 
813. May 18 

813. Sept. 2 

814. Mar. 29 

814. April 13 

814. April 14 

814. Aug. 2 

815. May 8 
815. Sept. 7 
815. Nov. 23 

815. Dec. 23 

816. May 6, 

816. May 16 

816. Dec. 12 

817. April 7 
817. April 9 

• 20. 

Departed this life, Wm. Dickson, aged about 
78. He was a native of Scotland, an ex- 
amplary member of this church from its 
first formation. His death was the first of 
an adult church member after the settle- 
ment of their first Pastor. 

Louis, child of Robert Lewis, aged about 9 

William VnDeven, son of James Reeder, aged 
4 years and 10 months. 

Julius, son of Henry Buckingham, aged about 
8 months. 

Thomas, son of John Stivers, aged 16 years 
and 6 months. 

W^ Anne Ross, aged 94. 

Doct. INIatthew Covell, one of the Deacons 
of this church, aged 53. 

Catherine Keithline, aged 9 years. 

Departed this life, Hannah Sill, ^vife of Jabez 

Eunice Sprague, aged 82. 

Joanna Fish, 77. ^^, 

Salome, wife of Joseph Swetland, 45. ^'^ 

Margaret Conner, se. 69. 

Conrad Lines, 82. 

Martha Jackson, 23. 

John Fries, 45. 

Isaac, son of John Sleppy, aged i year and 
2 months. 

EHza Ross, wife of Wm. Ross, 49. 

Amory Nelson, 24. 

The widow of Conrad Lines, 76. 

Hannah Breese, about 60. 

George Espy, aged about 80. 

COUNTY IN 1819. 

Mr. Thomas Peironnet, from Somersetshire, England, 
came to this country in 1819 and located at Friendsville, 
Susquehanna county, Pennsylvania. The following letter 
was written by him in 18 19 to his brother, Mr. James S. 
Peironnet, who purposed emigrating to the same locality to 
engage in the pioneer hfe of that section with Thomas. The 
latter died suddenly in 1820, unmarried. Mrs. Blackman, 
in her History of Susquehanna County, says (p. 436) : 

"In 1820 Thomas Peironnet, an Englishman, had scarcely 
reached Friendsville when he died suddenly. His lands 
along the turnpike, extending into both Choconut and Apol- 
acon, were transferred to his brother, James S. Peironnet. 
The latter was born in Dorchester, England. A friend said 
of him : 

" 'He exchanged for a home in a then uncultivated wild, 
the shaven lawn and rose-wTeathed cottages that lend such 
a charm to English scenery. He often reminded me of 
those virtues that grace the character of an English country 
squire as shadowed forth by the felicitous pen of Irving. 
He retained a love of letters to the last ; and when in the 
mood, touched his viohn as a master. He had a thorough 
knowledge' of music as a science, and composed with readi- 
ness.' " 

James S. Peironnet died December 21, 1843, aged 71. 
He left five children, viz., Robert D. and John S., merchants 
at Friendsville ; Frederick, a physician ; Susanna, who mar- 
ried Mr. Sackville Cox ; and CaroHne, who married Mr. 
Henry Wellesley Hamilton Cox, and whose daughter, Clara 
T. Cox, became the wife of Edmund Griffin Butler, P^sq., of 
the Luzerne county Bar. To Mrs. Butler I am indebted 
for the use of the letter of Mr. Thomas Pieronnet. It is so 


full of the trials and surroundings of pioneer life in North- 
eastern Pennsylvania a century ago, that it has been thought 
worthy of preservation in this volume. It is given verbatim^ 
etc. H. E. H. 

Philadelphia Sepr 29, '19 
"Dear Brother 

"I have this moment received your two Irss of 
July 7th and Aug 11 by the same Oppy therefore suppose 
that they must have arrived by the same packet at New 

"The non arrival of your Letters the advice of my friends 
here and my own observations have been the cause of my 
selecting the Susquehanna instead of the Ohio for a future 
residence for wch I can give you a few conclusive reasons. 

"I. In Kentucky and in all other countries where slavery 
is expedient there are two distinct classes of people the slave 
holders and those whose scantier means do not permit them 
to enjoy that advantage; now the large income secured by 
the unpaid labors of this kind of property enable the plant- 
ers to hve in a princely independent style which makes them 
think act and feel themselves in a very different situation 
from the other class who are obliged to do their own work, 
which of course reduces them to the level of the species 
known in the West Indies by the name of Petits Blanc 
whose color alone saves them from being thrown into a level 
with the colored people ; and as it is always customary when 
a father marries a daughter to give her two or three servants 
as part of their dower those who have not this appendage 
are but little thought of. 

**II. The owner of one hundred acres must cut but a poor 
figure amongst neighbours whose possessions of from 5(X) 
to 1000 acres who would completely eclipse him; you 
would then be reduced to a par with the poor hard working 
tenants or dairy men \x\ England, and consequently give up 


every claim to respectability both as to yourself and family; 
and as for raising; provisions to supply the market believe 
me it is a miserable resource in a country whose native pro- 
duce by reason of its abundance is worth a mere song, for 
example a dozen fowls for a dollar ; whilst on the other 
hand all imported articles are most extravagantly dear by 
which means you can just live along without a hope of bet- 
tering your fortune, which advantage seems solely attached 
to the wealthy slave owner by reason of the high value of 
crops of Tobacco and cotton, whilst your corn &c would 
not pay the expense of transporting them to New Orleans 
your only market, and consequently you must necessarily 
abandon wch you cannot raise within yourselves wch I dare 
say the ladies of the family would not very much approve 
of. I even question whether the intrepid Susan would not 

sigh for her tea suijar muslins and the ten thousand conven- 
ts £> 

iences which are enjoyed by the cisalleghenians in the U. S. 

"III. I fear your Tanning scheme would not ansr in a 
country where veiy little beef or veal is killed you could 
not with ever}' resource collect enough hides to keep you 
going and this is the very best reason why no tanner hath 
yet settled in that district to say nothing of the large capital 
wch must lay idle until yr leather is ready for the market. 

"IV. Which of your girls VvOuld take it upon her to carry 
your petty produce to market to sit a whole day among 
the slaves who are employed for that purpose in Lexington 
and even sell to other negroes who are sent by their mas- 
ters to lay in their daily provisions with whom they must 
bargain & wrangle and haggle to the end of the chapter. 
I can never consent to a niece of mine submitting to this 
degration for the sake of collecting a few paltry cents for it 
would take a plaguy sight of produce then to sell for a dollar. 

"V. The price of Land near Lexington is extravagantly 
high certainly no good land can be obtained for less than 
^lOO p. acre how it is near Paris town I know not but it is 


a thick settled district, ^3 would be a low price so you see 
your capital would be laid out in the bare land alone as for 
the houses usually met on clearings of 30 acres they are 
generally rough log buildings not half as good as mine in 
Friendsville wch cost me ^$94 alone and may be made a 
comfortable residence but I am sure a Kentucky log house 
would not hold half your colony even were they stowed in 
bulk and the rest must camp in the woods amongst the 
muskitoes until you could erect an additional one and then 
your situation would only be on par with an American 
woodsman with the want of all his hardy habits his address 
and his persevering industry. 

"VI. The expense of the journey to Pittsburg, to Lime- 
stone, to Bourbon county would make for such a family as 
yours a dreadful aggregate to the very great diminution of 
your capital and most certain enough to pay for one half of 
our land on the turnpike again Kentucky is in that situation 
of the old states when land is at its full value whereas in our 
settlement it is daily increasing in value and by the time our 
hundred acres are complete it will fetch twice the cost and 
we will now begin reflecting on opposition to the above re- 
marks what is to be our situation in my Township. 

"In the first place the people there are like ourselves seek- 
ing a place where they may establish themselves as comfort- 
ably as they can with this difference that there are not three 
people in the neighbourhood who have brought any thing 
like our capital with them we shall consequently be the 
richest and most independent of the community the first in 
Susquehanna instead of the last in Bourbon we shall have 
to work hard at first it is true but it will be on a spot where 
labor increases respectability and if we have any surplussage 
of capital we can make our territory of 369 acres increase 
to 500 for a trifling sum and that in the very best part of 
the county we can sell every thing we can raise at our own 
door were it ten times as much and as for market Owego 


and Montrose will exhaust far more than we shall ever be 
able to offer them. 

"2nly. We can have everything we want remitted us from 
Philadelphia a few days notice by our friends there who 
will become our agents for a trifling commission the charge 
for carriage makes the only difference and that is but 
about ;^3 per Cwt and all the stock we can raise will easily 
drive either to that place or New York the best markets in 
the Union this I conceive to be incalculable advantages. 

"3rdly, If you find tanning will ansr your views as this 
country equally with Kentucky suffers for a want of hides we 
can procure dried Spanish ones from the cities at the above 
carriage price wch will be more than compensated by the 
difference in the price of leather but even this I should wish 
to decline engaging in let us first get our farm under good 
weigh and we then can diverge as you would wish but let 
us always have a good part of our capital in reserve and 
then we shall be really rich. 

"4thly, Nothing is so easy as to follow up my grazing 
scheme Arable land is a perpetual scene of labour and risque 
and perpetually exhausting, whereas our grass land is of 
easy management and daily improving I calculate in clear- 
ing enough new land every year to supply us with grain 
and every acre we clear gives additional value to our estate 
I tell you in two years there will not be a farm in the county 
wch will equal ours unless two or three of our English 
neighbours should use extraordinary labors to keep up with 
us which will be no easy matter if your hands are half so 
efficient as you represent them. 

"5thly. Altho our houses & buildings will cost us nearly 
^1000 yet recollect they will be the very best with one ex- 
ception only of any within very many miles of us and in 
estimating the value of the possession they will help to swell 
the aggregate if your builder is a clever fellow he can do a 
great deal particularly if he has any idea of framing a house 


wch I doubt very much but if he can do any thing towards 
finishing the inside of one will be highly beneficial above 
all can he make a Waggon a plough, a harrow and an ox 
yoke of which we stand in the greatest need I thought you 
said something about a Blacksmith ? of one of whom \\^-at 
present stand greatly in need. 

"6thly. As soon as your letter announcing your compli- 
ance with my w^ishes of your joining me comes to hand wch 
ought to be by the next packet I shall begin seriously to go 
to work and make my building contracts, we will soon lay 
the hemlocks sprawling out of wch the frame is to be hewed 
I have already sent up lots of nails and locks and hinges & 
bolts & tools even to 400 squares of window glass not for- 
getting the putty- necessary for fixing them the Ox chains 
are now in hand the hay and Dung forks the crow bar pick 
axe and mattock are all made and I have purchased also a 
saddle and bridle and given orders abt a horse now this 
looks like being in earnest methinks the barn will not be up 
until after your arrival so you see there is no time to be 
lost for if you do not give me swing enough you will have 
to Log house it de veras. 

"I might add to this the salubrity of our situation and the 
excellency of our water the productiveness of our virgin 
lands and the advantages of a good neighbourhood but of 
this I have already said enough I only want you to be here 
to begin creating we must begin with a garden & orchard 
objects of the first necessity you must prepare yourself for 
meeting difficulties for one or two seasons but then we shall 
soon shine again let us but get our orchards & seeds grasses 
& clover so as to feed out cattle abundantly and we then 
will have as fine a herd as ever grazed I'll warrant and the 
pigs and fowls and sheep will soon follow you must he here 
before the next harvest at all events early in July as we shall 
want the united efforts of all hands for that purpose. I will 
now begin running through your letter. 


*'The former part of it relates chiefly to the providing a 
situation in Kentucky this I have fully answered and as for 
your funds my last via Belfast advised you to proceed im- 
mediately to purchase American 6 % stock of the loans of 
181 3 14 or 15 if possible as they fetch i % more than that of 
181 2 — your certificate will bear Interest at 6 p cent from ye 
1st of October so that you see your money will be increas- 
ing all time and as you may purchase in England at 97 or 98 
and sell here at 102 you see that by the time of your arri- 
val here in June you will have made 9 p cent on your capi- 
tal wch will help pay a considerable part of your expences 
in coming hither. 

"I have written twice to Mr Shore but have reed no ansr 
consequently suppose that he hath left that place where the 
yellow fever is making great ravages altho we are perfectly 
healthy here — Am very sorry for the death of poor Susy 
such an accident can never affect us as our property lays in 
gentle slopes therefore no inundation can ever trouble us. 

"As to what you say concerning our dear Mother I should 
much rather wish to see her with us and the whole diffi- 
culty consists in traveling 170 miles from Phila to Friends- 
ville turnpike road almost all the way and no risk of fevers 
as on the Ohio but in case this is not practicable I in a for- 
mer Letter have desired you to advance for me what you 
think rigJit & proper for us exchange is most high here I 
should have to make a remittance at a loss and you would 
have to bring the money as it were back again so you see 
it rests with you to act for the best and now for the 2nd 
Letter of Aug. 11, 

"You complain of the loss of many Letters however it is 
certain that I have reed your 3 last in due course the one 
you wrote in Febry never came to hand neither have you 
ever repeated its contents wch I regret as I should wish to 
be able to calculate how much our joint capital would amt 
to in order to regulate our undertakings as for my spinning 


out my voyage from Jany recollect that I never had the 
least hint of your plans & resolutions until after I had re- 
turned from hence to Halifax in November where I found 
your letters I did make a short trip of two months to Wil- 
mington after wards in the dead of winter wch was abso- 
lutely necessary for my health but of wch I duly apprized 
you and for fear you should have sailed for Phila I sent you 
a heap of Letters directed thither and the moment I returned 
to Halifax you were duly apprised thereof now the fact is 
I never heard a syllabel of you from ye 5th of May to the 
nth Inst wch was the reason that I undertook to sail on 
my own bottom as I scarcely expected to receive any more 
advices from you so you may thank yourself for this retort 
again you know I recommended the ship Lydia to you and 
it so happened that a family wch came out with him are 
now happily settled in our immediate vicinity and always 
speak of that Capt in the highest terms I only wish you 
may meet with Bristol as the most convenient but be sure 
let your destination be for Phila where I will have the 
money for you — If any of your friends should wish to settle 
near you there is a nice farm at present fr sale of abt 2CO 
acres with a good house and Barn on it for abt $1700. 35 
acres cleared situation on the same turnpike as ours and our 
lands adjoining. 

"As for my health It is meliorating very fast I am only 
troubled with a little short breathing & flatulency at times 
— Dr Physic has prohibited me the use of medicine entirely 
& recommends abstinence & light diet with exercise ; he 
says my constitution is restoring fast so you see he is none 
of your English Doctors as you supposed. The Cows, Pigs 
and fowls (not at Lexington tho) will be ready as soon as 
we have wherewithal to feed them — Our situation is too re- 
mote for twine manufactures altho the country is admirable 
for producing flax and any quantity of twine may be con- 
veyed to the cities at i j4 Dolls P Cwt — but farming is the 


main object and if only 20 settlers of respectability in our 
neighbourhood would arrive would raise all the lands at 
least 100 P cent if not more; the fact is you must not cal- 
culate on realizing an increase of fortune in cash but rather 
in the increased value of the property you Occupy ; it is 
very possible that in 5 or 6 years our farm may be worth 
;^30 every acre of it; you announce a tremendous number 
of mouths to feed but only give me advice in time that I 
may lay in Grain & Pork enough to feed you on your arri- 
val. I find the oven must be one of our first edifices to 
construct and it must be no small one neither — you need 
not be afraid at my wanting exercise when I once get to 
work only recollect what a job I have before me, twenty 
sea voyages are a mere flee bite to it. 

"Let me know what you mean to bring with you. I should 
suppose your grand piano if you think it will bear rumbling 
over 180 miles of road part of wch is pretty stony and I fear 
will injure it and remember if once out of order no one can 
repair it in this country so upon the whole if you can sell 
it to advantage do it — this Letter goes by the British packet 
wch brot yours I shall write you again by a vessel here 
direct for London. Let me know if you will bring beds 
and bedding enough for the whole family for this is a ma- 
terial object, I have purchased two here one feather and the 
other moss and give me a list of what furniture will be 

"Can your tanner plough reap mow & thresh if not he will 
be a burthen as our stock of grass will be but small two or 
three cows a couple of oxen &: a horse are all we shall be 
able to maintain during the winter of 1820; our abundance 
will not commence until the year after — shall you want me 
to procure a servant girl say a german who are now very 
low I think one for three years could be had for $60 and 
her cloaths ; recollect every one that comes over will take 
at least 60 or yo$ to maintain them a year — do not bring 



over more cats than can catch mice let me know how much 
wheat you can consume a week in your own family and 
whether a peck pr head is a fair calculation for servants, re- 
member we shall have no garden of any consequence altho 
I suppose Potatoes may be had in the neighborhood. 

"You make me smile when you recommend me to lay in 
wine and cyder as restoratives, when you come to this city 
you may purchase what you please and send up by the 
waggons wch will take up yr Baggage. I shall save a Bar- 
rel of good Jamaica and as for wine I shall trust to Mrs P's 
skill for manufacturing our Blackberries Currants &c &c 
into that article as for my part I taste nothing but our ex- 
cellent water. 

**D'ont let your boys come over in Breeches for noboddy 
wears them here, one decent suit will be enough with their 
old cloaths for we shall soon case them in homespun and 
the girls in domestic manufactures wch are to be had very 
low; be sure to lay in nothing superfluous and bring as 
much money — that is U, S, stock — as possible, be very par- 
ticular to let me know how & when you embark and be 
sure to give the preference to an American vessel whose 
Masters dare not misbehave or we would trounce them on 
their arrival — let the boys go aloft and learn to put two ends 
of a rope together it will always be of service to them, I 
have no news of Lewy since his departure but that fellow is 
able to fight his way any where so I do not trouble about 
him — I wish very much one of your Lads would stay with 
your carpenter until we start the knowledge of the use of 
whose tools is of the highest consequence, every American 
farmer is well acquainted with this branch ex officio — Yr 
James can keep at the tanning when you get over, remem- 
ber everything must give way to active labor in husbandry 
and we shall want an immensity of it. 

"In short the furtherance of all our schemes depend on our 
own exertions. I shall be rather an active that a sleeping 


partner you will find for I know that my Asiatic supincness 
has been the cause of all my illness — has Harry Pierce any 
particular vocation what can he do ? we must have no idlers 
among us and my countenance will invariably be given to 
the most industrious. I find by yr Letr that Wilson is with 
you wch I am glad of — Poor fellow his half pay is but slow 
work for one of his habits — How is Mrs Pascoe I shall 
write her very soon, Adieu. T. P. 

" Yr Letter of July 7th was rec'd Sepr 29 so you see what 
a delay — this ought to incite you to put your Letters in the 
office the moment they are written." 

\_Addressed'] "Mr James Peironnet 

"Sgle near Crewkerne 

P British packet Somersetshire 

P, pd to New York," in England." 





U . 


An Honorary member of this Society, died at his home in 
Harrisburg, Pa., February 19, 190 1. Dr. Egle, born in 
Harrisburg, September 30, 1830, was the son of John and 
Elizabeth (von Treupel) Egle of that city, and grandson of 
Valentine Egle of Berks county. Pa., who enlisted in the 
First Regiment, Pennsylvania Line, in 1775, in his 19th 
year, to fight for the independence of his country, and served 
until his honorable discharge in 1783. Dr. Egle's father, 
who served in the Pennsylvania troops during the War of 
1812, diedin 1834, when his son was only four years old. He 
was left motherless in 1841, when just eleven years of age. 
He then made his home with his grandmother Egle, to 
whom he says he "was most deeply indebted, for she was 
more than a mother to him, f^athful and loving in his or- 

Dr. Egle was educated in the schools of Harrisburg, es- 
pecially the Harrisburg Military Institute. In 184S he de- 
clined an appointment as midshipman in the United States 
Navy, and in 1850 he left school to enter the printing office 
of the '^Harrisburg Telegrapli'' to learn the printing busi- 
ness. He served there for three years, mgst of the time as 
foreman of the paper, and also in charge of the State print- 
ing, an experience which greatly increase his value to the 
State in later years. In 1853, "^^'hen twenty-three years old, 
he began his first literary venture, establishing the ''Literary 
Companion',' a monthly magazine, under his own name and 
the nomme de plume of "Clarence May." In this magazine 
he appears to have written most of the poetry, showing a 
genius which ought to have been cultivated. Among his 


regular contributors were Alice Carey, Mrs. Lydia J. Pierson 
and Ellen Louise Chandler. But after the issue of six num- 
bers he abandoned the publication by the advice of his 
friends. He also at the same time edited the '' Harrisbiirg 
Daily Thnesy which subsequently was merged into one of 
the other Harrisburg dailies. In 1855 he printed priv^ately 
a book of poems " by Clarence May," entitled '* Poets and 
Poetry of Printerdom," for distribution among his friends. 
Some of the poems in this volume have been reprinted in a 
later work on the Poets of America. During the following 
three years he was assistant teacher in the Boys' School of 
Harrisburg, and at the same time mail clerk in the Post Of- 
fice ; never idle, but exercising his tireless energies in any 
avenue for good that opened to him. 

In the fall of 1857 he entered the Medical School of the 
University of Pennsylvania, from which he graduated with 
the title of Doctor of Medicine, March, 1859. His practice 
began in his native city vvith most gratifying success, and 
continued until 1862, during the War between the States, 
when just after the second battle of Manassas he was called 
to Washington by a telegram from the Adjutant General 
of Pennsylvania to assist in the care of the wounded of the 
Pennsylvania troops. He was put into commission Sep- 
tember 1 1, 1862, as First Lieutenant and Assistant Surgeon 
of the 96th Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, then in the 
field, and reached his post of duty the day before the battle 
of Sharpsburg (Antietam). During that action he was or- 
dered to the field hospital. He resigned and was honorably 
discharged March 9, 1863. He was later appointed, during 
the Gettysburg campaign, July 9, 1863, Major and Surgeon 
of the 47th Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, but at the 
close of his duty with that regiment. November 9, 1865, he 
resigned, was honorably discharged, and returned to his 
private practice at Harrisburg. He was, however, induced 
to accept, August, 1864, the appointment by President 
Lincoln of Surgeon of Volunteers, and was ordered to 
Camp Nelson, Kentucky. While there he was ordered 
to accompany Burbridge's command in the efforts to de- 
stroy the salt works in West Virginia. He was also con- 
nected with the department of Virginia, under General 
Butler, as Executive Medical Officer of General Birney's 



Division, until after the surrender of General Lee, when he 
was ordered to Texas as Chief Medical Officer of Jackson's 
Division on the Rio Grande. He served there until Decem- 
ber, 186$, when he resigned and returned again to his prac- 
tice at home, adding the care of an extensive drug store to 
his labors. " While on the Rio Grande he was repeatedly 
sent for by General Canales of the Liberal army of Mexico 
for consultation ; and at the earnest request of Don Flores, 
the Alcade of the city of Mier, performed several difficult 
operations with such success that during his further resi- 
dence on the Rio Grande patients were brought to him from 
places as remote as Monterey and San Louis Potosi." 

From 1867 to 1870 he served as Pensioner Examiner, and 
^ from 1867 to 1887, a period of twenty years, he was physi- 

1 cian to the Dauphin county prison. In March, 1887, Gov- 

ernor Beaver, recognizing his peculiar fitness for the position, 
appointed him State Librarian, to which office he was, 
without regard to his politics, reappointed in 1891 by Gov- 
ernor Pattison, and in 1894 by Governor Hastings. These 
appointments were promptly confirmed by the Senate, and 
were very gratifying to all historical students and librarians 
throughout the State and beyond, owing to Dr. Egle's well 
known ability as an historical writer, and thorough acquaint- 
ance with that class o( books which ought to make up a 
State Library. This Library he at once raised to the front 
rank of such institutions, as rich in Pennsylvaniana and 
Americana, branches of study never before especially touched 
upon in the library. He was familiar with every volume in 
it, and wisely selected what would increase its value to stu- 
dents in all parts o( the land. So that whatever efficiency 
the State Library of Pennsylvania has now, or may have in 
the future, must owe its existence largely to the devoted, 
enthusiastic and loving care of Dr. William Henry Egle. 
His removal from his position as State Librarian naturally 
aroused a protest from historical students and from the 
Press throughout the State as a wrong that should not have 
been committed. Loyal to a degree to his party and its 
leaders, but always most honorably so, this great injury to 
the State Library itself, and this breach of trust on the part 
of his political friends, most deeply wounded Dr. Egle. But 
chivalrous alike to friends or foes, he bore his retirement 



with fortitude, never participating in the severe criticisms 
v/hich the action had provoked, but remaining silent and 

In 1870, when the National Guard of Penns>dvania was 
organized, Dr. Egle was appointed Surgeon in Chief of the 
5th Division, with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. When 
the regiments were consolidated he was transferred to the 
8th Regiment. As medical officer he was on duty in the 
call for the Guard in 1S71, the railroad riots of 1877, and 
the Homestead strike of 1892. In 1885 he was made Sur- 
geon in Chief of the 3d Brigade, which position he held un- 
til his death. Having been over twenty-six years in the 
service of the Guard, he was the Senior Medical Officer 
of the National Guard of Pennsylvania. 

Dr. Egle had early given time and study to the history 
of his native State, and in 1865, recognizing the necessity 
for a History of Pennsylvania, he began the preparation of 
the valuable work of that title that bears his name, and which, 
by its fullness and accuracy, has made his name familiar as 
an Historian throughout historical circles everywhere. He 
issued his ''History of Pennsylvania" in 1876, and followed 
it with a second edition in 1883. Before the issue of this 
work his ability had been recognized by Governor Hartranft, 
who appointed him in 1874 one of the two editors of the 
Second Series of the "Pennsylvania Archives." He was 
thus associated as co-editor with that able historical writer, 
John Blair Linn, LL. D., in the preparation of the first 
twelve volumes of this work, but the remainder of the forty- 
six volumes of this splendid series of State records were 
edited and published entirely under his own superintend- 
ence. He not only copied many pages of the documents 
thus preserved, but he also read every page of proof himself 
before it issued from the press. He was engaged on other 
volumes of the Archives at the time of his death. The most 
valuable of these forty-six volumes are those relating to the 
military service of " Pennsvlvania in the Revolutionary 
War," Vols. I, III, X, XI, XIII, XIV, XV, second series, 
and Vols. V, VI, VII and XXIII of the third series. Dur- 
ing the years 1883 and 1884 he edited the "Historical Reg- 
ister," in two volumes, and at the same time wrote and issued 
his " History of Dauphin County, Pennsylvania," and his 



"History of Lebanon County, Pennsylvania." These were 
followed by a "Centennial of Dauphin County and the City 
of Harrisburg," in 1886. He also issued that year his very 
important volume of " Pennsylvania Genealogies, chiefly 
Scotch-Irish and German." This work was quickly ex- 
hausted, but was reprinted, much enlarged, in 1896. The 
second edition was as quickly sold, and a copy of this work 
now brings readily $25. He was preparing a second volume 
of "Pennsylvania Genealogies" of entirely new material when 
he was taken away from work by death. 

From 1878 to 190 1, a period of twenty-two years, and 
almost up to the day of his death, he edited and printed in 
the Saturday issue of the Harrisburg TelegvapJi, an histori- 
cal column entitled " Notes and Queries, Historical and 
Genealogical, chiefly relating to Interior Pennsylvania." 
Under this title he reprinted five volumes of this valuable 
material, but the edition was limited to one hundred copies, 
so that a second edition was soon demanded. This second 
edition was issued in a second series of two volumes and a 
third series of three volumes, after which the work was con- 
tinued by an annual volume for 1896, 1897, 1898, 1899 and 
1900, the last issued a few months after his death. By far the 
largest part of the data in these ten volumes was prepared 
by himself. These "Notes and Queries" are very important 
to every student of the history of this great Commonwealth. 
Besides the above mentioned works. Dr. Egle's pen was 
ever busy in historical labors for the honor of his State. He 
wrote over two hundred sketches of prominent Pennsylva- 
nians for "Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography," 
and the extended "Biographical Notices of the Members of 
the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention of 1776," pub- 
lished some years ago in the Pennsylvania Magazine of Bi- 
ography and History. His separate addresses would fill a 
large volume. His stirring addresses at the Wyoming Mon- 
ument before the Wyoming Commemorative Association, 
especially that on "The Massacre of 1763," delivered July 
3, 1889, will never be forgotten by those who heard them. 
His address before this Society at the Centennial of Luzerne 
County in 1887, and which appears in this volume at page 
97, excited great interest at the time. Pie also read a paper 
before the Wyoming Sons of the Revolution, under the 


auspices of this Society, May 22, 1891, on the "Pennsylva- 
nia Associators in the Rcvohition," which is published in 
his "Notes and Queries" for 1899. He read a paper before 
this Society in January, 1896, entitled "Pedigree Building," 
another on the "Buckshot War in Pennsylvania in 1835," 
at the annual meeting February, 1899, ^^^^ another in April, 
1900, on "Old Times in Pennsylvania." His last work was 
an exhaustive History of Perseverance Lodge, No. 21, F. 
& A. M., 8vo, pp. 421, Harrisburg, which was also issued 
after his death. In 1888 he published a reprint of Loudon's 
Indian Narratives, in two volumes, a work that has long 
been out of print, and so rare that but few copies of the 
original are extant. His reprint placed this valuable work 
within the reach of the public. Dr. Egle was author of the 
"Historical Review of Dauphin County," covering nearly 
200 pages in Runk's Biographical Enc^^clopedia of Dauphin 
County. Apart from his Notes and Queries he was a fre- 
quent contributor to the Harrisburg Telegraph. 

Altogether this busy man, amid the cares of his medical 
practice and of his duties as State Librarian, wrote, or pre- 
pared and published, over seventy volumes of historical 
records relating to the State of Pennsylvania. In recogni- 
tion of his valuable services in this department, Lafayette 
College in 1878 conferred upon him the honorary degree of 
Master of Arts, an honor never m.ore deservedly given to 
any one. 

Dr. Egle was one of the founders and the first president 
of the Pennsylvania German Society ; one of the founders 
and, at his death, president of the Dauphin County Histo- 
rical Society. He was a member of many other societies 
in Europe and America, among these of the Huguenot So- 
ciety of London, England, and La Societe de Legislation 
Comparee of Paris, the Historical Societies of Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, Virginia, the New England Historical-Genealog- 
ical Society, American Historical Association, Honorary 
Member Scotch-Irish Society, Pennsylvania State and Dau- 
phin County Medical Societies, and the Academy of Medi- 
cine of Harrisburg. He was also a member of the Associa- 
tion of Military Surgeons of the United States, the Military 
Order of the Loyal Legion, the Society of the Army of the 
Potomac, and the Grand Army of the Republic. 


He was deeply interested in the hereditary orders of later 
years; Historian of the Pennsylvania Society of the Cincin- 
nati, being a member by right of his descent from Lieuten- 
ant Colonel Francis Mentges of the Fifth Regiment Penn- 
sylvania Line, an original member of the Listitution ; vice 
president of the Pennsylvania Society Sons of the Revo- 
lution ; member of the Pennsylvania Society of Colonial 
Wars, Military Order of Foreign Wars, War of 181 2 ; and 
for years an enthusiastic and active member of the Masonic 
Fraternity, Master of Perseverance Lodge, No. 21, Harris- 
burg, 1866, and of Robert Burns Lodge, No. 464, 1870, 
1 87 1 and 1872. He was also a member of the Commandery 
and a 33d degree Mason. 

In medicine and history he was a remarkably full, 
rarely forgetting anything that came to his retentive mem- 
ory, and able readily to draw from the stores of information 
he had gathered with a most discriminating and absorbing 
mind, to meet any demand on him for medical and historical 
data. In his knowledge of the history of his State he was 
without a peer in the country. 

"After a remarkably active life, devoted largely to the 
interests of his fellow citizens, and his State in its early his- 
tory, he has passed away, leaving behind him a record un- 
impeached for integrity, a life filled with kindness and with 
consistent work of a true Christian gentleman. The many 
friends who deplore his loss realize that with a life so well 
spent it can be justly said of him in every particular, 'the 
world was better because he had lived in it.' " (Memorial 
Circular M. O. of the Loyal Legion of the U. S., No. 418.) 

The writer knew Dr. Egle intimately for over twenty-five 
years in a friendship that was close and unbroken. We 
fought for four years, 1 861- 1865, on opposite sides during 
the War for Southern Independence, voted always with op- 
posite parties, each holding with tenacity, from training and 
conviction, opposite views — yet united by the sacred ties of 
Christian brotherhood in the same Church, and by that 
**mystic tie" which is akin to Christian fellowship, pos- 
sessed with a common love for the same studies and having 
the same literary tastes, no word or act occurred during 
that quarter of a century friendship to mar the confidence 
and affection which time and association had formed. He 


was a tolerant man, always recognizing the right of others 
to differ, but he had no patience with what was untrue. He 
had no use for anything that was not open and straight- 
forward. Honorable and clean to a degree, true to every 
manly instinct, he scorned deceit and whatever bore the 
suspicion of disingenuousness. He had no concealments in 
his dealings with others, took no part in political trickery, 
and had no chosen policy to carry out in his actions. 

He was a sincere and humble Christian. Confirmed in 
the Protestant Episcopal Church, he was a devoted Church- 
man ; for years a Vestryman of St. Stephen's Church, Har- 
risburg, Senior Warden of the Parish, a Deputy^ to the Di- 
ocesan Convention, and the Director of the St. Andrew's 
Brotherhood. He was also an original member of the Har- 
risburg Young Men's Christian Association, once its presi- 
dent, and for twenty years a director. In no relation of his 
life will he be more missed, beyond his family circle, than 
in the work of his Parish and the Y. M. C. A. 

Dr. Egle was a very warm friend to this Society, of which 
he was elected an Honorary Member in 1882. He never 
failed to manifest his interest in our work, whenever oppor- 
tunity offered, by liberal gifts, and always by hearty will- 
ingness to present papers to be read before the Society when 
efforts in other directions to procure addresses would fail. 
The committee in whose hands has been placed the duty of 
providing such addresses for our regular meetings are glad 
to record here this marked evidence of generosity as an ex- 
ample for those who are nearer home. His services were 
always at our command, and he fully appreciated his con- 
nection with the Wyoming Historical and Geological Soci- 
ety, to which his death is a serious loss. 

Horace Edwin Hayden. 



George F. Nesbitt of Kingston, a Life Member of this 
Society, met death by accident while hunting near Mebane, 
North Carolina, the afternoon of November 27, 1900. He 
had gone out that afternoon with dogs and gun and accom- 
panied by a negro boy, w^ho drove and carried extra hunting 
outfit in his wagon. Arriving at a clearing Mr. Nesbitt told 
the boy to drive around it and that he himself would work the 
dogs through the space and meet the wagon on the other side. 
The boy, after reaching the place designated and waiting 
some time, started out in search, and soon after reaching 
the clearing came upon the dead body of the hunter, over 
which, with a strange intuition of evil, the faithful dogs stood 
whining piteously. The theory of the dreadful occurrence 
is that Mr. Nesbitt, in working the dogs through the field, 
had stooped over to correct one of them, meantime resting 
his loaded gun in the hollow of the left arm. The weapon 
was of the short-barrel type known as a bush gun. As it 
was held in the position indicated, one of the dogs must 
have run violently against it, firing it and sending the load 
into the back of Mr. Nesbitt's head. 

George F. Nesbitt was born in Kingston January 24, 
1865. His earlier study was in the public schools, and he 
finished the preparatory course for college at Wyoming 
Seminary, from which institution he graduated June, 1883, 
together with a class of fourteen. He entered Yale aca- 
demic department that autumn, and after the regular four 
years' course was graduated in the class of 1887. Return- 
ing home, he began the study of law in the office of E. P. 
and J. V. Darling, and was admitted to the bar June 16, 
1890. He never cared to take up his profession actively, 
for in his love for the inanimate world he was a very child 
of Nature, and was never so happy as when he was explor- 
ing her fastnesses. Thus he encouraged the out of door 
life, and he became a skillful observer of the woods and the 
wilds, and a naturalist of remarkable acumen. Though fond 
of the hunt, which he indulged in his home section, and 
also in the less frequently trod hunting fields of the great 


west, his chief dehght was merely to be abroad under the 
open sky, or to wander and live for days and even weeks at 
a time in the forests. His dogs and their training appealed 
to him strongly. He was with animals, as well as with 
men, always most delicately considerate and kind, and he 
particularly abhorred the harsh and rigorous means so often 
employed in animal training, and himself used methods of 
gentle persuasion. There were many of these little things 
that revealed the springs of his character. It was the poet- 
philosopher James Smetham who once remarked that your 
overbearing, intolerant man never gets to know anything or 
anybody. It is the plastic mind and mould that fits into 
the moods of people and so receives a deeper, clearer im- 
pression from companionships and associations with men. 
If an example of this very thing should be sought, there 
could be no better illustration than George Nesbitt. Though 
when necessary he was firm and decided, yet, generally 
speaking, he preferred to hear and to observ^e. But he had, 
underneath all this comparative reticence, a keen and gen- 
erally remarkable intuition. He was a judge of men. 

In all his school and college days he was never known 
to develop or nourish antagonisms. Always a loving and 
tractable son and faithful student, he was sure to be found 
on the hour at his post, and he was faithful to his work. 
He had all friends and no enemies, all through a native 
grace and consideration and charity, which are just so much 
better than diplomacy as nature is better than art. He 
seemed naturally to be averse to ostentation either of feeling 
or action, but there was a charm about his personality and 
a sweetness of character that made a lasting impression on 
those about him. Such as he make friends of the many 
but intimates of the few. One great development of his 
personality was his quiet, thoughtful consideration for others. 
Without appearing to know conditions and the rough places 
of life that greet others, he nevertheless often did know, 
and under the proper conditions this would reveal itself in 
a warm interest and a kind sympathy that are now treasured 
gratefully in the remembrance of those who knew him so 
well. And these are glad that their lives have been, for a 
certain distance at least, along the path of one so naturally 
a brother of mankind. In character as in nature the strong- 




est rooted forests show less moving at the sway of the 
winds, and under the calmest surfaces of the stream there 
lie the deeps. 

Had he chosen to devote his life to his profession he 
would have made a capable, safe counsellor and a lawyer of 
the most rugged integrity, tie was too well grounded by 
nature to stoop to anything mean. He never took advan- 
tage of another; he never harshly criticized another. If 
there were personalities of which he did not approve — and 
none were quicker to detect meanness than he — he preferred 
to keep his own counsel and let his judgment be his own 
personal guide. Others might make their own selections, 
but he would not seek to create prejudice. He showed 
some remarkable business traits and much acumen. His 
effort, directed solely to the business world, would have 
been of high value in connection with large business enter- 
prise. He served for some time as the youngest member 
of the Board of Directors of the Second National Bank, but 
resigned owing to prolonged travels in his own country and 
in Europe. The fine qualities of his mind were readily appre- 
ciated by those who knew how much his store of informa- 
tion and experience had been enriched by travel. 

The contribution of a character hke this to the sum of 
human associations is always grateful and helpful to others, 
more especially if such a character is sunny and genial as 
was his. If he ever had any of those seasons of despond- 
ency that come to most men, he at least never showed this 
side to his friends. They will always think of him as he 
always was in their gaze — cheerful and cordial, as well as 
manly, friendly, sympathetic and honorable. The ending of 
such a life, even when the sheaf is ripe for the reaper, would 
be sad under conditions like those mentioned herein ; but 
the sudden blotting out of a young life — a life that shed a 
softened glow on others — a Hfe that had in it so much of 
character, breadth and personal charm — so young a life — 
that will always be one of the steeps of life which even those 
whose faith is rounded find so hard to climb and so hard to 
understand. There is, however, a comfortable reflection in 
this — a life that sheds something of a glow and cheer and 
brightness on others, whether that life be long or short, 
must contribute its share to the infinity of good, and must 


in some certain degree perpetuate its influence. To have 
contributed in ever so small a degree to the happiness of 
others is worth any one's while — makes life worth the living, 
smooths life's rugged pathway, and mitigates the anguish of 
the separation between the finite and the eternal. 

Wesley Ellsworth Woodruff, 



"George W. Shonk, who died August 14, 1900, was the 
son of John Jenks Shonk, who came to Plymouth from 
New Jersey in 1821, and became a prominent figure in the 
business arena of Plymouth. When but seventeen years of 
age he was engaged in connection with general real estate 
and mercantile operations, which he successfully prosecuted 
through many j^ears. He also had extensive coal interests 
in Virginia, being a president and director of two coal com- 
panies, and of the Kanawha Railroad Company, penetrating 
the great Kanawha coal region of that State. In 1874 he 
was elected to the State Legislature, and re-elected in 1876, 
the first time as a Prohibitionist and the second as a Repub- 
lican. He was thrice married, his first two wives dying 
without issue surviving them. The third wife (George 
Shonk's mother) was Amanda Davenport, whose ances- 
tors were of New England origin, and among the earliest 
and most respected settlers in the Wyoming Valley. John 
Jenks Shonk amassed a considerable fortune by constant 
application to business, fortunate investments and provident 

George Washington Shonk was born in Plymouth April 
26, 1850. After a preparatory course at the Wyoming Sem- 
inary, he entered Wesleyan University at IMiddletown, Con- 
necticut, graduating in 1873. He studied law with Hon. 
Hubbard B. Payne, and was admitted to the bar September 
29, 1876. Mr. Shonk soon acquired a considerable practice, 



profitable in a business sense, and a strong testimony to the 
high esteem in which his legal abilities were held. He was 
a Republican in politics, taking an active interest in his 
party affairs, and in 1888 he was summoned to the chair- 
manship of the Republican County Committee, in which 
position he made a reputation and acquaintance that, in 
1890, brought him the Republican nomination for Congress, 
to which he was returned as elected, receiving 14,555 votes, 
against 13,307 cast for his Democratic opponent, John B. 

Deceased was a man of quiet disposition and extremely 
gentle manner. At his home in Plymouth he was person- 
ally acquainted with every man in the town, and would fre- 
quently stop along the street to chat with miners on their 
way to or from work. He was of even temperament, and 
enjoyed the friendship of a large circle. He was a member 
of the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society, having 
been elected December, 1894. 

Wesley Ellsworth Woodruff, 



Died at Meadville, Pa., November 16, 1900, having gone 
there to recover his health. He was one of the best known 
mining experts in this region, and an authority on matters 
pertaining to engineering. Fie was born at Penzance, in 
Cornwall, England, in 1846, and came to this countr^^ when 
a small child with his parents. The latter settled in Tama- 
qua, Pa., where he was reared and received his elementary 
education. He was apprenticed to the machinist's trade at 
the shops of Carter & Allen at Tamaqua and completed his 
trade in Philadelphia, where he afterwards attended a tech- 
nical school, becoming a mechanical engineer. He came to 
Wilkes-Barre in 1869 and was made superintendent of the 
Wyoming Valley shops. In 1872 he formed a partnership 
with Major Irving A. Stearns, under the firm name of 
Stearns & Bowden, as general engineers. In 1873 he ac- 
cepted the position of Chief Engineer of the Susquehanna 
Coal Company, and later became the Chief Engineer of all 


the coal companies connected with the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road Company. He has been boroui^h engineer of Nanti- 
coke from the time of its incorporation until lately. He was 
one of the first members of the American Institute of Minincr 
Engineers, and was a prominent member of the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers. 

"Mr. Bowden held several patents, the most prominent of 
which is the Bowden self-oiling car wheel, now extensively 
used in this region. Mr. Bowden was a recognized engineer 
of great ability, and was esteemed highly by the coal com- 
panies by whom he was employed. He recently completed, 
to be published in the forthcoming history of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, an exhaustive record of the anthracite coal 
mining industry of Pennsylvania, as well as a history of all 
the coal companies now under the management of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad. This work was finished only a short 
time since, and it is to be regretted he could not have seen 
its publication. It comprises a record of the anthracite in- 
dustry from the time of the first shipments to the year 1900, 
that will prove a most valuable addition to the history of 
anthracite coal." — Wilkes-Barre Record, 

Mr. Bowden became a member of the Wyoming Histor- 
ical and Geological Society December 2, 1881. 



William Henry Egle, A. M., M. D., died February 19, 1901. 
Charles J. Hoadley, LL. D., died October 19, 1900. 


Mrs. Alice (McClintock) Darling, died October 12, 1900. 
Ralph Dupuy Lacoe, died February 5, 1901. 
George Francis Nesbitt, died November 27, 1900, 


James Henry Bowden, died November 16, 1900. 
*PiiiNEAS M. Carhart, died May 2, 1901. 
*HoN. Alfred Darte, died July 20, 1901. 
*Otis Lincoln, died May 14, 1901. 

Hon. George Washington Shoxk, died August 14, 1900. 
*P. Butler Reynolds, died March 2, 1901. 

♦ Obituaries will appear in Volume VII. 





Rev. henry LAWRENCE JONES, S. T. D., 












Paleontology— Prof. JOSHUA LEWIS WELTER. 
Numismatics— Rev. HORACE EDWIN HAYDEN. 









*-William H. Egle, M. D. 
Mrs. A. J. Griffith. 
Hon. Samuel A. Green, LL. D. 
Rev. Samuel Hart, D. D. 
*CharIes J. Hoadly, LL. D. 
Rev. Henry H. Jessup, D. D. 

Rt. Rev. J. M. Levering, D. D. 
Hon. Samuel W. Pennypacker. 
*Rev. Edmund Griffin Porter, M. A. 
Prof. G. C. Swallow, LL. D. 
Ethelbert Warfield, LL. D. 
David White, Washington, D. C. 


Edwin Swift Balch. 

Thomas Willing Balch. 

Edmund Mills Barton. 

T. V. Braidwood. 

Capt. Henry Hobart Bellas, U. S. A. 

D. L. Belden. 

Maynard Bixby. 

R. A. Brock, F. R. H. S. 

Philip Alexander Bruce. 

George Butler. 

Pierce Butler. 

Capt. John JvL Buckalew. 

Gen. John S. Clark. 

Gen. Henry ^L Cist. 

Rev. Sanford H. Cobb. 

Rev. David Craft, D. D. 

D. M. Collins. 

Samuel L. Cutter. 

John H. Dager. 

Gen. Charles William Darling. 

Gen. \Vm. Watts H. Davis. 

Rev. S. B. Dod. 

Rev. Silas H. Durand. 

Elnathan F. Duren. 

George ^L El wood. 

Prof. William Frear, Ph. D. 

Hon. John G. Freeze. 

George W, Fish. 

Frank Butler Gay. 

Granville Henry. 

William Griffith. 

P. C. Gritman. 

Francis W. Halsey. 

Stephen Harding. 

David Chase Harrington. 

A. L. Hartwell. 

Christopher E. Hawley. 

Edward Herrick, Jr. 

Weaker F. Hoffman, M. D. 

Ray Greene Huling. 

Hon. W. H. Jessup. 

*John Johnson, LL. D. 

John W. Jordan, 

Rev. C. H. Kidder. 

Rev. C. R. Lane. 

^■S. T. Lippencott. 

Dr. J. R, Loomis. 

Prof. Otis T. Mason. 

Hon. John Maxwell. 

Mrs. Helen (Reynolds) Miller. 

Edward Miller. 

Madison Mills, M. D., U. S. A. 

J. M. McMinn. 

Millard P. Murray. 

John Peters. 

James H. Phinney. 

Rev. J. J. Pearce. 

Bruce Price. 

William Poillon. 

S. R. Reading. 

J. C. Rhodes. 

J. T. Rothrock, M. D. 

H. N. Rust, M. D. 

William M. Samson. 

Lieut. H. M. M. Richards. 

Mrs. Gertrude Griffith Sanderson. 

Horace See. 

Prof. B. F. Shumart. 

W. H. Starr. 

Col. William L. Stone. 

Thomas Sweet, M. D. 

S. L, Thurlow. 

Samuel French Wadhams. 

Maj. Harry P. Ward. 

Abram Walthara. 




By payment of $100. 

Miss Lucy W. Abbott. 

Thomas Heniy Atherton. 

Miss Emily Isabella Alexander. 

George Re>-noIds Bedford. 

Mrs. Priscilla ( Lee) Bennett. 

Miss Martha Bennett. 

Robert Packer Broadhead. 

Samuel LeRoi Brown. 

William Lord Conyngham, 

*Hon. Eckley Brinley Coxe. 

*Hon. Edmund Lovell Dana. 

*Ed\vard Payson Darling. 

Thomas Darling. 

*Mrs. Alice (McClintock) Darling. 

Andrew Fine Derr. 

*Henry H. Derr. 

Mrs. Kate (Pettebone) Dickson. 

Dorothy Ellen Dickson. 

Hon. Charles Denison Foster. 

Alexander Farnham. 

Mrs. Sarah H. (Wright) Guthrie. 

Henry Harrison Harvey. 

Mrs. Jennie (DeWitt) Harvey. 

Rev. Horace Edwin Hayden. 

James C. Havdon. 

m. Baker Hillman. 

Miss Amelia B. Hollenback. 

John Welles Hollenback. 

Andrew Hunlock. 

*Charles Farmer Ingham, M. D. 

Edwin Horn Jones. 

*Ralph Dupuy Lacoe. 

Edward Sterling Loop. 

Charles Noyes Loveland. 

*Williara Loveland. 

*William Ross Maffet. 

Andrew Hamilton McClintock, 

*Mrs. Augusta (Cist) McClintock. 

Hon. Charles Abbott Miner. 

Charles Howard Miner, M. D. 

Sidney Roby Miner. 

Lawrence Myers. 

Abram Goodwin Nesbitt. 

*George Francis Nesbitt. 

Mrs. Esther (Shoemaker) Norris. 


Rev. Nathan Grier Parke, D. D. 
*Charles Parrish. 
Mrs. Mary (Conyngham) Parrish. 
Mrs. Ella (Reels) Parrish. 
*Calvin Parsons. 
Maj. Oliver Alphonsa Parsons. 
Francis Alexander Phelps. 
^John Case Phelps. 
Mrs. Martha (Bennet) Phelps. 
*John Reichard, Jr. 
Dorrance Reynolds. 
Schuyler Lee Reynolds. 
*Sheldon Reynolds. 
Ferdinand Vandevere Rockafellow. 
*William Penn Ryman. 
Theodore F. Ryman. 
Miss Elizabeth Montgomery Sharpe. 
Miss Martha Sharpe. 
Miss Mary A. Sharpe. 
*Richard Sharpe, Sr. 
Richard Sharpe, Jr. 
Mrs. Sally (Patterson) Sharpe. 
Miss Sallie Sharpe. 
Charles Jones Shoemaker. 
Mrs. Cornelia W. (Scranton) Shoemaker 
Miss Esther Shoemaker Stearns. 
Miss Jane A. Shoemaker. 
*Hon. Lazarus Denison Shoemaker. 
Levi Ives Shoemaker, M. D. 
Thomas Kirkbride Sturdevant. 
*John Henry Swoyer. 
Lewis Harlow Taylor, M. D. 
Percy Rutter Thomas. 
Miss Sallie B. Thomas. 
John A. Turner. 
Raymond Lynde Wadhams. 
Edward Welles, Sr. 
Edward Welles, Jr. 
George Woodward, M. D. 
*Mrs. Emily L. (Cist) Wright. 
Harrison Wright, 3d. 
George Riddle Wright. 
Hon. Jacob Ridgway Wright. 
Mrs. Margaret M. (Myers) Yeager. 
Total, 89. 

The Life Membership fee of one hundred dollars is always invested, the interest only 
being used for the annual needs of the Society. The life member is relieved from the pay- 
ment of annual dues, is entitled to all privileges of the Society, and by the payment ot his 
fee establishes a permanent memorial of his name which never expires, but always bears 
interest for the benefit of the Society. 




Miss Carrie M. Alexander. 

Charles Ilenr}' Alexander. 

William Murray Alexander. 

Felix Ansart. 

Herbert Henry Ashley. 

Mrs. Mary S. (Butler) Ayres. 

Robert Baur. 

Gustav Adolph Baur. 

Col. Eugene Beauharnais Beaumont, 

George Slocum Bennett. [U. S. A. 

Stephen B. Bennett. 

Charles Welles Bixby. 

*James H. Bowden. 

Miss Ella Bo\\TTaan. 

Mrs. Isabella W. (Tallman) Bowman. 

John Cloyes I'ridgman. 

Elmer Ellsworth Buckman. 

Ernest Ustick Buckman, M. D. 

J. Arthur Bullard, M. D. 

Pierce Butler. 

Edmund Nelson Carpenter. 

Walter Samuel Carpenter, 

Benjamin Harold Carjienter. 

Edward Henr\' Chase. 

*Phineas M. Carhart (d. May 2, I901). 

Sterling Ross Catlin. 

Rollin S. Chamberlin. 

Frederick M. Chase. 

George F. Coddington. 

Eli T. Conner. 

Herbert Conyngham. 

John Nesbit Conyngham. 

Mrs. Bertha (Wright) Conyngham. 

Mrs. Mae (Turner) Conyngham. 

Joseph David Coons. 

Frederic Corss, M, D, 

Johnson R, Coolbaugh. 

James Martin Coughlin. 

Alexander B. Coxe. 

John M. Crane. 

*Hon. Alfred Darte (d. July 20, 1901). 

Hon. Stanley W, Davenport. 

Harr>' Cassell Davis, Ph. D. 

Mrs. Louise (Kidder) Davis. 

Arthur D. Dean. 

Mrs. Harriet (Lowrie) Derr. 

Chester B. Derr. 

Benjamin Dorrance. 

Miss Anne Dorrance. 

Col. Charles Bowman Dougherty. 

Mrs. Ella (Bicking) Emory. 

William Glassel Eno. 

Bamet Miller Espy. 

Mrs. Augusta (Dorrance) Farnham. 

George H. Planagan. 

Daniel Ackley Fell. Jr. 

Hon. George Steele Ferris. 

James H. Fisher. 

Mrs. Mary Jane (Hoagland) Foster. 

F. S. Fowler. 

Henry Amzi Fuller. 

Mrs. Minnie (Strauss) Galland. 

Thomas Graeme. 

Mrs. Annette (Jenkins) Gorman. 

Byron G. Hahn. 

Harry Hakes, M. D. 

Hon. Gains Leonard Plalsey. 

Mrs. Mary (Richardson) Hand. 

Hon. Garrick Mallery Harding. 

Maj. John Slosson Harding. 

Charles D. S. Harrower. 

Laning Harvey. 

Miss Mary Harvey. 

William Frederick Hesscll. 

Miss Josephine Hillard. 

Lord Butler Hillard. 

Tuthill Reynolds Flillard. 

Mrs. Josephine (Wright) Hillman. 

John Justin Hines. 

Rev. Francis Blanchard Hodge, D. D. 

S. Alexander Hodge. 

F. Lee HoUister. 

Miss Elizabeth W'aller Horton. 

John T. Howell, M. D. 

Miss Augusta Hoyt. 

Abram Goodwin Hoyt. 

Edward Everett Hoyt. 

Miss Anna Mercer Hunt. 

Charles PaiTish Hunt. 

Charles P. Knapp, ^L D. 

Miss Lucy Brown Ingham. 

William Vernet Ingham. 

Miss Hannah Packard James. 

Frederick Charles Johnson, M. D. 

N'rs. Grace (Derr) Johnson. 

Rev. Henry Lawrence Jones, S. T. D. 

Edwin T. Long. 

Albert H. Kipp. 

Frederick M. Kirby. 

Ira M. Kirkendall. 

George Brubaker Kulp. 

John Laning. 

William Arthur Lathrop. 

Charles Law. 

Elmer H. Lawall. 

George W. Leach, Sr. 



George W. Leach, Jr. 

Wood ward Leavenworth. 

Charles W. Lee. 

George Chahoon Lewis. 

*Otis Lincoln (d. May 14, 1901), 

Charles Jonas Long. 

Mrs. Dora (Rosenbaum) Long. 

William Righter Longshore, M. D. 

Miss Elizabeth Loveland. 

George Loveland. 

Samuel H. Lynch. 

Mrs. Katherine (Searle) McCartney, 

William Swan ^IcLean. 

Thomas R. Martin. 

Granville T. Matlack, ^L D. 

Col. Asher Miner. 

Mrs. Elizabeth (Ross) Miner. 

Benjamin Franklin Morgan. 

Charles Morgan. 

Jesse Taylor Morgan. 

Eugene Worth Mulligan. 

Charles Francis Murray. 

Abrara Nesbitt. 

Mrs. Anna (Miner) Oliver. 

Miss Frances J. Overton. 

Miss Priscilla Lee Paine. 

Samuel Maxwell Parke. 

Justin E. Parrish. 

Joseph Emmett Patterson, 

Miss Anna Bennett Phelps, 

Jacob S. Pettebone. 

Frank Puckey. 

John W. Raeder. 

William Lafayette Raeder. 

Col. George Isicholas Reichard. 

Mrs. Anna B. (Dorrance) Reynolds. 

Benjamin Reynolds. 

Col. George Murray Reynolds. 

John Butler Reynolds, 

Mrs, Stella (Dorrance) Reynolds, 

*P. Butler Reynolds (d. Mar. 2, 1901). 

Hon. Charles Edmund Rice. 

Mrs. Elizabeth (Reynolds) Ricketts. 

Col. Robert Bruce Ricketts. 

William Reynolds Ricketts, 

Eugene A. Rhoads. 

Robert Patterson Robinson. 

Miss Elizabeth IL Rockwell. 

Arthello Ross Root, 

William F, Roth, M, D, 

Leslie S, Ryman. 

Mrs. William Penn Ryman. 

John Tritte Luther Sahm. 

John Edward Sayre. 

Rev. Marcus Salzman. 

Mrs. Horace See. 

Christian IL Sharer. 

Charles William Spayd, ^L D. 

Rev. Levi L. Sprague, D. D. 

Capt. Cyrus Straw. 

Seligman J. Strauss. 

Maj, Irving Ariel Stearns. 

Mrs. Clorinda (Shoemaker) Stearns. 

Addison A. Sterling. 

W^alter S, Stewart, M, D, 

John F. Shea. 

Harry Clayton Shepherd, 

William Carver Shepherd. 

Mrs. Lydia (Atherton) Stites. 

Archie Carver Shoemaker, M. D. 

George Shoemaker. 

Robert Charles Shoemaker. 

William Mercer Shoemaker, 

Hon, William J, Scott. 

*Hon. George Washington Shonk, 

J. Bennet Smith. 

William Stoddart, 

Dr. Louise M. Stoeckel-Lundquist. 

Theodore Strong. 

Edward Warren Sturdevant. 

Miss Ella Urquhart Sturdevant. 

William Henry Sturdevant. 

R. T. Sutherland, 

William John Trembath. 

James A. Timpson. 

Mrs. Ellen Elizabeth (Miner) Thomas. 

Prof. C O. Thurston. 

Miss C. Rosa Troxell. 

Alexander H. Van Horn. 

Rev. F, vonKrug, D. D. 

Burton Voorhis, 

Mrs, Esther Taylor Wadhams. 

Mrs, F. D, L, W^adhams. 

Moses Waller Wadhams, 

Ralph H, Wadhams. 

Hon. Frank W, Wheaton. 

Rev. Henry Hunter Welles, D. D. 

Plenry Hunter Welles, Jr. 

Mrs. Stella H. W^elles. 

Joshua Lewis W^elter. 

William D. W^hite. 

Morris W^illiams. 

John Butler W'oodward. 

Hon. Stanley Woodward. 

Wesley Ellsworth Woodruff. 

E. B. Yordy. 

Dr. H. Newton Young, 

•Deceased, Total, 213; living, 207. 

— *-''~'»^<n*4«p 


SINCE 1899. 

(Continued from Volume V.) 

General Edmund Lovell Dana, President, 1858-1860, 1884-1888, presented by 

Charles E. Dana. 
Andrew Todd McClintock, LL. D., President, 1S76, 1889-1891, by A. H. Mc- 

Clintock, Esq. 
Captain Calvin Parsons, President, 1877-1878, 1892, 1893, by Maj. O. A. Parsons. 
Rev. William Wallace Loomis, Vice President, 1861, by W. D. Loomis. 
David Richardson Reynolds, Esq., Vice President, 1862, 1863, by Mrs. Eugene 

A. Rhoads. 
Hon. Charles Miner, Historian, Original Member, 1858, by Mrs. Ellen E. (Miner) 

Isaac A. Chapman, Historian, by Mrs. W. H. Dean. 

Hon. Stewart Pearce, Historian, Honorary Member, 1882, by Rev. John J. Pearce. 
Hon. Steuben Jenkins, Historian, by his family. 
Samuel Ross MafFet, Life Member, 1889, by Mrs. S. R. Maffet. 
Henry H. Derr, Life Member, 1870, by A. F. Derr. 
Captain William Hibbard Alexander, Original Member, 1858, by Miss Carrie M. 

Rev. Thomas Poage Hunt, Original Member, 1858, by friends. 
Ralph Dupuy Lacoe, Trustee and Curator, 1 884-1899, by his family. 
Thompson Derr, Member, 1S66, by A. F. Derr. 
Colonel Matthias Hollenback, 1753-1829, Survivor of the Massacre of 1778, by 

Mr. Edward Welles. 
Elisha Blackman, 1760-1845, Survivor of the Massacre, by Col. C. B. Dougherty 

and E. H. Jones. 
Elisha Blackman, 1 760-1845, same, different portrait, by Hon. H. B. Plumb. 
Jacob Cist, 1 782-1 825, by his family. 
Joseph Wright, 1 785-1855, by his family. 

Captain L. Denison Stearns, U. S. V., Member, 1898, by Maj, L A. Stearns. 
Dr. George W. Guthrie, by G. Taylor Griffin. 
Mrs. John Paul Schott (Naomi Sill), 1 754-1 829, by Miss Schott. 


FOR THE YEAR 1900. . 

Academy of Science, Chicago, 111. 

Allerton, S. W. 

Anthony, A. R. 

Alabama State Geological Survey. 

American Antiquarian Society. 

American Inst, Mining Engineers. 

American Numis. and Archa^olog. Soc. 

Araeiican Geographical Society. 

American Historical Association. 

American Museum Natural History. 

American Philosophical Society. 

Amherst College. 

Baur, Robert. 

Benjamin, Edward H. 

Benton, J. H. Jr. 

Boston Record Commissioners. 

Bridgman, John C. 

Bryan, L. W., Mine Inspec. Indian Ter. 

Bowden, Mrs. J. H. 

Brymer, Dr. Douglass, Toronto. 

Buchanan, H. C. 

Buckalew, Capt. J. M. 

Buffalo Historical Society. 

Butler, W. R. 

California Miners' Association. 

California State Mining Bureau. 

Canada Geological Survey. 

Canada Bureau of Mines. 

Canada Institute. 

Capwell, W. H., Dallas, Pa. 

Carpenter, Lieut. E, N. 

Chase, E. H. 

Chicago Historical Society. 

Chicago Academy of Science. 

Conn. Academy Arts and Sciences. 

Conyngham, W. L. 

Cooper, A. S. 

Colorado Scientific Society. 

Columbia College, N. Y. 

Connecticut Historical Society. 

Darling, Gen. C. W., Utica, N. Y. 

Daughters Am. Rev., Washington, D. C. 

Dauphin Co. Historical Society, Pa. 

Dartmouth College. 

Davenport, Hon, S. \V. 

Davenport Academy of Science. 

Davis, W. A. 

Day, Rev. W. J. 

Dean, A. D. 

Delaware Historical Society. 

DeMoines Academy of Science. 

Egle, Dr. W. H., Harrisburg, Pa. 

Essex Institute, Salem, Mass. 

Farnham, Mrs. A. 

Field Columbian Museum, Chicago. 

Franklin and Marshall College. 

Fitchburg, Mass., Town Clerk. 

Graeme, Lieut. Joseph W., U. S. N. 

Georgia Geological Survey. 

Green, Mrs. R, M. 

Green, wSamuel A., LL. D. 

Griffith, William. 

Gibson, Dr. Maris. 

Guthrie, Dr. George W. 

Harding, Hon. G. M. 

Harvey, O. J. 

Hazeltine, R. M. 

Hastings, Hon. Hugh, Albany. 

Harvard University, Mass. 

Hayden, Rev. Horace E. 

Historical Society, Chicago, 111. 

Hollenback, J. \V. 

Hodge, Rev. Dr. F. B. 

Hubbard, S. L. 

Hunton, Rev. W. L. 

Illinois State Museum Natural History. 

Indiana Geological Survey. 

Indiana Historical Society. 

Ingham, Miss Lucy. 

Iowa Academy of Science. 

Iowa Geological Survey. 

Iowa Historical Department. 

Iowa Historical Society. 

Iowa State University. 

James, Miss H. P. 

Johnson, Dr. Frederick C. 

Jones, Rev. Dr. H. L. 

Jordan, John W., Phila. 

Kansas Geological Survey. 

Kansas University. 



Kansas Historical Society. 

Kentucky Geological Survey. 

King, Col. Horatio C, New York. 

Kipp, A. H. 

Lafayette College. 

Laing, James. 

Lacoe, Ralph D., Pittston. 

Law, Charles. 

Lebanon Co. Historical Society, Pa. 

Lehigh University. 

Leland Stanford, Jr., University. 

Loop, E. Sterling. 

Louisiana Geological Survey. 

Lancaster Co. Historical Society, Pa. 

Lundy's Lane Hist. Soc, Ontario. 

Luzerne County Medical Society. 

Martin, Henry B. 

Maryland Geological Survey. 

Maryland Academy Science. 

Massachusetts State Library. 

McCartney, Mrs. K. S. 

McClintock, A. H. 

McPherson, J. B. 

Mensch, Thomas M. 

Mercur, Mrs. Fred. 

Military Order Foreign Wars. 

Milwaukee Museum, Wis. 

Mexico Geological Institute. 

Michigan Geological Survey. 

Missouri Geological Survey. 

Minnesota Historical Society. 

Minnesota Geological Survey. 

Miner, Sidney R. 

Miner, Hon. C. A. 

Missouri Historical Society. 

Montgomery Co. Historical Soc, Pa. 

Montana State Library. 

Nebraska Historical Society. 

New Brunswick Natural Society. 

New England Hist. Gen, Soc, Mass. 

New Hampshire Historical Society. 

New Hampshire State Library. 

New Haven Historical Society. 

New Jersey Historical Society. 

New Jersey Geological Survey. 

New York Academy of Science. 

New York Geneal.-Biog. Soc. 

New York State Library. 

Norris R. Van A. 

North Carolina Geological Survey. 

North Indiana Historical Society. 

Nova Scotia Burea of Mines. 

Nova Scotia Institute of Science. 

Oberlin College, Ohio. 

Ohio Arch. -Hist. Society. 

Ohio Historical Philosophic Society. 

Ohio Inspector of Mines. 

Ohio Mining Journal. 

Oliver, Gen. Paul A. 

Ontario Bureau of Mines. 

Oneida Historical Society, N. Y. 

Ontario Historical Society. 

Osterlioul P>ee Library. 

Parsons, Maj. O. A. 

Palmer, Hon. PI. W. 

Peabody Museum, Mass. 

Pennsylvania Bar Association. 

Pennsylvania Historical Society. 

Pennsylvania State College. 

Pennsylvania Secretary of Slate. 

Pennsylvania Secretary Internal Affairs. 

Pennsylvania State Library. 

Pennsylvania University. 

Philadelphia Library Co. 

Quebec Literary and Hist. Society. 

Rawle, William B. 

Reynolds, Mrs. G. M. 

Reynolds, Col. G. M. 

Reynolds, Benjamin. 

Rhode Island Hist. Soc, Providence. 

Rio de Janeiro Nat. Museum. 

Root, A. R. 

Royal Society, History and Antiquities, 

Stockholm, Sweden. 
Rymond, J. R. 
Ryman, William Penn. 
Saward, F. E. 
Saxton, H. N. 
Sayer, T. PI. 
Schantz, F. J. F., D. D. 
Scharar, Christian H, 
Scott, T. G. 

Scranton Public Library. 
Scranton Mines and Minerals. 
Shoemaker, Dr. Levi Ives. 
Smith, A. DeW. 
Smith, Dr. E. A. 
Smith, Carl F. 

Smithsonian Institut'n,Washing'n, D. C. 
Smock, Hon. John S. 
South Dakota School of Mines. 
Sparks, W. E. 
Stearns, Maj. I. A. 
Strauss Seligman J. 
Stryker, Gen. W. S. 
Stubbs, Dr. W. C. 
Sturdevant, E. W. 
Stoek, H. H., Mines and Minerals. 


341- -^H-^ 

Susquehanna Coal Co. 

Taylor, Dr. Lewis Harlow, 

Thurston, Prof. T. O. 

Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. 

Tubbs, Hon. Charles. 

Tisch, I-X)uis, 

Tillinghast, C. B., Boston, Mass. 

University vState of New York, Regents. 

University of Toronto, Canada. 

U. S. Bureau of Education. 

U. S. Bureau of Ethnology. 

U. S. Civil Service Commission. 

U. S. Fish Commission. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

U. S. Interior Department. 

U. S. National Museum. 

U. S. Patent Office. 

U. S. State Department. 

U. S. Navy Department. 

U. S. Sup't Public Documents. 

U. S. Surgeon General. 

U. S. Treasury Department. 

Waddell, Thomas. 

Wadhams, Dr. R. L. 

Wagner Tec. Institute Science. 

Warfield, Pres., E. D., LL. D. 

Weaver, Ethan A. 

Welles, Edward, Wilkes- Barre. 
West Chester Normal School. 
West Virginia Geological Sui-vey. 
West Virginia liii^torical Society. 
Washington Geological Society. 
Wilcox.^Williara A. 
Williams. Morris. 
Winchell', Dr. N. H. 
Wilkes-Barre City Hospital. • 
Wilkes- Barre Law Librar)'. 
W^ilkes- Barre Evening Leader. 
Wilkes- Harre News. 
Wilkes-Barre Record. 
Wilkes- Barre Times. 
Wilkes-l)arre Telephone. 
Wilkes-Barre Wachter. 
Wilkes-Barre Y. M. C. A. 
Wright, Hon. H. B. Estate. 
Wright, Hon. Jacob Ridgway, 
Wisconsin Academy of Science. 
Wisconsin Geological Survey. 
Wisconsin Historical Societv. 
W^oodruff, W. E. 

Wyoming Commemorative Association. 
Yale University Library. 
Yordy, E. B., Wilkes-Barre. 



The Lists of Members and Contributors, being arranged alphabeti- 
cally, are not Indexed. 

Abbott, 209, 218, 305, 306. 

Abraham, 34. 

Adair, 123. 

Adams, 71, 77, 85, 166. 

Agassiz, 54. 

Albertson, 282. 

Albron, 215. 

Alexander. 22. 

Algerson, 208. 

Allen, 63, 64, 154, 164, 179, 

181, 190, 203, 204, 209, 215, 

243, 283, 304, 305 
Amherst. 121, 124. 
Anderson, 191, 204-210, 212, 

Andrews, 191. 
Anheuser, 302, 303. 
Anthony, 17, 21, 39. 
App, 209. 

Arnold, 70, 71, 304. 
Arndt, 306. 
Ashburner, 16. 
Ashburton, 124, 130. 
Atherholt, 109, 1S7, 240, 2S3, 

284, 2S7. 
Atherton, 157, 166. 168, 169, 

170. 179. 304. 
Atkins, 306. 
Austin, 196, 303. 
Avery, 306. 
Ayres, 153, 204, 215. 


Backus, 100. 

Bacon, 305. 

Bailey, 207, 

Balch, 37. 

Baldwin, 146, 154-158, 166- 
168, 182, 190, 193, 195, 197, 
201, 203-205, 207, 215, 218, 

Bancroft, 71. 
Banister, 201, 205. 
Barnum, 225, 305. 
Barnes, 201, 202, 209. 
Barney, 151, 207. 
Barre, 8, 20, 113-138. 
Barton, 301. 302. 
Bartron, 212. 
Bates, 298. 
Bayard, 134. 
Blackmai), 8, 22, 64, 112. 
Blackstone, 127, 
Blakeslee, 219. 
Blasier, 215. 

Brace, 182, 192, 203, 204, 215. 
Bradford, 204. 
Bradley, 120, 123. 
Bradshaw, 265, 266. 
Beaumont, 9, no, in, 112. 
Beam. 203, 205, 215, 248, 

Beaver, 321. 

Becket, 193. 

Bedford, 66. 

Bell, 232. 

Bennett, 65, 195, 270. 

Benezet, 74. 

Breese, 306,307. 

Biddle, 109. 

Bidlack, log, no. 

Biniiey, 63. 

Bishop, 215. 

Brickie, 2S2, 2S3. 

Briggs, 197, 204. 

Britton, 114, 117, 125, 128, 

130, 131, 134. 
Bogardus, 66, 156, 161, 162, 

163, 164, 168, 169, 170, iSo, 

190, 193, 196, 197, 205, 214. 
Boon, 215, 217. 
Botton, 168. 
Boutom, 191. 
Bowden, 331, 332. 
Bowman, 37, 63, 182, 293. 
Broglie, 69. 
Brown, 9, 123, 155, 156, 162, 

167, 168, 190, 201, 205, 215, 

Brower, 302, 303. 
Buckingham, 298, 299, 305- 

Buckley, 161. 

Bulford, 218, 220, 283-285. 
Bulkeley, 305. 
Burbeck, 215. 
Burkel, 194. 
Burket, 197. 
Burnsides, 189. 
Bute, 126. 
Butler, 13, 15, 63, 98, 100-102, 

108, III, 137, 138, 210, 212, 

218, 265, 290-294, 303-308. 
Byers, 19. 

Gaboon, 195. 

Calm, 133. 

Carhart, 332. 

Cairl, 215, 218, 227. 

Campbell, 23' 

Canales. 321. 

Carey, ni, 215, 301-306, 320. 

Carpenter, 35, 37, 63, 151. 

Case, 146, 149, 162. 

Castleline, 210, 211. 

Catlin, 63. 

Chad wick, 295, 297, 298. 

Chandler, 204, 320. 

Chapman, 15, 64, 65, 103, 

174, 1S8, 305. 
Clark, 306. 
CIar>', 51. 
Craft, 64. 

Cist, 304. 
Christel, 109. 
Clinton, 73. 
Cochran, 291. 
Coddington, 9. 
Collins, 303. 
Coliings, 109, 112. 
Coleman, 148, 150. 
Colt, 107, 202, 290. 
Colton, 301. 
Colweli, 298, 305. 
Cone, 180. 

Connor, 37, 204,307. 
Coiiyngham, 42. 
Cook, 282, 284. 
Coolbaugh, 211. 
Coons, 196. 
Cooper, 18, 294. 
Cope, 44, 58,59- 
Coppee, 64. 
Corss, 7. 

Covell, 297, 301, 302, 307. 
Cowles, 214. 
Cox, 308. 
Choate, 119, 123. 
Croop, 215. 
Cust, 123. 
Curvier, 54. 

Church, 160, 190, 193, 203, 
204, 211, 217. 

Dallas, 189. 

Dana, 7, 22, 61,62, 64, 65, 66, 

67, 83, 188, 303-305- 
Darling, 140, 204, 277, 289, 

Darte, 332. 
Davenport, 164, 320. 
Davidson, 181, 193, 197, 198. 
Davis. 215, 223, 225, 306. 
Dawson, 44, 5S, 59, 64. 
Dean, 10. 
DeBeam, 248-249. 
Decker, 302, 303, 304. 
Demund, 208, 215, 234. 
Dennis, 305. 
Denison, 23, 306. 
Deremer, 215. 
Derling, 204, 205. 
Derr, 9, 22, 333. 
Dickson, 7, 300, 307. 
Dilly, 218. 
Dwight, 165. 
Don Flores, 321. 
Donley, 204, 215. 
Dorrance, 156, 201, 202, 261, 

Doty, 172. 
Doiij^herty, 8. 
Downing, 209. 
Duffee, 173, r8i, 193, 19S, 204. 



Duffield, 174. 

Dugue, 51. 

Dutui, 2og, 218. 

Dupuy, 39, 4o, 41, 42, 43. 

Durham, 304. 

Durkee, 15, 9S, 99, 100, loi, 

113. 114. 
Durland, 204, 215. 
Dutter, 306. 
Dyer, 100. 

Eaton, 147, 197. 

Edgar, 7. 

Edwards. 109. 

Edson. 304. 

Egle, 7, 20, 21, 61, 65, 97, 

319-526, 332. 
Elder, 103. ^ 

Eley, 209. 
Elliot, 117. 
Elston. 215. 282. 
Emmons, 223, 224, 225. 
Emsbry, 20S, 209. 
Erb, 209, 218. 
Espy, 103, 307. 
Ewing, 300, 301. 
Eypher, 218, 273-276, 2S6. 

Fairchild, 299, 301, 302, 303. 
Fanstock, 303. 
Farnhara, 3i. 
Flagler, iSi. 
Franklin, 63, 71, loS. 
Frantx, 159, 192, 210, 211, 

215, 281, 2SS. 
Fell, 189, 201, 209, 291, 293, 

294, 305- 
Ferguson, 171, 1S2, 190, 193, 

194, 203. 204, 216, 243, 287. 
Ferrell, 175. 
Fleet, 216. 
French, 104. 
Finch, 304. 
Fish, 297, 307. 
Fisher, 15, 192, 210, 212, 216, 

Fitzgerald, 127. 
Fitzmaurice, 125. 
Fries, 307. 
Frisky, 207. 
Folkerson, 283, 284. 
Foot, 119. 
Ford, 137. 

Foss, 182, 204, 206, 216. 
Fosbinder, 217. 
Foster, 179, 211, 217. 
Fowler. 9. 
Fox, 197. 
Fulkerson, 284. 
Fulmer, 211, 216. 
Fuller, 146, 154, 155-159. i'5i, 

164, 167, 181, 182, 189, 190, 

193, 194, 201, 203, 204, 205, 

207, 209, 218, 239, 240, 283, 
Fry, 130. [305- 

Gallup, 297, 306. 

Garringer, 281. 

Garrahan, 240, 2S2, 284, 306. 

Garrick, 118. 

Gary, 198, 

Grant, 119. 

Gray, 100. 

Gere, 306. 

George II, 119. 

Gerard, 69, 77. 
Gerhart, 284. 
Green, 166, 190, 197. 
Gregory, 159, 282. 
Gibbs, 216. 
Gibson, 188. 
Giddings, 304. 
Gildersleeve, 301, 302, 304. 
Griftin, 7, 194, 304. 
Griffith, 8, 10, 20, 21, 38. 
Goble, 216. 
Godard, 68. 
Gofif, 282. 
Goldsmith, 118. 
Goode, 47, 191. 
Gordon, 199. 
>-Gore, 63, 152, 29S. 
Goss, 150, 175, 179, 180, 191, 

192, 216, 218, 219, 234, 243, 

282, 285. 
Gould, 204, 210, 216. 
Gunn, 305. 
Gurney, 39, 40. 
Guthrie, 7, 23. 
Grubb, 304, 306. 

Haff, 205. 

Hagaman, 192, 216. 

Hakes, 66. 

Halft, 304. 

Hall, 130, 168. 

Halsey, 283. 

Hancock, 218, 270, 305. 

Harman, 209. 

Harris, 145, 146. 160, 170, 
201, 205, 212, 216, 21S, 247, 

Hart, 302. [252, 253. 

Hartman, 66. 

Hartranft, 322. 

Hartshoot", 179. 

Harvey, 16, 41, 216. 

Hay, 282, 284, 2S8. 

Haycock, 306. 

Hayden, 7, 8, 9, 10, 17, 18, 
21, 23, 37, 61, 66, 67. 137, 
291,296, 309,326,333- 

Hazeltine, 253, 

Heilprin, 16. 

Heitzman, 159. 

Heft, 285. 

Helm, 306. 

Henderson, 123, 284. 

Hepburne, 300, 305. 

Higgins. 205. 

Hitchcock. 160, 217. 

Hitzman, 2S3. 

Hoadley, 64, 332. 

Hodge, 9, 21, 333. 

Hoff, 200. 

Hogarth, 120. 

Holbrook, 2S2, 2S3. 

Holcomb, 190, 197, 216. 

HoUenback, 22, 63, 104, 169, 
201, 204, 210, 290-294, 297, 

Hollister, 23, 61, 64, 103, 304. 

Holly, 253, 286. 

Holman, 164. 

Honeywell, 150, 151, 163,170, 
173-175. 177. 17^. 181, 184, 
186, 190, 195. 203, 204, 206- 
212, 216, 21S, 234, 240, 242, 
277, 282, 2S4, 2S7, 2SS. 

Honey wood, 119. 

Hoover, 191, 197, 203-205, 

208, 210, 211, 216, 273-286. 
Hopkins, 210. 
Hough, 301, 
How, 303. 
Hoyl, 7, 160, 2or, 202, 206, 

216, 229, 295, 297-300, 304- 

Hubley. 39. 
Huey, 211. 

Hughey, 214, 215, 2r6. 
Hughes, 305. 
Humbolt, 54. 
Hunt, 7, 22, 154, 181, 193, 200, 

204, 205 210, 217. 
Hunter, 160, 234, 284. 
Huntington, 302. 
Husted, 170, 182, 204, 210, 

216, 217, 284. 
Huston, 51, 216. 
Hutton. 58. 

Ide, 170, 180, 182, 188, 190, 
193, 195, 201, 205, 265, 297, 
299. 300. 304, 305- 

IngersoU, 130. 

Ingham, 22, 49, 107. 

Ingham Fund, 25. 

Irwine, 190-192, 200, 203, 204, 
208, 209, 211-214. 

Jackson, 170, 193, 297, 298, 

304, 307- 
James, 333. 
Jay, 71- 

Jefferson, 72, 74, 84, 85. 
Jenkins, 23, 24, 61, 64, 103, 

Johnson, 9, 37,61. 65,66. 134, 

2S4, 297, 302, 304-306. 
Jones, 8, 9, 28, 65, 273-276, 

303. 304, 306, 333. 
Judd, 301. 
Jumonville, 79, 80. 

Knapp, 7, 70. 

Keithline, 298, 299, 307. 

Keller, 169. 

Kelley, 146, 147, 180. 

Kennedy, 61, 65. 

Ketchum, 191. 

Keiser,i9i, 197, 198, 204, 206, 

Kidd, 103. 
Kidney, 302. 

Kiechline, 29S, 299, 307, 
King, 182, 190-193, 201-205, 

210-213, 216, 226. 
Kipp, 243. 
Kirkendall, 191, 192, 206, 

211, 212, 217, 221, 228, 229, 

240, 243, 282, 284, 287, 2S3. 
Kite, 302. 
Kizer, 193, 203. 
Kriedler. 217, 218. 
Kocher, 225. 
Kunkle, 160, 180, 181, 190- 

193, 204, 20S-213, 216, 217. 

227-229, 232, 242. 

Lacoe, 10, 16, 19, 20, 22, 37- 

60. 332. 
Lafayette, 68. 



Laing, 249, 282, 287. 

Laird, 104. 

Lamb, 302. 

Lamoignon, 68. 

Landon, 179. 

Lamed, 116. 

Laurens, 72. 

Law. 9, 37, 2S3. 

Leach, 22, 37. 

Leader, 303. 

Lear, 224, 225. 

Leclere, 209. 

Lee, 85, 165, 216. 

Lehman, 202. 

Leonard, 144, 146-150, 160, 

176, 242. 
Lesquereux, 16, 19, 44, 46, 
^ 4S, 5S, 59- 
Lesley, 19, 50. 
Lewis, 167, 170, 174, 188, 

204, 210, 211, 216, 220, 244, 

277, 278. 
Lewis, 297, 29S, 299, 300, 307. 
Lincoln, 119, 332. 
Lindley, 58. 
Lines, 300, 301, 307. 
Linn. 322. 

Linskill, 166. 168, 247, 269. 
Little, 181, 190, 194, 197, 298, 

Livermore, 71. 
Livingston, 70. 
Long, i8r. 
Lord, 180, 216, 253. 
Lossing, 70. 6y, 77. 
Loudenburg, 190. 
Loveland, 301, 305. 
Low, 215, 216. 
Lloyd, 118. 
Lusby, 2c8. 209. 
Luzerne, 67-S7. 
Lyell, 54. 
Lynch, 8, 220. 

McCarty, 16S, 203, 204, 2S3. 
McCoy, 146. 150, 151, 175, 

176, 193. 242. 
McClintock, 7, 22, no, in. 
McClure, 18, 29S-300. 
McDonnel, 104. 
McKeel, 166, 201, 205. 
McLellon, 171, iSo. 1S3, 1S5, 

194, 19S, 204, 206. 
McLoskey, 181. 
McShane, 305. 
Machell, 2S2-255, 2S7, 305. 
Madison, 84. 
Maffet, 8, 22. 

Major, 166, 167, 170, 201, 205. 
Mallery, 165, 205; 301, 304, 

Mann, 193, 197, 
Manvill, 204. 
Marbois, 70. 
Marquis, 134. 
Martin, 216. 
Marsh, 227. 
Matthews, 216. 
Maxwell. 204. 
Mayberry, 304. 
Meade, 113. 
Mears. 193, 195, 209. 
Mease, 104. 
Melesherbes, 69. 

Mentges, 325. 

Merrideth, 207. 

Met7gar, 282. 

Micrs, 210, 211. 

Mills, 303- 

Miller, 10, 204, 250, 304, 305. 

Miner, 8, 9, 15, 16, 20-23, 41, 

61.65. 9S, i04-n3, 333. 
Mitchell, 240. 
Monaghan, 282. 
Monigan, 2S8. 
Monigan, 288. 
Monkton, 123. 
Montanye, 190, 191, 192, 193, 

204, 2n. 2t6. 
Montcalm, 122. 
Montgomery, 99, 100. 
Moore, 147, 192, 208, 209, 216, 

218, 277, 
Morgan, 305. 
Morris, 206. 
Morrison, 131. 
Moseley. 162, 165, 201, 205. 
Moss, 1S3, 203, 204, 210, 215. 
Mott, 201. 205. 
Mount. 207. 
Muhleiiburg, no. 
Mulford, 29S. 
Mullison, 216. 
Munsel, 61. 
Murray, 106. 
Myers,' 161, 173, 179, 1S2, 191, 

192, 217. 

Neal, 103. 

Neely, 205, 216, 227. 

Nelson, 307. 

Nesbitt, 7, 6t,, 194, 205, 206, 

327-330, 332. 
Newberr>-, 58, 160, 206. 
Newman, 165, 194, 198. 
Nichols, 63. 
Nicholson, 206. 
North, 131, 133. 
Norton, 210, 2S6. 
Northrup, 216. 
Nutt. 192. 216. 
Nulton, 191, 205, 208, 216. 

Oakley, 147, 216, 284. 

Ogden. loi, 102, 297, 298. 

Olden, 207, 20S, 209. 

Oliver, 172, 284. 

O'Malley, 185. 

O'Mealey, 211. 

Opp, 21S. 

Orr. 153, 177, 180, 182. 184- 
187, 192-195, 198, 205, 206, 
2n-2i3, 278-2S0, 282. 

Ortz, 192. 

Osterhout, 61, 65, 106, 233. 

Otis, 303, 304. 

Otto, 81. 

Overholtz, 304. 

Overton, 191, 214,216. 

Pace, 306. 
Packard. 58. 
Parks, 284. 

Parke, 10, 38, 51, 52, 66. 
Parker, 108, 300. 305. 
Parrish. 214, 299, 300. 
Parsons. 22, 101, 305. 
Pascoe, 31S. 

Patterson, 152. 

Pattison, 64. 

Patrick, 304. 

Paxson, 225. 

Payne, 320. 

Pratt, 161, 162, 201, 205. 

Pearce, 15, 98, 103, ni, 112, 

146, 156. 
Peche, 218. 
Peck, 15,23. 
Peironnet, 308-318. 
Pellissier, 118. 
Pennington, 206, 207. . 
Pennypacker, 9, 10. 
Perrego, 216, 284. 
Perr\-, 282. .^ 

Pettibone, 7, 151, 174, 18S, ■'■' 

194, 197. 205, 212, 305. 
Preston, 298. 
Pickering, 15, 63, 64. 
Pierce, 318. 
Pierson, 320. 
Pike, 26s. 
Pitt. n7-i33- 
Phillips, 2S2, 283, 288. 
Pringle, 166. 
Podmore, 243. 
Porter. 11, 20. 
Poulton, 206. 
Pughe, 66. 
Purdon, 163. 

Puterbaiigh, 205, 216, 282. 
Plumb, 103. 

Roboteau, 116. 

Rainow, 218. 

Raflerty, 109. 

Randall, 22, 209, 213, 2S3, 

Ransom, 15, 98. 
Raub, 240, 282, 2S7, 288. 
Reader, 298. 
Reeder, 299, 300, 307. 
Reed, 284. 
Reichard. 192. 
Reilev, 173, 175, 210, 216, 217, 

Reynolds, 9, 21, 22, 92, 130, 

158, 210, 280, 283, 295, 296, 

331, 332. 
Reynolds Fund, 25. 
Rice, 9, 152, 153, 159, 180- 

184, 191, 194, 200, 205, 206, 

211-220. 228, 240, 242, 243, 

253, 254, 268, 2S2-288. 
Richard, 1S8, 243. 
Richelieu, 115. 
Ricketts, 9, 19, 333. 
Rinehart, 106, 107. 
Riter, no. 
Robbins, 194, 205. 
Robinson, 103, 167, 304. 
Rockingham, 130, 132. 
Rogers, 158. 167, 201, 205, 

Ross, 191, 193, 204, 205, 209. 

297, 307- 
Rosencrantz, 304. 
Roushey, 173, 182, 192, 195, 

203, 205, 2o8-2ro, 214-217, 

234, 2dS, 281, 2S3, 288. 
Rudolph, 301, 302. 
Ruggles, 158. 
Rumbaugh, 298. 



Rumage, 283, 286. 

Runk, 324. 

Rutter, 277. 

Rymaii. 31, I39~i4^. ^5-i, '59- 
16}, 177-1S1, 190, iQi, 194, 
T9^, 203-219. 240, 243, 277. 
279, 281-2SS. 

Salmon, 216. 
Sambourne, 291. 
Sanderson, 297. 
Satisom, 20S, 209, 211. 
Santee, 284. 
Sarver, 297. 
Sorber, 299, 300, 302. 
Sax, 107. 
Scadden, 149. 
Scharar, 8, 16, 21. 
Shafer, 190. 
Shaflcr, 171. 
Sharpe, 9, 157, 333. 
Shaver, 148, 149, 152, 15S, 

159. 170-221, 235, 240, 243, 

277, 279, 2S2-2SS. 
Shaw, 265, 260-268, 2S5. 
Sprague, 63. 307. 
Sparks, 14, 69, 70, 85. 
Starmer, 283. 
Stratlon, 305. 
Swayze, 174, 177, 190, 194, 

203, 205, 2to, 211, 222, 233. 
Seaman, 191, 192, 204, 205, 

2IO, 211. 
See, S. 
Seeley, 160. 
Seybett, 18. 
Shelburne, 121, 124, 125, 126, 

127, 132, 133. 
Sheldon, 130. 

Sleppy, ) 299. 300, 302, 303, 
Shleppy, J 307. 
Smetham, 32S. 
Spencer, 146. 150, 175, 1S2, 

190, 191, 192, 194, 193, 203- 

205. 209, 210, 213, 217, 221, 

240, 277, 2S1, 2S2, 2S4, 287, 

Stearns, 21, 331. 
Steckels, 286. 
Steele, 166, 302. 
Stetler, 217. 

Swetland, 177, 299, 305-307. 
Sleringer, 304. 
Steuben, 70. 
Stevens, 52, 64. 
Stewart, 41, 102, 103, 105, 

204, 205, 217, 305, 
Sweatland, 153. 
Sigler, 217. 

Sill, 23, 299, 307. 

Silliman. 18. 

Simeon, 217. 

Simons, 243. 

Simpson, 30. 103, 203-205. 

Simmers, 217. 

Sites, 165, 166, 198. 201, 205, 

Sively, 305. 
Shifter, 43. 
Shniven, 217. 
Smiles, 115, 117. 
Smith, 37, 41, 63, 109, 123, 

191, 206, 209, 217, 218, 221, 

Stille, 104. 

Stivers, 29S, 299, 307. 

Soniers, 205. 

South worth, 205, 208. 

Schooley, 170, 217. 

Scott, 201, 305. 

Schott, 23. 

Shotwell, 205, 209, 218, 283. 

Shotik, 100, 184, 205, 206, 279, 

Shoemaker, 8, 9, 66, 178, 202, 

Shore, 314. 
Schmoele, 109. 
Slocum, 195, 304. 306. 
Snowden, 64. 
Stroud, 2S3, 284, 286. 
Slots, 213. 
Swoyer, 29. 

Sullivan, 39, 71, 72, 73, 81. 
Sutherland, 8. 
Scudder, 50, 51, 58, 59. 
Sturdevant, 23. 
Stuart, 130. 
Slyker, 219, 220. 
Smyth, 9. 
Snyder, 153, 160, 191, 207, 

210, 217, 240, 251, 252, 2S3, 

284, 2S7. 
Stryker, 64. 
Styer, 304. 

Tainter, 299. 

Taylor, 217, 294, 300. 

Tracy, 305. 

Terry, 217. 

Tread away, 305. 

Tickner, 301. 

Tilden, 112. 

Tilghman, 302, 304. 

Tripp, 304. 

Townshend, 126, 128, 130, 

133. 134. 
Thompson, 157, I76" 
Thomas, 195, 205, 219, 211. 
Thompson, 301. 
Thorn, iq8, 217, 218. 
Trott, 306. 
Troxell, 279. 
Tubbs, 304. 
Tuttle, 179, 190, 195, 198, 203, 

205, 210, 217, 299, 305, 306. 
Thurston, 19. 
Trucks, id6, 151, 152, 153, 

154, 158, 179. 
Trumbull, 15. 
Trundall, 15S. 
Tyrrell, 282, 2S8. 

Ulp, 300, 301, 305- 
Urtz, 217. 

Van Buren, 304. 
Vandeberg, 302, 303. 
Vanscoy, 175, 191, 205, 217. 
Vanlone, 205. 
Vanwinkle, 217. 
Venning, 217. 
Von Treupel, 319. 
Vausteemburgh, 217. 

Wade. 116, 124, 127, 
Wadhanis, 21, 205. 
Waldon, 217. 

Wales, 100. 

Walker, 306. 

Wail. 2S2. 

Waller, 188,300, 301. 

Wambold, 270. 

Ward, 45. 

Warden, 282, 285. 

Warner, 301, 302. 

V.'arring, 1S7, 218, 270. 

Washington, 69-74, 79, 80, 

81 137, 138. 
Walkms, 30. 
Watson, 194. 
Watt, 169. 
Wharton, 69, 85. 
Weaver, 217. 
Webb, 109, 112. 
Wedge, 205. 
Welch, 218, 284,286. 
Wells, 9, 63, 306. 
Welles, 300, 304, 333. 
Welter, 9, 10, 19, 38, 48, 49, 

West, 123. 

Westley, 205. 

Weston, 159, 216. 

Westover, 217. 

Wheeler, 160, 181, 182, 194, 

203-205, 217, 305. 
Wickersham, 173, 20S, 209. 
Wilcox, 204, 205, 20S, 284. 
Wilkes, 113, 114, 126, 127. 
Williams, 191, 203, 205, 243. 
Williamson, 123, 203, 205, 

Wilkinson, 181. 
Willis, 217. 
Williston, 298. 
Wilson, 204, 205, 209, 217, 

300, 305, 318. 
Winsor, 78, 130. 
Whipple, 217. 
Whitcomb, 305. 
White, 37,48, 51, 55, 213,221, 

240, 2Si, 2S2, 284, 287, 288. 
Whiteman, 162, 170, 181, 19-:, 

194, 201. 
Whitney, 235-237, 301, 304. 
Wright, 9, 16, 21, 22, 23, 49. 

66, 103, loS, no, 137, 182, 

198, 217, 223, 295, 333. 
Wright Fund, 25. 
Wolcolt. 282, 2S4, 2S7, 2SS. 
Wolfe, no, 1 19-125, 128, 131. 
Wood, 117. 
Woodbridge, 298, 299. 
Woodruff, 9, 23, 139, 333. 
Woodward, 7-9, 37, 6;^, 64, 

204, 205, 210, 274-276, 333. 
Worden, 1S2, 191, 194, 198, 

203, 205, 217, 243, 2S3. 
Worthington, 106, no, ni, 

158, 161-168, 180, 188-190. 

197, 201, 218, 242, 304, 305, 
Wort, 146, 147, 204, 205, 208, 

Wurtele, 123. 
Wyllis, 207, 209, 212. 
Wyncoops, 181, 194, 197, 19^^- 

Yarrington, 306. 
Young, 99, 103. 

Zeiller, 58.